Assignment should be 10 to 12 pages (not including title page and bibliography), typed double-spaced in Times New Roman, 12-point font. Remember to us the Chicago Style Manual for all citations and bibliography. A minimum of 10 (10) scholarly sources are required for this assignment. Below are the required sections. Please include the section headings in red on your assignment. You are welcome to rearrange topics so your paper flows well. OVERALL THREAT ASSESSMENT/ANALYTICAL OPINION: How much of a threat does this non-state actor actually pose to your chosen nation-state, taking everything into consideration? Is the threat successful at exerting its influence? Is the nation-state’s response effective or ineffective? Topics: HISTORY: This is the section where you can discuss the history of the threat and your nation’s perception and response. Discuss why and how the threat came to be. Why did it become a threat? What was its initial motivation? What environmental/societal/economic/etc. factors contributed to its formation? MEMBERSHIP/LEADERSHIP: Who makes up the threat? Why do they participate? What is their motivation? Who are the leaders, if any? How effective are they? STRUCTURE/ORGANIZATION: How is the threat structured? Is there an organization? What is it? CURRENT GOAL/MOTIVATION: What is the current goal/motivation of the threat entity? What is it trying to achieve? Has it evolved since its formation? TACTICS/CAPABILITIES: What tactics does the threat employ? How capable is it? What weapons/tools does it use? FUNDING/CONNECTIONS: Where does the threat get funding? Supplies? Weapons? Does the threat have connections to any other organizations, nation-states, etc.? LOCATION/SCOPE/MAGNITUDE: Where does the threat operate? How broad in scope is the threat? Are they a regional threat or a global threat beyond the immediate threat to your nation-state? COUNTERING THE THREAT: How has the nation-state countered the threat? Also, please suggest possible ways to mitigate or counter the threat. Look at alternatives the nation-state could take to counter the threat. This is especially true if the nation’s responses are ineffective.
Being from the USA, describe how you would negotiate a contract with a businessperson from France. How will you approach them? How does the French communication pattern and listening habit differ from your own culture? Reading suggestions How does our Language Shape the Way We Think? (Boroditsky, 2009) When Cultures Collide – Bridging the Communication Gap (Lewis, 2005) – pp. 63-79 Richard Lewis Communication model (PDF) Communication Patterns at Multicultural Organizational Meetings The Role of Cultural Distance in International Negotiations International Negotiation Quiz http://www.leadershipcrossroads.com/rs_nqui.asp? Additional Resources Center for Intercultural Learning – Country Insights (WWW)
You will be required to produce an original research paper. The paper needs to examine a current issue of a developing country (for example, political corruption in Nigeria; ethno-religious conflict in Yemen; climate-related displacement in Bangladesh; etc.). In your paper, you should explicitly address existing theoretical explanations for the issue. The paper must be at least 12 pages long (typed in Times New Roman, 12-point font, double-space, page-numbered and one-inch margins following the APA guidelines for writing term papers). Only the introduction, main body, and the conclusion count towards the 12-page requirement. Graphs, tables, and abstract do not count. Short papers will be deducted one full grade point per page short. I will assess the grade of this assignment based on the accuracy and quality of your presentation and discussion of the subject matter, and the strength of your argument. Your paper must clearly establish a research topic and clearly demonstrate how your work fulfils the goal. You must sufficiently demonstrate that you have extensively researched the topic. You must clearly identify and fully exhaust your sources; I will assess your sources both on quality (academic, peer-reviewed journals, original government sources, etc.) and quantity (a minimum of 6 academic, peer-reviewed sources not including your textbooks). Your paper must be consistent, clear, logical, direct, and well-organized. The term paper is due on November 10 at NOON.
For this assignment, you will write a short (800-1000) word essay to answer the following question: QUESTION: What is the most significant security challenge facing the contemporary MENA region and why? Defend your answer. Welcome to the Regional Studies: Middle East and North Africa course (sometimes called, “MENA”). In this course, you will delve into the historic, economic, and political trends of this region. The main time period you will cover begins at the end of World War I, so it is very much a course about the Modern Middle East and North Africa. Our main focus will be on the origins and developments of issues that are of particular concern to U.S. national security. Today, these issues include sectarian strife and the rise of social movements, including Islamism, as well as the politics and economics of natural resources. Throughout the course, you will inevitably examine hot button issues, and an effort has been made to give you various perspectives, including views that are critical of U.S. foreign policy. This is done so you can become more thoroughly acquainted with the subject matter, including the ways in which people of that region view their own political situation. We hope you find the course informative and engaging! The Regional Studies: MENA Design Team. *I have a zip files of course documents that I can upload. The required readings assigned have page numbers or chapters that are listed. Please let me know if you cannot unzip the file I’ve attached with the course materials for the required readings: Wright, “How the Curse of Sykes-Picot Still Haunts the Middle East” (2016). Read pages 1-6. This short piece articulates the widely held belief, particularly in the Middle East, that the borders drawn by European powers are to blame for many of the structural problems that have at times erupted in civil war. Danforth, Stop Blaming Colonial Borders (2013) Danforth, “Stop Blaming Colonial Borders for the Middle East’s Problems” (2013). Read pages 1-3. In this piece, Nick Danforth challenges many of the widely held assumptions about the link between badly drawn borders and civil war in the Middle East. Points to Ponder: When analyzed alongside the previous article, which argument seems more convincing? What, if anything, is missing from either argument? Danforth ends the article with a statement about identity-based conflict. To what degree do you agree or disagree with him? Kao, Do Jordan Tribes (2015) Kao, “Do Jordan’s Tribes Challenge or Strengthen the State?” (2015). Read pages 1-4. The author explores the way in which the Jordanian state has incorporated tribes into the state, and how tribes can at times compete with state authority. Points to Ponder: After reading the article, what are your thoughts on the concept of tribal-based organization in an increasingly fractured Middle East? Will tribalism solve, or exacerbate conflicts in the current environment? Lynch, “The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East” (2012). Read chapter 1 and 7. Chapter 1 introduces the Arab Spring, while Chapter 7 focuses on the civil wars in Libya and Syria, which emerged out of the Arab Spring. Point to Ponder: While doing this reading, ask yourself why these protest movements spread so quickly, and whether and how the U.S. could have pursued different strategies. On the question of Libya and Syria, carefully evaluate what you would have suggested in regards to U.S. intervention in either of these two countries. Lynch, “The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East” (2012). Read chapter 1 and 7. Chapter 1 introduces the Arab Spring, while Chapter 7 focuses on the civil wars in Libya and Syria, which emerged out of the Arab Spring. Point to Ponder While doing this reading, ask yourself why these protest movements spread so quickly, and whether and how the U.S. could have pursued different strategies. On the question of Libya and Syria, carefully evaluate what you would have suggested in regards to U.S. intervention in either of these two countries. Esposito, “Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam” (2003). Read pages 83-112. This reading by John Esposito offers a broad introduction into the kind of Islamic radicalism that eventually gave rise to global terror groups like al-Qaeda. Points to Ponder As you read this, ask yourself how these groups view the world differently from other political actors in the MENA region. Do these groups have grievances that states in the region can address? Or is this a case of fighting to the death? Think back to the Wiktorowicz reading from the previous lesson and ask yourself whether the Jordanian model of accommodation could ever be applied in Egypt or Algeria. Wood, What ISIS Really Wants (2015) Wood, “What ISIS Really Wants” (2015). Read pages 1-19. This reading, and the Gonzalez article below, are part of the debate on the goals of the Islamic State: What is the group’s main goal, and what strategy has it employed in pursuit of such a goal? Point to Ponder While reading, carefully consider how the different interpretations of the Islamic State’s goals may lead to different policy prescriptions for American leaders. Gonzalez, More Ethnic than Religious (2015) Gonzalez, “More Ethnic than Religious: How the Islamic State Uses Religion to Attract Allies” (2015). Read pages 1-3. As with the Wood reading above, this reading is part of the debate on the goals of the Islamic State: What is the group’s main goal, and what strategy has it employed in pursuit of such a goal? Point to Ponder While reading, carefully consider how the different interpretations of the Islamic State’s goals may lead to different policy prescriptions for American leaders. Pollack, Why Obamas Middle East (2016) Pollack, “Why Obama’s Middle East Policy is Failing” (2016). Read pages 1-3. The next three readings assess the Obama administration’s legacy in the Middle East, something that will be debated for years to come. Two of the readings, by Pollack and Walter and by Satloff, have more critical views of it, while Lynch offers more praise. Points to Ponder What is your personal reading of the Obama administration’s legacy in the region? What is the balance of accomplishments and failures; of opportunities taken and opportunities missed? How will we look back on the presidency, and how will our interpretation of its legacy help inform our future approaches to the region? Satloff, Whats Really Wrong (2015) Satloff, “What’s Really Wrong with the Iran Nuclear Deal” (2015). Read pages 1-3. This reading also assesses the Obama administration’s legacy in the Middle East. Points to Ponder What is your personal reading of the Obama administration’s legacy in the region? What is the balance of accomplishments and failures; of opportunities taken and opportunities missed? How will we look back on the presidency, and how will our interpretation of its legacy help inform our future approaches to the region? Lynch, Obama and the Middle East (2015). Lynch, “Obama and the Middle East: Rightsizing the U.S. Role” (2015). Read pages 1-7. A third reading assessing the Obama administration’s legacy in the Middle East. Points to Ponder What is your personal reading of the Obama administration’s legacy in the region? What is the balance of accomplishments and failures; of opportunities taken and opportunities missed? How will we look back on the presidency, and how will our interpretation of its legacy help inform our future approaches to the region? Matthews, How Russia Became (2017). Matthews, “How Russia Became the Middle East’s New Power Broker” (2017). Read pages 1-9. This reading, and the reading below, both deal with the potential for other regional powers to enter the MENA region with greater assertiveness. Points to Ponder Should the United States step back from the region and allow others to play more active roles? If so, which powers should be more involved? Do Russia, the United States, and China share many interests in the region? Why or why not? Ibrahim, Has China Joined Russia and Iran (2016). Ibrahim, “Has China Joined Russia and Iran in Syria to Neutralize U.S. Influence in the Middle East?” (2016). Read all. A second reading dealing with the potential for other regional powers to enter the MENA region with greater assertiveness. Points to Ponder Should the United States step back from the region and allow others to play more active roles? If so, which powers should be more involved? Do Russia, the United States, and China share many interests in the region? Why or why not? Center for Middle East Public Policy. RAND Corporation, “Center for Middle East Public Policy” (n.d.). Scan the topics. The Rand Center for Middle East Public Policy website provides current research on the most critical political, social, and economic challenges currently facing the nations of the Middle East. Point to Ponder Scan the various topics for insight on the latest issues affecting the region.
Prior to his death in May 2011, Osama bin Laden designed al-Qaeda to symbolize the globalization of terrorism in the twenty-first century. The network is perceived by many to represent a quintessential model for small groups of like-minded revolutionaries who wish to wage transnational insurgencies against strong adversaries. Although al-Qaeda certainly exists as a loose network of relatively independent cells, it has also evolved into an ideaan ideology and a fighting strategythat has been embraced by sympathetic revolutionaries throughout the world. Al-Qaeda leaders such as the late Osama bin Laden and his successor as leader, Ayman al-Zawahiri, consistently released public pronouncements of their goals, often by delivering audio and video communiqués to international news agencies such as Al Jazeera in Qatar. Based on these communiqués, the following principles frame the ideology of al-Qaeda:a The struggle is a clash of civilizations. Holy war is a religious duty and necessary for the salvation of ones soul and the defense of the Muslim nation. Only two sides exist, and there is no middle ground in this apocalyptic conflict between Islam and the forces of evil. Western and Muslim nations that do not share al-Qaedas vision of true Islam are enemies. Violence in a defensive war on behalf of Islam is the only course of action. There cannot be peace with the West. Because this is a just war, many of the theological and legal restrictions on the use of force by Muslims do not apply. Because U.S. and Western power is based on their economies, large-scale mass-casualty attacks that focus on economic targets are a primary goal. Muslim governments that cooperate with the West and do not adopt strict Islamic law are apostasies and must be violently overthrown. Israel is an illegitimate nation and must be destroyed. These principles have become a rallying ideology for Islamist extremists who have few, if any, ties to al-Qaeda. Thus, the war on terrorism is not solely a conflict against an organization but is also a conflict against a belief system. Discussion Questions 1. What is the ideology of al-Qaeda? 2. Why did a network of religious revolutionaries evolve into a potent symbol of global resistance against its enemies? 3. Which underlying commonalities appeal to motivated Islamist activists?
the nature of the democratic peace thesis how the democratic peace works (i.e., the factors that stops democracies from going to war with each other). (e.g., see Bruce Russett’s chapter in the textbook and some of his other texts on the reading list, esp. his book, Grasping the Democratic Peace) how robust are those mechanisms? If all states become democracies, does that mean war will be a thing of the past? (e.g., see Fukuyama’s book The End of History and the Last Man for such an optimistic reading) you should also consider some of the alternative positions (e.g., Geis et al’s work on the ‘dark side’ of the democratic peace or Russett’s reappraisal of his earlier work in ‘Bushwacking the Democratic Peace’ or Snyder and Mansfield’s work on the war prone nature of states transitioning to democracy – all of which argue that democracy or democratisation can cause war.)
Choose one seminar question (ie. not all of them) from each of these three weeks. Write a 500 word seminar paper that answers and critically analyses the issues and perspectives around the question for each week chosen. Your paper should be based on information contained in the weekly required reading but you may choose to consult additional sources (eg. recommended reading, readings from other weeks, or other sources). 1. Problems in the global commons are a symptom of globalisation and as such require global solutions. Do you agree? 2. Why is global agreement between nation states in matters of the global commons difficult to achieve? 3. As global environmental problems such as climate change become a crisis, will they promote greater global governance or undermine it ie. what are the chances of overcoming environmental gridlock? 4. Can you see any parallels with the current COVID-19 pandemic?
Read Case Study, Reagan and 1984 Steel Negotiations. In 4-6 pages, respond to the following questions 1) What explains the decline in the U.S. steel industry, how did this happen, and who is to blame? 2) Briefly, what were the three earlier efforts to protect the U.S. steel industry? 3) Prepare a “policy paper” for President Reagan: – Defines what is the problem he faces and what are the looming deadlines? – Identifies his possible policy choices? – Recommends what you think is the best policy choice/option for the President, and why.
Read case 126, about the Suez Crisis and answer to this task: General theory question: What is this a case of? How would you situate it in the IR literature, empirically as well as theoretically? To what extent and how can different strands of IR-theory help us ‘diagnose’ the issue and develop solutions? Answer ALL parts of the task. Feel free to use any additional resource than the ones provided.
Thesis around the IMF quota system and regional emerging powers trying to gain more influence. Some sources: https://www.jstor.org/stable/26227187?seq=1 https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2020/02/13/pr2050-imf-board-of-governors-approves-a-resolution-on-quota-reviews https://www.peio.me/wp-content/uploads/2014/04/Conf7_Blomberg-Broz-26.08.2013.pdf https://www.piie.com/publications/policy-briefs/imf-quota-and-governance-reform-once-again https://cepr.org/sites/default/files/events/Geneva20.pdf https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2019/10/8/china-may-have-to-wait-to-become-second-most-powerful-at-imf https://www.atlanticcouncil.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/TRADE-FINANCIAL-FRAGMENTATION-072120.pdf https://www.brookings.edu/blog/future-development/2019/07/01/the-governance-of-the-international-monetary-fund-at-age-75/ https://www.e-ir.info/pdf/78215 Special Issue: Is there a need for Reforms in IMF? merj.scholasticahq.com https://www.news18.com/news/opinion/with-mysterious-u-turn-at-imf-india-seeks-to-limit-chinas-influence-in-global-governance-2681225.html https://www.congress.gov/bill/116th-congress/house-bill/6086?s=1&r=6