Drug-food Interactions

WHAT IS PRESCRIPTIONA prescription, often abbreviated ? or Rx, is a health care program implemented by a physician or other qualified health care practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient.ELABORATE THE PARTS OF PRESCRIPTIONPredating modern legal definitions of a prescription, a prescription traditionally is composed of four parts: a superscription, inscription, subscription, and signature.It isimportant to know the possible drug interactions as these can cause serious adverse reactions or result in failed therapy.Part of prescription:-· Date· Name ,age ,sex, and address of the patient· Superstition· Inscription· Subscription· Signature· Renewal instruction· Signature,adress ,and registrations numberType of durg interactionDrug-drug InteractionsDrug-drug interactions result when two or more drugs react with each other. Such drugs can be from a combination of prescription drugs and/or over-the-counter (OTC) medications. Drugs with a narrow therapeutic range (little difference between therapeutic and lethal dose) are more likely to face incidents of serious drug interactions.For example:Taking digoxin with antibiotics like erythromycin or clarithromycin will increase the toxicity of digoxin because antibiotics affect the liver enzymes, causing digoxin to be metabolized (inactivated) slower. Similarly, the concurrent use of methotrexate and ibuprofen may result in increased methotrexate toxicity due to inhibition of kidney excretion by ibuprofen.The effectiveness of drugs may be reduced in situations where the action of one drug diminishes the action of the other. Some antibiotics reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptive pills by impairing the bacterial flora responsible for recycling the hormone from the gut. Also, drugs like charcoal or magnesium carbonate should preferably not be taken at the same time as other drugs as they may impair absorption.Side effects of medications are intensified when drugs with the same effect are taken together. For instance, taking codeine (painkiller) with a cough syrup like procodin will increase the sedative effect. Aspirin, which is anti-platelet, increases the risk of bleeding when given together with warfarin, heparin or anti-depressants. There is also an increased risk of hepatotoxicity (liver damage) when isoniazid and paracetamol are used together.Drug-food interactionsThese interactions occur when drugs react with foods, dietary supplements or beverages (including alcohol). Some drugs may interfere with the body’s ability to absorb nutrients. In the same way, certain herbs and food can lessen or increase the impact of a drug.Smoking and drinking habits can have an adverse effect on drugs. Consumption of alcoholic drinks while on the antibiotic metronidazole will cause skin flushing, nausea, headache, and palpitations. Alcohol enhances the hypoglycaemic effect of anti-diabetic medication, and the hypotensive effect of many blood pressure drugs. It is best to avoid alcohol while on medications.The tobacco in cigarettes can also diminish the effectiveness of medications by increasing drug metabolism. Caffeine, which is found in tea, coffee, soft drinks and chocolate and some medications, can increase the risk of theophylline (a drug to treat asthma) toxicity.Certain foods cause drug interactions. People on warfarin have to avoid eating large amounts of green leafy vegetables like broccoli, spinach and watercress because the high vitamin K content of these foods counters the effect of warfarin.Grapefruit juice enhances the effect of drugs like simvastatin, nifedipine and ciclosporin, and its consumption should best be avoided. Dairy products which contain calcium reduce the absorption of biphosphonates, oral iron, levothyroxine and certain antibiotics e.g. ciprofloxacin and tetracycline.As for herbal or dietary supplements, there are some reports of interaction between warfarin and herbs such as garlic, Danshen, Dong Quai, ginseng, and ginkgo. These herbs may augment or reduce the effect of warfarin.Drug-disease interactionsDrug-condition interactions occur when a drug worsens or exacerbates an existing medical condition. For example, a nasal decongestant containing pseudoephedrine increases blood pressure and thus has to be avoided by people who are hypertensive (have high blood pressure).Asthmatic patients should be careful when using/buying over-the-counter NSAIDs like ibuprofenas they may cause airway constriction.Always inform your doctor about your condition/disease before the doctor prescribes a new drug. Conditions that place patients at high risk for drug interactions include kidney or liver disease, diabetes, asthma, cardiac problems, epilepsy, high or low blood pressure. Drug-disease interactions are more common among the elderly, who tend to have more diseases.In conclusion, people should inform healthcare professionals of their condition and any medications/dietary supplements that they are taking when visiting the doctor or purchasing medicines at the pharmacy. If a drug interaction is unavoidable, the patient will need to monitor the safety and efficacy of the drugs.

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The Science Of Evolution

Post a ResponseWatch the video, The Science of Evolution, and address the following:Describe two things that you learned about DNA from the video.Tell what you found most surprising or interesting from the video and explain why.

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Developing Intranasal Formulations

A company called Nastech was involved in developing intranasal formulations of drugs to treat a variety of different diseases. Dr Steven Quay was a founder of Nastech; he (and his colleagues, including Dr Alexis Leonard) filed several patent applications covering his inventions; some of these patents were subsequently licensed or acquired by other companies. One of these patent applications was for intranasal formulations of carbetocin (an oxytocin analog), for possible treatment of autism and other conditions.Question 1:What is the patent number of the US granted patent described above?Answer 1:Question 2:What is the number of the corresponding US published applicationAnswer 2:Question 3:Compare the claims in the granted patent vs. the published application. What is/are the major difference(s) between the claims in these two documents? (one or two sentences; hint: focus on Claim 1)Answer 3:Question 4:What is one key piece of translational research data presented in the patent documents that supports the claims? (one or two sentences; hint: do any of the “Examples” contain translational research data?)Answer 4:

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Homology-based Methods

Methods: Make sure in your methods section that you state which kind of BLAST you used for each task and explain why. ?????fgenesh ?augustus??database??????Results: Based on the tasks carried out in the prac on your allocated 20-kb DNA sequence ?attachment?? (make sure you note which sequence you worked on), present the findings in this section of the report. Specifically, we are looking for:1. A summary diagram of the gene models from the program you believe represents the best, most accurate ab initio annotation. Provide a summary diagram showing the entire 20kb of DNA annotated with all predicted genes. Your diagram should indicate the base-pair positions of all gene features. You must show exons, introns, start and stop sites and the gene direction. You should also provide the polypeptide sequence encoded by each gene. Include in the text the annotation method you chose to depict in your diagram, and why you chose it (i.e. strengths and weaknesses compared to other methods). Explain the support you obtained for these predictions. Use the appropriate BLAST program to determine the type of protein produced from each gene predicted by your chosen ab initio method. Present the evidence and comment on your confidence in each BLAST result. ?2. Report on the homology-based method to give an independent prediction of the gene models in your 20-kb sequence. Provide a summary diagram showing the entire 20 kb of DNA, annotated with all predicted genes. Your diagram should indicate the base-pair positions of all gene features. You must show exons, introns, start and stop sites and the gene direction. You should also provide the polypeptide sequence encoded by each gene. Determine the type of protein produced by each gene predicted by the homology- based search. Present the evidence and comment on how confident you are in each BLASTx result.3. Find and identify the one type of gene that is found on all DNA fragments for the class. Either download another few sequences to identify the gene type in common, or check with your colleagues which gene types they found.Tip for visualisation purposes: Geneious Prime is very convenient to show annotations along a sequence. You can download a free trial from here: https://www.geneious.com/prime-features?(Links to an external site.). Alternatively, visualise the results in PowerPoint or similar software.Discussion: Include the following discussion points:1. Compare the ab initio predictions and the BLASTx-based homology predictions for your sequence and comment on which approach worked best for annotating your sequence. ?2. Comment on why BLASTx was used for the homology-based prediction. How is BLASTx different to the other kinds of BLAST? ?3. Discuss the predicted biological and/or biochemical function of the gene found in Results #3 above. Include the nature of the conserved functional motif(s) and the homology to characterised genes. You will need to search the scientific literature in order to determine the biological and/or biochemical function of the chosen gene.

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Modes of Transmission

1. Choose a disease from the following list and record its name on your data sheet.a. Botulism (Total)b. Brucellosisc. Cyclosporiasisd. Hansen’s Diseasee. Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome, Post Diarrhealf. Leptospirosisg. Listeriosish. Measlesi. Streptococcal Toxic Shock Syndromej. Syphilis, Congenitalk. Tularemial. Typhoid Fever2. Go to the CDC website ( https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/data-and-statistics.html3. Click on “Weekly and Annual Tables” on the menu on the left of the screen.4. Be sure the “Weekly Tables” tab is highlighted.5. Click on the “Data.cdc.gov” link written in blue font.6. Click on the “Weekly NNDSS Data” link in the box on the right side of the page.7. Click on “Change Year/Week.”8. Change year to 2019.9. Change week to 110. Click on “Change to Selected Year/Week.”11. Click on your chosen microbe.12. For US Residents, Excluding US Territories:a. Record the “Current Week” number of cases for the given weekb. Record the Cumulative Year to date (YTD) number of cases for 2019 on the associated table (for the given week).c. Record the Cumulative Year to date (YTD) number of cases for 2018 on the associated table (for the given week).13. Go back one web page14. Repeat steps 7 through 12 for Week 215. Continue repeating steps 7-15 for all 52 weeks16. Graph the weekly number of cases for all 52 weeks in 2019.17. Calculate the difference between the number of weekly cases from 2018 and 2019. Record on the associated data sheet.18. Calculate the number of new cases during each 4-week period (weeks 1-4, weeks 5-8, ect.). Record that data on the associated data sheet.19. Calculate the incidence values of each 4-week period during the entire year using the calculated 4-week totals in the numerator of the following formula and using 327,000,000 (approximate size of US population in 2019) in the denominator of the formula. Record that data on the associated data sheet.a. Incidence Rate = (Number of New Cases / Size of At-Risk Population) X 10820. Answer the following questions and submit with the data sheet as the total written assignment. It is due December 1, 2020a. Describe the disease that you have chosen. Be sure to include the etiological agent (scientific name), symptoms, modes of transmission, diagnostic tests, and treatments.b. Describe the national trend of your chosen disease for the year. Does the incidence appear to be seasonal?

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Antibiotic Resistance

1. What similarities and differences do you notice between the two graphs? (total point available 2)2. Which antibiotics were the most successful at killing the cave bacteria? Which were the least successful? What evidence supports your claims? (total available point 2)3. Does this data support a hypothesis that some resistance genes evolved in bacteria that weren’t exposed to modern antibiotics? Why or why not? (total points available 2)4. How many of the 26 antibiotics successfully killed 100% of the bacterial strains (both Gram-positive and Gram-negative)? What does this make you think about our ability to fight infections with our current arsenal of antibiotics? (total available points 2)5. Thinking about the cellular features that antibiotics target, why do you think that antibiotics only harm bacterial cells and not your own human cells? (total available points 2)

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The Cellular Source

Length should be 1250-1500 words, not including Title and References pages (typed, 12 point font, double spaced).These subheadings are required (content expectation is also provided)Introduction (list the three mechanisms that you have picked and provide a brief overview)Mechanism 1 (Describe the cellular source of the mechanism. Explain how this mechanism produces an effect inside the host. Provide an example pathogen that utilizes this mechanism).Mechanism 2 (Describe the cellular source of the mechanism. Explain how this mechanism produces an effect inside the host. Provide an example pathogen that utilizes this mechanism).Mechanism 3 (Describe the cellular source of the mechanism. Explain how this mechanism produces an effect inside the host. Provide an example pathogen that utilizes this mechanism).Professional application (Explain how understanding these mechanisms increases the effectiveness of a nurse).Support your content with at least (3) citations. Make sure to reference the citations using APA writing style for the presentation.Format:Save your assignment as a Microsoft Word FilFile name:Name your saved file according to your last name, first initial and the week (for example, “jonesb.week1”)

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Recessive Allele

Genetics ReviewThis assignment will make up for the two genetic labs that we would of done if we were meeting face to face. I will have you do various things to help you grasp the material. We would of done A LOT of Punnett squares in lab. If you are having trouble please contact me.1. Match the correct definition to the term in the table below. Type the letter in the table.A. Alternative form of a gene, located at a specific point on chromosome. (DNA coding that will determine distinct traits)B. Having two identical alleles for a given geneC. A unit of hereditary information with a specific sequence in DNA.D. Having two different alleles for a given gene.E. Breeding an organism of an unknown genotype with an organism with a homozygous recessive genotype. The offspring phenotype will determine the unknown genotype.F. The genetic makeup or set of alleles of an organismG. Allele’s phenotypic effect is not observed in a heterozygoteH. Allele’s phenotypic effect is fully expressed in a heterozygoteI. A cross done to determine if a gene is located on an autosome or sex-chromosome.J. The physical traits of an organism determined by genetic makeup.

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Regulation of Parasites

Please write a short summary on this article:Type 2 Immune Response: Regulation of Parasites

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Bone Metastasis

How do bisphosphonates work to treat bone metastasis?

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