Write a Conclusion on Capstone

Write a Conclusion on Capstone ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Write a Conclusion on Capstone – Write a conclusion that fit my capstone project a minimum of 4 paragraphs. Write a Conclusion on Capstone – APA Style – My capstone project attached. ayman__draftt_9_jb.docx 1 Running head: ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER Role of Nurses in Managing a Disaster Event Inside the Hospital in Saudi Arabia Ayman Almeheyawi Master of Science in Disaster Medicine and Management Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) Summer 2019 Capstone Project Committee: Dr. Jean B. Bail, Ed.D., RN, MSN, CEN, EMT-P (Program Director) 2 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER Certification This is to certify that: Ayman Almeheyawi has carried out this study entitled: Role of Nurses in Managing a Disaster Event Inside the Hospital in Saudi Arabia in August 2019, for Jefferson (Philadelphia University + Thomas Jefferson University) College of Health Professions, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, as a partial fulfillment of the core courses required for completion of the Master of Science in Disaster Medicine and Management Program. This work was conducted under the direct supervision of Dr. Jean B. Bail, (Program Director) and Dr. Steven J. Parrillo (Medical Director). I certify that this project is my own work. ___________________ Name ________________________ Date Jean B. Bail, Ed.D., RN, MSN, CEN, EMT-P Program Director MS in Disaster Medicine and Management Jefferson University East Falls 4201 Henry Ave Philadelphia, PA 19144 215-951-2871 Signature_______________________________________ Date __________________ Jean B. Bail 3 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER Abstract Preparedness of nursing staff at hospital facilities is an integral part of emergency response for large scale emergencies and disasters alike. Although nurses are commonly known for their response to day to day incidents at the individual level, the level of preparedness for large scale situations may be questionable, with research, preparedness and experience potentially lacking. Write a Conclusion on Capstone This capstone found in the literature review that there were many instances of nurses being underprepared to respond to various disasters that were a relevant hazard in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A literature review was performed to understand all relevant hazards to KSA and the level of preparedness and response of nurses in historical examples. Nurse preparedness in Saudi Arabia was also researched where many instances of a lack of preparedness were found. The deliverables were constructed from the information found in the literature review and a review of the Disaster Plan of The King Fahad Hospital in Jeddah. Additionally, preparedness of the nurses at this facility were measured. The results found opportunities to increase nurse awareness and behaviors that can lead to increased preparedness among them. 4 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER Role of Nurses in Managing a Disaster Event Inside Hospitals in Saudi Arabia There are many risks and vulnerabilities to disaster associated with the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. These risks include flooding, volcanoes, the potential for regional conflict with other nations, terrorism, infectious disease and incidents of physical injury during mass gathering events. The dynamic risks associated with the Kingdom presents a need for all organizations and professionals in the field of response to be adequately trained and prepared with proper attitudes toward disaster. Additionally, all opportunities for medical and other professionals to positively contribute to preparedness and response should be taken advantage of even when responding to routine medical situations. The research project developed significant knowledge associated with nursing skills and capabilities for preparedness.Write a Conclusion on Capstone Hence, the highlight of the project is the affective magnitude change to improve nurse’s awareness of disaster preparedness at the King Fahad hospital. A secondary goal is to assess the current participation with training, education and attitudes of nurses. Having an in-depth analysis of the role of nurses in responding to hazardous events that affect the hospital setting is crucial for the preparation of nurses in handling such occurrences. The aim of the current study is to develop significant knowledge of the level of preparedness for nurses at the King Fahad hospital. The goal of the research is to understand the extent to which nurses can build their level of confidence to achieve competence in managing disasters in the hospital setting. A literature review guiding such a study requires an analysis of the concepts associated with disaster preparedness. Different themes, theories, and models direct the progression of the current literature review analysis. These include the concept of nurses in disaster preparedness or emergency response, hospital setting and emergency preparedness, nursing education and training, 5 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER nurses’ attitudes and knowledge toward disaster preparedness, a theory of planned behavior, vested interest theory, and person-relative-to-event model to disaster crunch model. Literature Review The literature review of this capstone focuses on three categories of research, which include: the history and current potential for disasters in Saudi Arabia and their effects, the current preparedness and attitudes of nurses in the hospital setting of Saudi Arabia, and the potential opportunities for nurses to serve the disaster response community in Saudi Arabia. Additionally, through the literature review, the conclusions will be related to how they affect the role of nursing and how nursing can have an impact on particular problems and situations. Current and Historical Disaster Risks in Saudi Arabia The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) is vulnerable to multiple natural and man-made hazards. Write a Conclusion on Capstone The northwestern region is exposed to earthquakes and volcanoes while the central and western parts continually experience volcanic eruptions, floods and heavy rains (Al-Bassam, A. M., Zaidi, F. K., & Hussein, M. T. 2014). In the southwest, where the region is mountainous, landslides are common. Finally, shifting attention to the regions located centrally and eastern parts, especially cities, sand dunes, and dust storms are prevalent in Saudi Arabia (Al-Bassam et al., 2014). Heavy Rains and Flooding Historically, Saudi has experienced various forms of hazards. The period between 2009 and 2011 saw the region subjected to floods in Jeddah City (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery [GFDRR], 2017). Bassam et al. (2014) point out that the Jeddah flood that occurred on 25 November 2009, lasted 4 hours, was the worst that the city experienced in over 27 years, 6 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER resulting in more than 100 deaths and 350 missing people. A similar event in Jeddah City in January 2011 included heavy rains (more than 110 mm) within a short span that caused extensive flooding and led to human casualties (Bassam et al., 2014). Flooding is not isolated to Jeddah despite Jeddah being in the highest risk region for flooding in Saudi Arabia (Al-Bassam, et al., 2014). Seismic Activity: Earthquakes and Volcanoes Seismic activity in and around Saudi Arabia as part of the larger Middle Eastern region has significant historical precedence. Additionally, there is notable geological data for potential disasters in the future. The regions around Tabuk, Jizan and Yemen experience the most seismic activity in Saudi Arabia (Runge, M. G., Bebbington, M. S. & Cronin, S. J., 2014). Write a Conclusion on Capstone In 1995, Tabuk was affected by a destructive quake with a magnitude of 7.2 (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). Although this earthquake was severe and occurred very recently there is no precise data about the event including deaths, injuries, cost in property damage and other (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). It is important to collect this data as earthquakes of this size are expected to have dramatic effects on human life and livelihood at the individual level and at the larger community levels (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). In 2003 the Bam earthquake had detrimental effects on many parts of the Middle Eastern region including Iran, Oman, Pakistan, United Arab Emirates, and Afghanistan (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). This earthquake was the result of the Bam and Gowk fault systems which run through areas of several of the affected countries (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). The total deaths involved in this disaster exceeded 43,000 leaving many more injured and even more displaced (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). A part of the problem was due to Iran’s status as a landlocked country and the lack of good construction in the country. After this earthquake, an assessment was performed on the roles and capabilities of nurses that responded to the disaster. It was found that 7 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER the nurses lacked disaster relief skills and knowledge, an ability to understand and follow protocol and effective teamwork skills (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). In Saudi Arabia the Harrat Rahat volcanic system has several active vents that are located throughout the Kingdom. These vents which course throughout the Kingdom and condense in the northern region, named the northern Harrat Rahat, exist right outside the city of Medina, a highly populated city of extreme cultural, national and political importance to the people of KSA (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). The most active of the vents are also located in this northern region (Runge, M. G., et al 2014). Write a Conclusion on Capstone It is known within the geological community that these volcanic systems and fault systems often interact and influence by one another’s activities (Al-Besher, Z. I. 2013). Judging by the geologically and historically recent events in Tabuk and Iran, it can be assumed that these potential disasters should be prepared for with the literature for EOPs reflecting these dangers. Infectious Diseases There are several threats of infectious disease that Saudi Arabia is vulnerable to. The review of its history with infectious disease through the literature proved this point. Three prevalent diseases with historic precedent in the country will be examined for the onset, outcomes, and lessons learned from the situations. The two viruses that will be examined are Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Rift Valley Fever (RVF). Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome In 2013, research was performed in order to discover the origins of the MERS virus with a hypothesis that the transmissions were occurring due to an animal host to humans (Memish, Z. A., Mishra, N. & Olival, K. J., 2013). Bats had been a likely candidate as they had been known in the past to carry various diseases that were transmittable to human beings (Memish, Z. A.,et al 2013). Some of those diseases include Rabies, Hendra, Nipah, Marburg and several severe acute 8 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER respiratory viruses similar to MERS (Memish, Z. A.,et al 2013). It has even been speculated that bats have the potential to carry and transmit Ebola to human hosts (Memish, Z. A.,et al 2013). As of 2013 when the research was performed, 90 cases had been reported worldwide with 70 of those occurring in Saudi Arabia. Write a Conclusion on Capstone Of those cases, approximately 65% ended in death (Memish, Z. A.,et al 2013). As of February 2019, 2,428 laboratory cases had been confirmed with 838 leading to death in 27 countries total (WHO 2019). Over 1900 of those cases have come from Saudi Arabia (WHO 2019). It was concluded that the virus was being transmitted from both bats and camels and remains a high risk and high potential disease in Saudi Arabia, especially during religious holidays which have mass populations of people in close proximity to one another (Memish, Z. A.,et al 2013). Rift Valley Fever RVF has a dynamic and significant relationship with Saudi Arabia and the surrounding regions. Outbreaks that occurred in 2000 and 2001 showed the virulogical community that epidemics could be caused simply by a shift in industry such as a dam creation that occurred which led to a large and significant outbreak in the region (Al-Azraqi, T. A., El Mekki, A. A., & Mahfouz, A. A. 2012). The creation of the dam was actually at the heart of why RVF spread so rapidly and into the human population (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012). The dam was associated with a large body of water that was harboring mosquitoes. These mosquitos that spend a large part of their lives near water were susceptible to the virus. They spread the virus through biting human beings. (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012). This outbreak lead to over 200,000 cases of RVF (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012). An RVF outbreak is difficult to predict like many viruses because of the many variables that are not well understood (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012). Livestock transmission to farmers was at the heart of 9 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER another outbreak (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012).Write a Conclusion on Capstone The farmers had no reason to assume that their livestock had become carriers, nor did they know the ways in which the virus could be transmitted. A blood borne transmission occurred while farmers operated on and mid-wived for the livestock (Al-Azraqi, T. A., et al 2012). Regional Conflict and Terrorism Regional conflict due to various radical ideologies both within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and abroad pose a real threat to the Kingdom and its people. in 2001, it was discovered that radical Saudi Arabian citizens had been converted to the ideologies of Osama Bin Laden and AlQaida (Choksy, C. E., & Choksy, J. K. 2015). These individuals where in part responsible for the deaths of over 4000 Americans in a single day which caused a complete overwhelming of surge capacity in all hospitals in the area with thousands of acute and long-term injuries and deaths. (Choksy, C. E., & Choksy, J. K. 2015). Radical sects of religious and political systems have also posed threats for the Kingdom. These come in many forms including extremists of Wahhabism, Anti-Muslim ideologies, radical groups such as ISIS and many others in the Middle Eastern region (Butt, Y. 2015). Although the actual occurences of terrorism have been low in Saudi Arabia, there is a constant need for preparedness regarding this issue. The mass gatherings of Hajj and Umrah are extremely vulnerable to terrorist attacks. The sheer volume of people, the density or the population per square foot and the significance of the event all make the tragedy and costs both human and other of a terrorist attack much higher (Butt, Y. 2015). Hajj and Umrah are two mass gathering events that bring in over 22 million people annually (Al-Otaibi, A. M. 2018). Hajj occurs in Mecca and the areas surrounding it, making it roughly 50 miles from Jeddah (Al-Otaibi, A. M. 2018). A large-scale emergency or disaster would likely exceed capacity at the local hospitals and require the hospitals in the city of Jeddah to assist the 10 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER wounded (Al-Otaibi, A. M. 2018).Write a Conclusion on Capstone It is important to account for this possibility at the King Fahad Hospital. Disaster Response and the Roles of Nurses The KSA currently has disaster plans in place that are executed through sub departments of the Ministry of Health in response to disasters. However, the country lacks three things in regard to these plans. One is an updated version of disaster plans to address the evolution of risks in Saudi Arabia, such as the rise in terrorist activity, potential risk and vulnerability (Alamri, Y. A. 2010). Secondly, the Ministry of Health (MoH) has issued requests in the past for individual agencies to develop their own plans without the oversight of the MoH or a kingdom wide, universalized plan (Alamri, Y. A. 2010). The Ministry set a mandate and worked with lower levels of government through preparedness committees to help organization across Saudi Arabia establish EOPs. (Alamri, Y. A. 2010). Thirdly, there is a lack of integration of nurses and hospitals within a kingdom-wide plan in respect to the levels of nurse preparedness and abilities to contribute (Al Thobaity, A., Plummer, V. & Innes, K., (2015). Available facts indicate that Saudi Arabia is not new to humanitarian response operations. Citing the funding initiative for the Arab and Muslim world, a report by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) indicates that Saudi Arabia is at the forefront in the development of humanitarian assistance, both in engagement and financial contributions. For example, in 2017, the country provided financial assistance extending beyond $400 million for global disaster response operations. Furthermore, until July 2018, the government of Saudi Arabia had already provided $770 million to manage humanitarian response plans (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs [OCHA], n.d.).Write a Conclusion on Capstone Saudi Arabia has 11 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER elevated its global economic profile by becoming a strategic partner in extending humanitarian aid (Al Yahya & Fustier, 2011). Several reasons affirm the significance of a hospital setting and increased level of importance towards promoting emergency preparedness in Saudi Arabia. In “Evaluation of Disaster Preparedness for Mass Casualty Incidents in Private Hospitals in Central Saudi Arabia,” Shalhoob, Khan, and Alaska (2017) performed a cross-sectional survey in 13 major private hospitals located in Riyadh City. The results of the study were that all the hospitals had hospital disaster preparedness (HDP) plans but none had conducted an announced exercise within the last year. Furthermore, the findings were that there were weaknesses in the education and training of hospital staff related to disaster preparedness (Shalhoob et al., 2017). In “Community Resilience Factors to Disaster in Saudi Arabia: The Case of Makkah Province” Alshehri et al. (2013) provided notable facts regarding the willingness to benefit from an informed action to respond to disasters. The study identified the resilience factors associated with “age, education, economic, risk perception, access to sources and willingness and responsibility” as vital for enhancing efforts towards responses to disasters in Saudi Arabia (Alshehri et al., 2013, p. 365). Accordingly, an investigation of the way to enhance the role of nurses in managing disaster events inside the hospital setting in Saudi Arabia is an opportunity to build a rich information resource related to the management of the occurrences of disasters. There is a worrisome effect of the extent to which Saudi Arabia manages the occurrences of disaster within the realm of disaster medicine. In “An Investigation into Disaster Health Management in Saudi Arabia,” Alraga (2017) raises concern about the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia’s effectiveness in enhancing crisis management systems to handle the prevalent disasters in the country.Write a Conclusion on Capstone The findings were that Saudi Arabia has recognized the continued disaster, but it has yet 12 ROLE OF NURSES IN MANAGING A DISASTER to integrate an agency or cooperation of different sectors to facilitate effectiveness in disaster health management (Alraga, 2017). Evidently, there is a shortcoming in the way the healthcare setting has collaborated to guarantee the positive health outcomes of an emergency response plan. While the nursing staff members within some hospital settings have significant knowledge about disasters, such awareness depends on nurses’ experiences; the practitioners with few years had limited knowledge regarding disaster response compared with the more experienced personnel (Shammah, 2018). Many hospitals in Saudi Arabia have been voluntarily considering independent review of their commitment to safety and quality, hence accreditation towards quality improvement (Qureshi, S. Ullah, & R. Ullah, 2012). However, the potential inadequacy in the nurse’s preparedness through a lack of training, education and attitudes may cause the hospitals to operate under the necessary standard during an emergency situation. Labrague et al. (2014) explain that the growing initiatives to ensure that nurses are prep … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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