University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays

University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Assignment 2: Problem Solving Due Week 9 and worth 150 points When faced with a problem, what do you do to solve it? This assignment asks you to apply a six-step to problem solving process to a specific problem scenario. You will write a paper that presents a synthesis of your ideas about solving the problem using this systematic approach. As Voltaire said, “No problem can withstand the assault of sustained thinking.” Choose one (1) of the problem scenarios as a topic choice for your paper (Note: Your professor must approve your topic choice before you begin work on the assignment.) Scenario 1: You have worked at your company for eleven (11) years. You have returned to college to earn a Bachelor’s degree in order to increase your chances for a promotion. You are nearly finished with your degree, when a supervisor’s position in a competing company becomes available in another state. The start date is in two (2) weeks, during your final exam period for your courses. The position offers a $15,000 per year salary increase, a car allowance, and relocation expenses. Your former supervisor works for the company and is recommending you for the position based on your outstanding job performance; if you want the job, it’s yours. All of the other supervisors at this level in the company have Master’s degrees, so you know that you would be expected to earn your Bachelor’s degree and continue on to a Master’s degree. Your present company offers tuition reimbursement, but the new company does not. Scenario 2: Your child comes home from school with an assignment sheet for a school project. He / she is very excited about the project and begins work immediately, doing research on the Internet and gathering materials. You read over the assignment sheet and notice that your child is not including all of the required items in the project, and you have some ideas for how to improve the quality of the presentation. You recently read an article in a parenting magazine about the importance of a child developing responsibility for his/ her own learning. You recall the many ways in which your parents took over your school projects. You, on the other hand, want to encourage your child’s confidence in his / her ability to complete a project independently. The next day, you are at the grocery store when you see a parent of a student in your child’s class. That parent has spent over $30 in supplies for the science project and is taking a day off of work to put the pieces of the project together. Scenario 3: You have two jobs, one during the week from 9:00 am to 6:00 pm, and one on Saturday from 3:00 pm to 11:00 pm.University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays You are taking two classes, one that meets from 6:00 to 10:00 pm, and one class online. You have two kids, one who plays soccer, and one who is in band. You have two elderly parents who no longer drive. You have two siblings, one who lives two (2) miles away, and one who lives in another state. You have two (2) papers due in your classes the same week that one (1) of your children has a soccer tournament, and the other child has a band concert. You are coaching the soccer team, and you are in charge of fundraising for the band. You have a goal to complete your degree in two (2) years. Your doctor tells you that your blood pressure, your cholesterol, and your weight are too high and recommends several medications that cost you nearly $200 per month after your insurance co-pay. Scenario 4: You are a sales representative for a company that encourages staff to log time in the field and away from the office. You are expected to begin and end your day at the office. You notice that each day when you arrive and return another co-worker is already there, and you wonder whether this person spends most of his / her time at the office. At your weekly sales meeting, you are informed of your co-workers’ outstanding sales performance. You suspect that this co-worker is spending more time flattering the boss instead of working leads in the field, and as a result is getting the best client referrals. Your own sales numbers have steadily decreased since this other sales representative was hired. Scenario 5: Professor’s Choice – problem scenario presented by your professor. Scenario 6: Student’s Choice – Problem scenario presented by you. Review the six-step problem solving process outlined in the webtext, based on the article “The Problem Solving Process” located at http://www.gdrc.org/decision/problemsolve.html: • • • • • • Step One: Define the problem Step Two: Analyze the problem Step Three: Generate options Step Four: Evaluate options Step Five: Make your decision Step Six: Implement and reflect Write a four to five (4-5) page paper in which you: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the problem in the scenario that you have chosen. Analyze the problem in the scenario. Generate options for solving the problem in the scenario. Evaluate the options for solving the problem. Decide on the best option for solving the problem. Explain how you will implement the decision made and reflect on whether this option was the most effective. The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing: • • • Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph. Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • “A well-researched assignment has at least as many sources as pages.” Therefore, since this assignment requires you to write at least 4-5 pages, you should include at least 4-5 references. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: • • • Recognize the hindrances to the decision-making process in order to apply problemsolving skills to a variety of situations. Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking. University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting EssaysUse technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic. Assignment 1.1: Conflicting Viewpoints Essay – Part I Prewriting Due Week 3 and worth 30 points When looking for information about a particular issue, how often do you try to resist biases toward your own point of view? This assignment asks you to engage in this aspect of critical thinking by playing the “Believing Game.” The Believing Game is about making the effort to “believe” – or at least consider – the reasons for an opposing view on an issue.University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays The assignment is divided into two (2) parts. In Part I of the assignment (due Week 3), you will first read a book excerpt about critical thinking processes: “The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful” by Peter Elbow. Next, you will review the Procon.org Website in order to gather information. Then, you will engage in prewriting to examine your thoughts. Note: In Part II of the assignment (due Week 5), you will write an essay geared towards synthesizing your ideas. Part I – Prewriting: Follow the instructions below for this prewriting activity. Use complete sentences and adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling. 1. Select one (1) of the approved topics from the www.procon.org Website and state your position on the issue. 2. From the Procon.org Website, identify three (3) premises (reasons) listed under either the Pro or Con section – whichever section opposes your position. 3. For each of the three (3) premises (reasons) that oppose your position on the issue, answer these “believing” questions suggested by Elbow: a. What’s interesting or helpful about this view? b. What would I notice if I believed this view? c. In what sense or under what conditions might this idea be true?” The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing: • • • Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph. Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, and spelling. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • This prewriting assignment has no page requirement. There is no requirement at this time to include references in the assignment. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: • • • Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals and abuses of language. Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking. Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic. Part II – Writing Write at three to four (3-4) page paper in which you: 1. State your position on the topic you selected for Assignment 1.1. 2. Identify (3) three premises (reasons) from the Procon.org website that support your position and explain why you selected these specific reasons. 3. Explain your answers to the “believing” questions about the three (3) premises opposing your position from the Procon.org website. 4. Examine at least two (2) types of biases that you likely experienced as you evaluated the premises for and against your position. 5. Discuss the effects of your own enculturation or group identification that may have influenced your biases. 6. Discuss whether or not your thinking about the topic has changed after playing the “Believing Game,” even if your position on the issue has stayed the same. The paper should follow guidelines for clear and organized writing: • • • Include an introductory paragraph and concluding paragraph. Address main ideas in body paragraphs with a topic sentence and supporting sentences. Adhere to standard rules of English grammar, punctuation, mechanics, an d spelling. Your assignment must follow these formatting requirements: • “A well-researched assignment has at least as many sources as pages.” Since this assignment requires you to write at least 3-4 pages, you should include at least 34 references. The specific course learning outcomes associated with this assignment are: • • • Identify the informal fallacies, assumptions, and biases involved in manipulative appeals and abuses of language. Create written work utilizing the concepts of critical thinking. Use technology and information resources to research issues in critical thinking skills and informal logic. University of Massachusetts Amherst From the SelectedWorks of Peter Elbow January 1, 2006 “The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful” Peter Elbow Available at: https://works.bepress.com/peter_elbow/10/ The Believing Game and How to Make Conflicting Opinions More Fruitful Peter Elbow [A chapter in Nurturing the Peacemakers in Our Students: A Guide to Teaching Peace, Empathy, and Understanding. Chris Weber, editor. Heinemann, 2006. The present version contains a few short passages that had to be cut for space reasons in the published version.] Don Quixote says he admires Sancho Panza because he doubts everything and he believes everything. In the chapter before this, Chris Weber suggests ways to help students speak their minds, listen well, and engage in nonadversarial dialogue rather than debate. His suggestions focus on outward behavior. In this essay, I will move inward to the mysterious dimension of thinking and feeling. I’ll start by asking you to imagine that you are looking at an inkblot (for examples, ask Google Images for “inkblots”). Imagine that you see something in it that interests and pleases you—but your colleagues or classmates don’t see what you see. In fact they think you are crazy or disturbed for seeing it. What would you do if you wanted to convince them that your interpretation makes sense? If it were a matter of geometry, you could prove you are right (or wrong!). University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting EssaysBut with inkblots, you don’t have logic’s leverage. Your only hope is to get them to enter into your way of seeing—to have the experience you are having. You need to get them to say the magic words: “Oh now I see what you see.” This means getting them to exercise the ability to see something differently (i.e., seeing the same thing in multiple ways), and also the willingness to risk doing so (not knowing where it will lead). In short, you need them to be flexible both cognitively and emotionally. You can’t make people enter into a new way of seeing, even if they are capable of it. Perhaps your colleagues or classmates are bothered by what you see in the inkblot. Perhaps they think it’s aberrant or psychotic. If you want them to take the risk, your only option is to set a good example and show that you are willing to see it the way they see it. From Inkblots to Arguments Interpreting inkblots is highly subjective, but the process serves to highlight how arguments also have a subjective dimension. Few arguments are settled by logic. Should we invade countries that might attack us? Should we torture prisoners who might know what we need to know? Should we drop a nuclear bomb on a country that did attack us? And by the way, what grade is fair for this paper or this student? Should we use grades at all? 13 I’m not denying the force of logic. Logic can uncover a genuine error in someone’s argument. But logic cannot uncover an error in someone’s position. If we could have proven that Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction, that wouldn’t have proven that it was wrong to invade Iraq. “We should invade Iraq” is a claim that is impossible to prove or disprove. We can use logic to strengthen arguments for or against the claim, but we cannot prove or disprove it. Over and over we see illogical arguments for good ideas and logical arguments for bad ideas. We can never prove that an opinion or position is wrong—or right. No wonder people so seldom change their minds when someone finds bad reasoning in their argument. (By the same token—or at least a very similar token—it is impossible to prove or disprove the interpretation of a text. For more on this, see my longer essays on the believing game.) This explains a lot about how most people deal with differences of opinion: • Some people love to argue and disagree, and they do it for fun in a friendly way. They enjoy the disagreement and the give-and-take and they let criticisms and even attacks roll right off their backs. It’s good intellectual sport for them. • Some people look like they enjoy the sport of argument. They stay friendly and rational—they’re “cool”—because they’ve been trained well. “Don’t let your feelings cloud your thinking.” But inside they feel hurt when others attack ideas they care about. They hunker down into their ideas behind hidden walls. • Some people actually get mad, raise their voices, dig in, stop listening, and even call each other names. Perhaps they realize that language and logic have no power to make their listeners change their minds—so they give in to shouting or anger. • And some people—seeing that nothing can be proven with words—just give up on argument. University of Massachusetts Problem Solving in Changing Jobs & Felon Voting Essays They retreat. “Let’s just not argue. You see it your way, I’ll see it my way. That’s the end of it. There’s no use talking.” They sidestep arguments and take a relativist position: any opinion is as good as any other opinion. (It’s worth pondering why so many students fall into this attitude.) But sometimes people actually listen to each other, come to really see the merit in opinions they started off fighting. Through listening to someone else’s views, they do something amazing: they actually change their thinking. Sometimes strong differences of opinion are resolved—even heated arguments. When this happens people demonstrate the two inkblot skills I just described: the ability and the willingness to see something differently—or in this case to think or understand something differently. (We often say “I see” when we “understand” something differently). These are precious skills, cognitive and psychological. We won’t have much luck encouraging them in other people unless we develop them in ourselves. 14 With inkblots, the risk seems small. If we manage to see a blot the way a classmate or colleague sees it, we don’t have to say, “Stupid me. I was wrong.” It’s “live and let live” when we’re dealing with inkblots. With arguments, however, it feels like win or lose. We often want people not just to understand our position; we often want them to give up their (“wrong, stupid”) position. I used inkblots earlier to look for the subjective dimension in most arguments (given that logic cannot prove or destroy a position). Now inkblots can teach us something else. They can teach us that there’s actually a “live-and-let-live” dimension in many arguments—probably most. But we often feel arguments as win/lose situations because we so naturally focus on how our side of an argument differs from the other person’s side. We assume that one person has to say, “Stupid me. I was wrong.” The believing game will help us understand ideas we disagree with, and thereby help us see that one one needs to lose or give up their central idea. The believing game can help us see that both sides in an argument are often right; or that both are right in a sense; or that both positions are implicitly pointing to some larger, wiser position that both arguers can agree on. What is the Believing Game? In a sense I’ve already explained it with my analogy between inkblots and arguments. I can summarize it quickly now by contrasting it with the doubting game. The doubting game represents the kind of thinking most widely honored and taught. It’s the disciplined practice of trying to be as skeptical and analytic as possible with every idea we encounter. By doubting well, we can discover hidden contradictions, bad reasoning, or other weaknesses in ideas that look true or attractive. We scrutinize with the tool of doubt. This is the tradition that Walter Lippman invokes: The opposition is indispensable. A good statesman, like any other sensible human being, always learns more from his opponents than from his fervent supporters. For his supporters will push him to disaster unless his opponents show him where the dangers are. So if he is wise he will often pray to be delivered from his friends, because they will ruin him. But, though it hurts, he ought . . . to pray never to be left without opponents; for they keep him on the path of reason and good sense. The widespread veneration of “critical thinking” illustrates how our intellectual culture venerates skepticism and doubting. (“Critical thinking” is a fuzzy, fad term , but its various meanings usually appeal to skepticism and analysis for the sake of uncovering bad thinking. When people call a movement “critical linguistics” or “critical legal 15 studies,” they are saying that the old linguistics or legal studies are flawed by being insufficiently skeptical or critical—too hospitable to something that’s wrong.) The believing game is the mirror image of the doubting game or critical thinking. It’s the disciplined practice of trying to be as welcoming as possible to every idea we encounter: not just listening to views different from our own and holding back from arguing with them, but actually trying to believe them. We can use the tool of believing to scrutinize not for flaws but to find hidden virtues in ideas that are unfashionable or repellent. Often we cannot see what’s good in someone else’s idea (or in our own!) till we work at believing it. When an idea goes against current assumptions and beliefs–or seems alien, weird, dangerous—or if it’s poorly formulated—we often cannot see any merit in it. “Believing” is a Scary Word Many people get nervous when I celebrate believing. They point to an asymmetry between our sense of what “doubting” and “believing” mean. Believ … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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