The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion

The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion Business discussion board assistance. Please see attachment for the information. The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion discussion_board_forum_instructions_3___3_.docx organizations_and_organizing Discussion Board Forum Instructions Discussion Board Forums Modules Choose two ways that organizations have changed over the years and provide a past to current summary, integrating theory and personal perspectives. Your discussion should include any of the previous chapter concepts, including the readings from this week. HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion Merida: Entire Textbook Scott: pp. 368-390 Discussion boards are collaborative learning experiences. Therefore, the student will create a thread in response to the provided prompt for each forum. Each thread must be 2,100-2,200 words and demonstrate course-related knowledge. Each initial thread must include a mínimum of 7 sources in addition to the Bible, and peer replies must include the integration of at least 3 peer-reviewed source citations and scripture, in current APA format, outlined in each respective Discussion Board rubric. BMAL 710 DISCUSSION BOARD FORUM INSTRUCTIONS Discussion Board Forums Modules Choose two ways that organizations have changed over the years and provide a past to current summary, integrating theory and personal perspectives. Your discussion should include any of the previous chapter concepts, including the readings from this week. • • Merida: Entire Textbook Scott: pp. 368-390 Discussion boards are collaborative learning experiences. Therefore, the student will create a thread in response to the provided prompt for each forum. Each thread must be 2,100-2,200 words and demonstrate course-related knowledge. Each initial thread must include a mínimum of 7 sources in addition to the Bible, and peer replies must include the integration of at least 3 peer-reviewed source citations and scripture, in current APA format, outlined in each respective Discussion Board rubric. www.irpublicpolicy.ir Organizations and Organizing Rational, Natural, and Open System Perspectives W. Richard Scott Stanford University Gerald F. Davis University of Michigan ROUTLEDGE Routledge Taylor & Francis Group LONDON AND NEW YORK www.irpublicpolicy.ir First published 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. Published 2016 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RN 711 Third Avenue, New York, NY, 10017, USA Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business Copyright © 2007 Taylor & Francis. All rights reserved All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe. $SFEJUTBOEBDLOPXMFEHNFOUTCPSSPXFEGSPNPUIFSTPVSDFTBOESFQSPEVDFE XJUI QFSNJTTJPO JOUIJTUFYUCPPLBQQFBSPOBQQSPQSJBUFQBHFXJUIJOUFYU ISBN: 9780131958937 (pbk) Cover Design: Indigo Studio Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Scott, W. Richard. Organizations and organizing : rational, natural, and open systems perspectives / W. Richard Scott, Gerald F. Davis.—1st ed. p. cm. Rev. of: Organizations / W. Richard Scott. 5th ed. 2003. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-13-195893-3 1. Organizational sociology. I. Davis, Gerald F. (Gerald Fredrick), 1961– II. Scott, W. Richard. Organizations. III. Title. HM786.S3846 2007 302.3’5—dc22 2006025219 www.irpublicpolicy.ir Again, for Jennifer, Elliot, and Sydney And now for Ben and Gracie www.irpublicpolicy.ir This page is intentionally left blank www.irpublicpolicy.ir Contents Preface, ix 1 The Subject Is Organizations; The Verb is Organizing, 1 The Importance of Organizations, 2 Organizations as an Area of Study, 8 Common and Divergent Interests, 11 The Elements of Organizations, 19 Defining the Concept of Organization, 27 Summary, 33 2 Organizations as Rational Systems, 35 The Defining Characteristics, 36 Selected Schools, HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion 40 Summary and Tentative Conclusions, 56 3 Organizations as Natural Systems, 59 Basic versus Distinctive Characteristics, 59 Selected Schools, 64 Summary and Tentative Conclusions, 83 4 Organizations as Open Systems, 87 System Levels, 88 Special Emphases and Insights, 90 v www.irpublicpolicy.ir vi Contents Selected Schools, 98 Summary and Tentative Conclusions, 106 5 Combining Perspectives, Expanding Levels, 107 Attempts at Integration, 108 Glancing Back and Looking Forward, 113 Expanded Levels of Analysis, 115 Theories at the Ecological Level, 120 Concluding Comment, 122 6 Technology and Structure, 124 Organizations as Technical Adaptive Systems, 125 Technology and Structure: Natural System Formulations, 137 Summary, 149 7 Labor and Structure, 151 The Social Boundaries of Organizations, 151 Division of Labor, 158 Labor Markets and Organizational Boundaries, 164 High-Performance Work Organizations, 170 Problems for Participants, 173 Concluding Comments, 181 8 Goals, Power, and Control, 183 Goal Setting in Organizations, 183 Anarchies, Adhocracies, and Learning, 196 Control Systems, 202 Critical and Postmodern Conceptions of Power, 215 Summary, 218 9 The Dyadic Environment of the Organization, 220 Why Are There Organizations, and Where Do They Place Their Boundaries? 221 Transaction Costs and the Origins of Firms, 221 How Do Organizations Manage Their Relations with Other Organizations? 233 www.irpublicpolicy.ir Contents Resource Dependence and the Negotiated Environment, 233 Summary, 243 10 Organization of the Environment, 245 How Do New Organizations and New Populations of Organizations Arise, and Why Do They Fail?: Ecological Perspectives, 246 How Are Organizations Shaped by Broader Social-Political-Cultural Processes?: Institutional Perspectives, 258 Summary, 277 11 Networks In and Around Organizations, 278 Introduction: From Metaphor to Method to Worldview, 278 Network Thinking, 279 Interorganizational Networks, 285 Network Forms of Organization, 291 Sectoral and Societal Networks, 301 Summary, 307 12 Strategy, Structure, and Performance: The Sociology of Organizational Strategy, 310 Why Are Organizations in Some Industries More Profitable Than Those in Others? 313 Organizational Performance, 326 Summary, 338 13 The Rise and Transformation of the Corporate Form, 340 Changing Forms of Organizations, 343 Are Organizations Still the Defining Structures of Society? 361 Summary, 367 14 Changing Contours of Organizations and Organization Theory, 368 From Unitary to Multiparadigm, 369 From Monocultural to Multicultural Studies, 374 www.irpublicpolicy.ir vii viii Contents From Present-centered to Longitudinal and Historical Analysis, 376 From Micro- to Macro Units and Levels of Analysis, 381 From Structure to Process, 384 References, 391 Name Index, 439 Subject Index, 447 www.irpublicpolicy.ir Preface This volume is intended as a successor to Scott’s earlier text, Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems, first published in 1981 and undergoing four revisions—the fifth and last appearing in 2003. As the time approached to consider yet another edition, Scott approached Jerry Davis, a younger colleague but established scholar, to join him in the effort. As we planned the work, we agreed it was important to retain the book’s historical grounding as well as some sense of the progressive evolution of the field over time. The field of organization studies displays a distinctive pattern of past theoretical arguments and research approaches and findings that continues to frame current scholarship. In particular, we agreed that the original scaffolding, emphasizing the interrelation of three somewhat separate strands of work—rational, natural, and open system perspectives—retained its salience and relevance as an organizing device. HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion Thus, the three foundation chapters—Chapters 2, 3, and 4—draw heavily from previous editions of the Scott text. However, as we proceeded to examine developments in the field in the past decade, we found ourselves involved in extensive revisions, deleting large chunks of previous material and adding a substantial amount of new. The more we rethought, revised, and rewrote, the more we realized that, rather than simply update an existing text, we were engaged in producing a substantially new book—a book which incorporates the themes of its predecessor volume but takes them in new and different directions. The title Organizations and Organizing reflects this new emphasis on flexible forms of coordinated action taking place within, around, and among formal organizations. Before noting these new directions, let us comment on the continuing features that, we believe, distinguish our own approach from other efforts ix www.irpublicpolicy.ir x Preface to comprehend the field of organization studies. Some of these features follow. • The book continues to be “introductory” without being “elementary.” That is, we assume that readers do not necessarily have previous knowledge of this specific field, but that they are serious about their inquiry into the fundamentals of the study of organizations. • We endeavor, to the extent possible, to provide a judicious and even-handed introduction to the multiple perspectives and modes of work that comprise the field. Critical commentaries are provided, but we try to offer these in an evenhanded and constructive manner. • We devote roughly equal time to describing changes in the “real world” of organizations and to changes in theories of organizations, emphasizing, wherever possible, their connections. • Although we endeavor to be inclusive and interdisciplinary in our coverage, our bias continues to favor sociological and institutional approaches, and, with the addition of Davis, economic sociology network approaches, and managerial theory and research. • And, while both of us deplore the micro–macro division that permeates our field, we devote most of our own efforts to reviewing the more macro developments. • We recognize the benefits but also point to the problems posed for all who live in an organizational society. Organizations are not just about efficiency and productivity but also often exhibit pathology and produce inequity. • Finally, we strive to include the full range of organizations, including voluntary and public as well as private firms, and to recognize the valid interests of the full range of affected parties, not simply managers and shareholders, but rank-andfile participants and publics. Along with these continuities, the present volume offers a number of new features: • In addition to surveying how organizations engage with their environments, we devote much attention to the many ways that environments of organizations are themselves becoming more highly organized—in organizational populations, fields, and networks. • We emphasize the emergence of networks within, across, and among organizations, and describe both measures and methods of network analysis as well as recent research on network organizations. • After describing the predominant paradigms for studying organizations, we survey how these are used to understand the links among strategy, structure, and organizational performance. • We offer a broad survey of the changing modes of structuring organizations, from medieval guilds and early industrial organizations to contemporary postindustrial forms. • In tandem with changes in organizational forms, theoretical conceptions of organizations and approaches to their study have also moved to encompass more attention to flexibility and process—organizing vs. organizations—and the use of dynamic relational models rather than to those portraying stable entities. HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion Our final chapter assays new directions in organization studies that build on these shifts. www.irpublicpolicy.ir Preface xi ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Both of us are veterans in the field of organization studies, a field that is sufficiently new and relatively intimate that we count as friends or acquaintances most of the scholars on whose work we have relied. We indeed inhabit a “small world” with only one or two degrees of separation in our network of colleagues. Thus, it seems pointless for us to attempt to single out particular individuals to thank. However, we acknowledge the assistance of Amanda Sharkey, doctoral student at Stanford, who helped us in updating data for several chapters. We also wish to recognize the contributions made to our work and the quality of our intellectual lives by the faculty and graduate students of the two university communities within which we have labored throughout the past years. Both Stanford University and the University of Michigan are blest with an abundance of insightful and productive organizational scholars who have come together in collegial communities to share ideas and insights. For many years, at Stanford, this community was coordinated by a Research Training Program on Organizations under the auspices of the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). During the 1990s, the Stanford Center for Organizations Research (SCOR) provided both support and leadership for this effort. At Michigan, the Interdisciplinary Committee on Organizational Studies (ICOS) has performed, and continues to carry on, a similar role. These organizations have helped to overcome some of the centrifugal forces at work to undermine the unity of our field. The senior (in age) author asserts the privilege of publicly thanking his coauthor. As an experienced collaborator across many research and writing projects, I knew that this augmentation of staff would not reduce the workload involved—indeed, if anything, it was increased. However, the costs of coordination were more than repaid in the fun and intellectual excitement of working with Jerry. More important, his contributions have, I believe, brought about a substantial increase in the quality of the product. Finally, I acknowledge once again the love and forbearance offered by my wife, Joy, who allows me to disappear into my office for hours at a time emerging only to refill my coffee cup. Our own collaboration passed its fiftieth anniversary milestone last year. The junior author also thanks his wise senior colleague for inviting him to join in this endeavor. Twenty years after taking Dick’s class at Stanford and poring over the first edition of Organizations, I felt like a window washer at the cathedral at Chartres in working on its successor volume. It’s been a fun adventure, and I hope the rose window is still intact. I want to thank the Ross School of Business at the University of Michigan for sabbatical support to write this. I also thank Christie Brown for all the other forms of support that made this work both possible and thrilling. www.irpublicpolicy.ir This page is intentionally left blank www.irpublicpolicy.ir CHAPTER 1 The Subject Is Organizations; The Verb is Organizing The recurrent problem in sociology is to conceive of corporate organization, and to study it, in ways that do not anthropomorphize it and do not reduce it to the behavior of individuals or of human aggregates. GUY E. SWANSON (1976) Organizations play a leading role in our modern world. HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion Their presence affects—some would insist that the proper term is infects—virtually every sector of contemporary social life. This book is about organizations—what they are and what they do, how they have changed, and how people have thought about them and studied them. One theme of the book is commonality. Organizations share certain features that differentiate them from other social forms. Students of this field believe that we can understand much about a specific organization from knowing about other organizations. Understanding how a factory functions can illuminate the workings of a hospital; and knowledge of a software company can help us understand the workings of a prison. A second theme is diversity. Although organizations may possess common, generic characteristics, they exhibit staggering variety—in size, in structure, and in operating processes. What kinds of organizations exist also varies over time. Just as organizations vary, so do those who study them. Students of organizations bring to their task varying interests, tools, and intellectual preconceptions. Some study individuals and groups in organizational contexts, while others examine organizations as basic units in themselves. Still others see the character of a nation’s organizations as providing insights into its overall social structure. And some scholars focus primarily on the structural attributes of organizations, whereas others emphasize the processes that reproduce and change them. 1 www.irpublicpolicy.ir 2 Organizations and Organizing In this chapter we introduce three influential perspectives as competing definitions of organizations. We have our first encounter with rational, natural, and open system conceptions. The subsequent three chapters are devoted to an intensive examination of these perspectives, which have shaped and continue to govern our understanding of organizations. THE IMPORTANCE OF ORGANIZATIONS Ubiquity Organizations are perhaps the dominant characteristic of modern societies. Organizations were present in older civilizations—Chinese, Greek, Indian—but only in modern industrialized societies do we find large numbers of organizations performing virtually every task a society needs in order to function. To the ancient organizational assignments of soldiering, public administration, and tax collection have been added such varied tasks as discovery (research organizations); child and adult socialization (schools and universities); resocialization (mental hospitals and prisons); production and distribution of goods (industrial firms, wholesale and retail establishments); provision of services (organizations dispensing assistance ranging from laundry and shoe repair to medical care and investment counseling); protection of personal and financial security (police departments, insurance firms, banking and trust companies); preservation of culture (museums, art galleries, universities, libraries); communication (radio and television studios, telephone companies, the U.S. Postal Service); and recreation (bowling alleys, pool halls, the National Park Service, professional football teams). HU BMAL 710 The Internet Has Brought Change to Organizations Discussion How many organizations are there, exactly? Until very recently, even highly “organized” societies such as the United States did not keep accurate records on organizations per se. We kept close watch of the numbers of individuals and the flow of dollars but gave less scrutiny to organizations. It was not until the 1980s that the U.S. Bureau of the Census launched a Standard Statistical Establishment List for all businesses, distinguishing between an establishment—an economic unit at a single location—and a firm or company— a business organization consisting of one or more domestic establishments under common ownership. In 2002, the U.S. Census Bureau reported the existence of 7.2 million establishments, comprising nearly 5.7 million firms. Impressive as these numbers are, they do not include public agencies or voluntary associations, which may be almost as numerous. Tax records suggest there are perhaps two million tax-exempt nonprofit organizations, of which upwards of 400,000 are sizable nonreligious organizations required to file with the IRS, including charities, foundations, political organizations, and other nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). The first attempt to create a representative national survey of all employment settings in the United States was carried out during the early 1990s by a team of organizational researchers (Kalleberg et al., 1996). To conduct www.irpublicpolicy.ir The Subject Is Organizations; The Verb is Organizing 3 this “national organizations study,” Kalleberg and associates developed an ingenious design to generate their sample. Because no complete census of organizations existed, they began by drawing a random sample of adults in the United States who were asked to identify their principal employers. As a second step, data were gathered by telephone, from informants in the organizations named as employers, regarding selected features of each of these employment settings, in particular, human resources practices. This procedure resulted in a random sample of employment organizations (establishments), weighted by size of organization (Kalleberg et al., 1996). Their results indicate that, as of 1991, 61 percent of respondents were employed in private sector establishments, 27 percent in the public sector, and 7 percent in the nonprofit sector (1996: 47). Even though orga … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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