Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper

Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper I need an explanation for this English question to help me study. please simply summarize article and dont use other sources and reference have to be in APA format main.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Internet Interventions 13 (2018) 82–104 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Internet Interventions journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/invent Using text message reminders in health care services: A narrative literature review T ? Frank J. Schwebela, , Mary E. Larimera,b a University of Washington, Department of Psychology, 119A Guthrie Hall Box 351525, Seattle, WA 98195-1525, United States of America University of Washington, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, 1100 NE 45th, Suite 300, O?ce 312, Box 354944, Seattle, WA 98105, United States of America b A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T Keywords: Reminders Text message SMS mHealth Health care Introduction: Despite the extensive use of mHealth behavior change interventions, questions remain about the use of technology-based reminders in delivering health care services. Text messaging, or short message service (SMS), is one reminder method that has been extensively researched. Most SMS-reminder research is distributed across a range of health care outcomes. The aim of this article is to systematically review the aggregate impact of these reminders on overall health care outcomes. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted and yielded 2316 articles. Studies were included if they used SMS reminders to support patient health care outcomes. Study methodology was aligned with the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. Results: Following screening, 162 articles met inclusion criteria. Of these studies, 93 investigated medical compliance reminders and 56 investigated appointment reminders. The review found that nearly all the SMSreminder studies helped improve patient medical compliance and appointment reminders. Additionally, researchers reported numerous bene?ts from using SMS reminders, including ease of use, relative inexpensiveness, and rapid and automated message delivery. Minimal risks were reported and most participants found the reminders to be acceptable. Discussion: Text messages appear to be an e?ective reminder mechanism to promote improved patient appointment and medical compliance. Reminders should continue to be evaluated and improved to determine the most e?ective timing and frequency of messages for improving outcomes. 1. Introduction In 2017, there were an estimated 7.7 billion mobile phones used, approximately one phone per person on the planet (International Telecommunication Union, 2017). Mobile phones, and more recently smartphones, have quickly changed the way people communicate and the way treatment providers think about service delivery (Atun and Sittampalam, 2006). Mobile phones are used in a variety of settings for various purposes, including in impoverished countries where mobile phones o?er a relatively inexpensive method of communication (BenZeev et al., 2015; Free et al., 2010); for treating individuals with psychological problems (Thomas et al., 2017); and for routine communication among individuals of all ages (Center for Substance Abuse Treatment, 2009; Global Attitudes Project, 2012). Due to the ubiquity of text messaging (short message service, SMS) (Gatwood et al., 2016), customizability (e.g., Downer et al., 2005), relative low cost (e.g., ? Rohman et al., 2015), rapid and automated delivery (e.g., Chung et al., 2015), and acceptability (Garofalo et al., 2016), SMS has become a focus of researchers in the health care ?eld and is recommended for use by leading organizations in various health care ?elds (e.g., American Medical Association, 2016; World Health Organization, 2012). Maine Hosting University Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper Nevertheless, SMS is a relatively nascent technology. Using it in research requires continuous researcher education on ever-changing SMS treatment guidelines and implementation methods, and frequent training of research sta? that help implement the rapidly evolving interventions. Research on SMS in health care services has been focused on two main areas: behavior change interventions and reminders. Mobile Health (mHealth) is de?ned as the use of mobile computing and communication technologies in health care and public health (Berrouiguet et al., 2016; Free et al., 2010). Behavior change interventions and reminders both fall under the umbrella of mHealth. Although mHealth reminder research has primarily focused on outcomes such as Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: [email protected] (F.J. Schwebel), [email protected] (M.E. Larimer). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2018.06.002 Received 9 January 2018; Received in revised form 19 June 2018; Accepted 19 June 2018 Available online 21 June 2018 2214-7829/ © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/BY-NC-ND/4.0/). Internet Interventions 13 (2018) 82–104 F.J. Schwebel, M.E. Larimer age, or diagnosis. Excluded from this review were: articles that assessed patients’ feelings toward SMS for non-clinical purposes (e.g., to create a list of SMS messages or assess expected acceptability of receiving messages), theoretical papers, statistical reviews, dissertations, editorials, letters, and study protocols. Both randomized control trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs (e.g., feasibility studies, before-and-after studies, crosssectional studies, cohort studies) were included. appointment attendance and medication adherence (Berrouiguet et al., 2016; Kannisto et al., 2014), SMS reminders can also play an important role in behavior change. As proposed in the transtheoretical model of change, reminders can serve as coaching or prompts to help facilitate behavior change (Prochaska et al., 1994). They are likened to stop signs at a busy intersection—reminding us how to respond next. Reminders can be used to enhance prospective memory, which is remembering to complete an activity in the future (Guynn et al., 1998; McDaniel et al., 2004). Before the cell phone era, Prochaska et al. (1994) highlighted the utility of alarm clocks, calendars, and timers as tools for delivering personal reminders. These tools are now easily and frequently accessed from one source: the mobile phone (Madden et al., 2013; Nelson and Nelson, 2010). Mobile phones can receive automated SMS reminders or noti?cations that remind the user to do (or not to do) a speci?c behavior. For example, if an individual is attempting to decrease their substance use, they can receive an automated SMS that reminds them of their goal at certain high-risk times; and if an individual is attempting to lose weight, they can receive a reminder not to snack between meals. Recently, some research has begun to investigate the impact of adjunct reminders (i.e., mHealth reminders as an adjunct to a behavior change intervention) (e.g., Aguilera et al., 2017). Due to the paucity of research on adjunct reminders at this time, they will not be included as part of the systematic review. However, this topic is covered in the Discussion section. The current review will address the following questions about the use of mHealth reminders in health care: What speci?c uses mHealth reminders been applied to in health care? How has the impact of mHealth reminders been assessed? What have we learned about designing reminders for health care? The review methodology has been aligned with the PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews (Moher et al., 2009). 3. Results 3.1. Study selection The steps illustrating the literature search and article review process are shown in Fig. 1. The initial search produced 2316 articles. An additional 62 articles were found by looking at the reference list of each article. After checking for duplicates as well as screening titles and abstracts for relevance to the topic, 196 potential full-text articles were obtained, with 162 articles ultimately meeting inclusion criteria after full-text review. 3.2. Maine Hosting University Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper Characteristics of studies reviewed Author, year, country, research setting, type of study, patient group, sample size, and message dose (i.e., timing of messages, frequency of messages, total number of messages) were extracted to describe the characteristics of the study. These results have been summarized in Table 1. The number of articles published on this topic has gradually increased over time, peaking in 2015 (35/162; 22%). Approximately one-third of the studies reviewed were conducted in the United States (60/162; 37%). Nearly two-thirds (111/162; 68%) of the studies reviewed were randomized control trials (RCTs), with a marked increase in RCTs after 2013. Non-RCTs were recorded as quasi-experimental. Additional descriptive characteristics of the studies are presented in more detail in Table 1. 2. Method 2.1. Objective The objective of this study is to provide a systematic narrative review of the application of SMS reminders in health care services. All studies were categorized using a two-step process. First, all the titles and abstracts were reviewed for relevance to the topic and to see if they met inclusion criteria. Second, the studies were read and categorized by methodology, treatment goal, and target health condition. 3.3. Purposes of text message reminders in health care treatment The reported purpose of the study, description of the intervention, and dose of the intervention were extracted to describe the most commonly studied application of mHealth reminders in health care. SMS reminders were primarily used to remind patients to comply with a medical practice (e.g., taking medication on time, following non-medical treatment guidelines, and completing vaccinations) (93/162; 57%) or attend a clinical appointment (56/162; 35%). Reminders for appointment attendance were generally used as a method to increase clinical appointment attendance and the rate of advance cancellations (as opposed to not showing up). Various studies assessed the impact of SMS reminders on decreasing the rate of missed appointments across a variety of settings, including ?rst-time psychotherapy appointments (Clough and Casey, 2014), recurring medical appointments (Branson et al., 2013; Tolonen et al., 2014), and completing vaccinations (Stockwell et al., 2014). In a majority of studies (140/162; 86%), SMS reminders were the only intervention used. The remaining studies used a secondary or complimentary component in conjunction with the SMS reminder. These include educational or informational messages about the treatment target (e.g., Stockwell et al., 2014), links to additional educational information (e.g., Kodama et al., 2016), phone call reminders and/or mailed reminders (e.g., Baker et al., 2015), and motivational or supportive messages (e.g., Celik et al., 2015). 2.2. Search strategy An extensive literature search was conducted in April 2018 using the PsychINFO, CINAHL, PubMed, and Web of Science electronic databases. The search terms used were selected to broadly examine the impact of text message reminders on health care outcomes (see Fig. 1). Titles, abstracts, and reference lists of the selected studies were also reviewed to check for other potentially relevant studies. 2.3. Selection criteria The review was limited to peer-reviewed articles published in English between 2003 and 2018, with an abstract available online. The starting date of the search was selected for three reasons: (1) the majority of mHealth research has occurred after 2003, (2) the rate of text messaging and cell phone ownership has greatly increased since 2003 (International Telecommunication Union, 2017; Kannisto et al., 2014), and (3) 2003 is a typical beginning date for mHealth literature reviews (Berrouiguet et al., 2016; Kannisto et al., 2014). The review was limited to studies of SMS reminders used to support patient health care. While the majority of studies sent SMS directly to the patients, some health care needs necessitate the reminders be sent to guardians or caretakers rather than the patient. There was no limitation on patient population, 3.4. Message dosage and timing Across the studies, it was most common that the dose (number) and timing of messages were individually customized based on the patients’ 83 Internet Interventions 13 (2018) 82–104 Identification Keywords F.J. Schwebel, M.E. Larimer all(reminder*) AND all(“cellular phone*” OR “cell phone*” OR “mobile phone*” OR “sms*” OR “short text message*” OR “text message*” OR “short message service*”) Studies identified by database search (n=2,316) Other sources (n=62) Records screened (n=1,137) Full-texts excluded after screening (n=944) Eligibility Full-texts reviewed for eligibility (n=193) Full-texts excluded for not meeting review criteria eligibility (n=31) Included Screening Records after duplicated removed (n=1,137) Studies included in review (n=162) Fig. 1. PRISMA ?owchart of primary study selection. 3.5.Maine Hosting University Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper Appointment reminders medication or treatment schedule, or scheduled appointments. Other studies used researcher-selected dosing (Belton et al., 2013; Odeny et al., 2014). Many studies sent daily or weekly messages, however, not all studies reported details about message timing. Some studies set message dosage based solely on patient preference (e.g., Spohr et al., 2015), and others reported the total amount of reminders sent rather than when they were sent (e.g., Celik et al., 2015). Speci?c timing of reminders varied across studies. Detailed timing (e.g., a speci?c time or time frame) was reported in 75 of 162 (46%) of the studies reviewed. Medication reminders typically were sent near the scheduled medication time (e.g., Mao et al., 2008). Speci?c appointment reminder time was reported in 86% (49/57) of studies. These reminders occurred between two weeks (Kunigiri et al., 2014) and the morning of (Prasad and Anand, 2012) a scheduled appointment. Additionally, studies reminding individuals to complete a medical followup exam sent a reminder message up to six months after initial contact (Van Ryswyk et al., 2015). Of the studies reviewed, 56 of 162 (35%) used SMS appointment reminders. Some of these studies targeted increased appointment attendance (Thomas et al., 2017), while others targeted decreased missed appointments (Altuwaijri et al., 2012) or increased cancellations ahead of time (rather than not showing up) (Farmer et al., 2014). The study of appointment reminders has occurred in a variety of settings, including primary care (Steiner et al., 2016), dental care (Perry, 2011), and psychotherapy clinics (Delgadillo et al., 2015). Appointment attendance reminders were found to either increase the rate of appointment attendance, increase the rate of appointments cancelled ahead of time, or decrease the rate of missed appointments in 48 of the 56 studies (86%) (Altuwaijri et al., 2012; Arora et al., 2015; Berenson et al., 2016; Bourne et al., 2011; Brannan et al., 2011; Branson et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2008; da Costa et al., 2010; Deng et al., 2015; Downer et al., 2005; Fairhurst and Sheikh, 2008; Farmer et al., 2014; Foley and O’Neill, 2009; Geraghty et al., 2008; Hofstetter et al., 2015a, 2015b; 84 Internet Interventions 13 (2018) 82–104 F.J. Schwebel, M.E. Larimer Table 1 Basic study information with review of messaging details and outcomes. Study Sample size Study design Intervention description Goal of text message Rate of messaging Timing of message Intervention outcome Abroms et al. (2014) 503 RCT Smoking cessation Individually customized for six months; maximum of ?ve per day Individually customized Intervention produced statistically signi?cant improvement in smoking abstinence Akhu-Zaheya and Shiyab (2017) 160 RCT Interactive, personalized, automated text messages designed to help support smoking cessation among adults in the United States Automated text message reminders designed to increase medication adherence for adult patients with cardiovascular disease in Jordan Medication adherence Three reminders per day (one each of medication reminder, diet reminder, smoking cessation reminder) for three months Individually customized Altuwaijri et al. (2012) Total not reported Quasiexperimental Automated text message reminder designed to increase appointment attendance among outpatient adults in Saudi Arabia Appointment reminder Two messages per scheduled appointment Delivered ?ve days and one day before scheduled appointment Anthony et al. (2015) 123 RCT Medical treatment adherence Two messages per day for up to 15 days Morning and evening Armstrong et al. (2009) 70 RCT Treatment adherence One message per day for six weeks Between 6:30 and 7:00 AM Arora et al. (2012) 23 Quasiexperimental Medication adherence Three messages per day for three weeks At 9:00 AM, 12:00 PM, and 6:00 PM Arora et al. (2015) 324 RCT Appointment reminder Three messages per scheduled appointment 7, 3, and 1 day before schedule appointment Baker et al. (2015) 185 Quasiexperimental Screening reminder One message sent two days after testing kit was mailed, and one message after two weeks if kit was not returned Schedule coincided with send date of mailed testing kit Balato et al. (2013) 40 RCT Medication reminder and educational messages 1 message per day for 12 weeks (3 reminders and 4 educational per week) Not reported Intervention produced statistically signi?cant improvement in disease severity, quality of life, and adherence to therapy Bangure et al. (2015) 304 RCT Vaccine reminder Three messages 6, 10, and 14 weeks after child birth Bellucci et al. (2017) 862,745a. Maine Hosting University Text Message Reminders in Health Care Services Paper Quasiexperimental Appointment reminder One reminder message per scheduled appointment One day before scheduled appointment Intervention produced statistically signi?cant improvement in vaccination completion rate No signi?cant di?erence in failure to attend rate Belton et al. (2013) 65 RCT Usage reminder One message per day for 4 weeks Before 8:00 AM on weekdays and before 9:30 AM on weekends Berenson et al. (2016) 877 Quasiexperimental Automated, two-way messaging designed to increase frequency of blood pressure measurement among outpatients at a clinic in the United States Automated text message reminder designed to increase sunscreen application among young adults in the United States Automatic text message reminders in ?ve categories (1. Educational and motivational 2. Medication reminders 3. Healthy living challenges 4. Trivia 5. Phone links) designed for adults taking medication for diabetes management in the United States Automated text messages designed to increase attendance at scheduled post-ED discharge outpatient visits among patients in the United States Multi-component reminders to complete colorectal cancer screening including automated text messages, mailed letters, and phone calls among a high cancer risk population in the United States Automated text message reminders and educational messages designed to improve disease severity and quality of life measures among adult outpatients (ages 18–65) treated for psoriasis at an outpatient dermatology clinic in Italy Automated health information and reminder text messages designed to increase immunization rates of newborn children in Zimbabwe Personalized text message reminders designed to decrease failure to attend rate at an outpatient dental clinic at a dental hospital in Australia Automated text message reminder designed to increase usage rate of accelerometer among adolescents in rural Ireland Automated text message reminders designed to increase Intervention produced statistically signi?cant improvement in medication and healthy diet adherence. No signi?cant di?erence on intention to quit smoking. Intervention produced statistically signi?cant increase in appointment attendance rate Intervention produced statistically signi?cant improvement in blood pressure measurement rate Intervention produced statistically signi?cant increase in sunscreen application adherence Intervention … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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