Respond with a paragraph

Respond with a paragraph Respond with a paragraph What aspects of the topic readings do you find the most interesting? What is your view of the analysis of disease and healing in the readings? Explain. new_microsoft_office_word_document.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS 1-Caring & the Christian Story… 2-Revolution in the Nursing Paradigm… 3-A Christian Worldview for Nursing. CARING & THE CHRISTIAN STORY Purpose: To examine the relationship between faith and nursingObjectives: After reading this chapter and completing the exercises, youshould be able to:1.Describe the historical relationship between Christian faith and nursing2.De?ne Christian nursing3.Identify your motivation for being a nurse4.Describe the relationship between personal faith and nursing careKeywords: worldview, story, narrative, historyChristine, an emergency-department staff nurse in an innercity hospital, sawtwo little boys running out of the men’s room shouting, “Someone’s lying on the?oor in there!” Rushing in to investigate, she found a leather-coated man ofabout thirty lying face down on the ?oor, cyanotic. She felt a pulse but nobreath. Christine knew he was most likely an overdosed intravenous drug userand HIV-positive, but when help seemed long in coming, she began mouth-to-mouth resuscitation in spite of her fears. Afterward her colleagues said shehad been irresponsible. But all Christine could think about was, if Jesus lived to-day, would he sit among the HIV-positive and love them?1Rosene, a nurse in an extended-care facility, felt repulsed at ?rst by the“concentrated assemblage of helpless humanity” who surrounded her. Butthen she prayerfully determined that she would get to know her patients andsee in each one the image of God. She gradually began to enjoy the peoplein her care.21Christine Ann Grem, “Cameo of Caring: George,” Journal of Christian Nursing, summer 1995,p. 9.2Rosene M. Dunkle, “Beyond Appearances: Caring in the Land of the Living Dead,” Journal ofChristian Nursing, summer 1995, pp. 4-6. 14CALLED TO CAREMarsha, caring for an obscenity-shouting, combative drug abuser, looked into his eyes and saw a person whom God loved.3Mother Teresa saw Jesus in the sick and dying of Calcutta and took them into comfort and care for them.Joy, an American nurse living in Turkey, saw starving babies in an orphanageand organized an ongoing project to provide them with nourishing formula.4What common thread weaves throughout these stories? Each of the nursesresponded to her patients from a theological commitment. She saw those inher care as valuable human beings who re?ected the image of God. She sawhope in the midst of hopeless situations. She viewed health as a holistic con-cept that radiates from a vital relationship with God and includes physical integrity, emotional stability and participation in the life of the community. Shewas motivated by the desire to share the love of God, which she had person-ally experienced, and she saw nursing as compassionate service to God andher neighbors.How does what we believe affect the health care we provide? Is there a re-lationship between the way a society understands the nature of God and thetype of health care that develops in that society? We will argue that there is adirect relationship and that if the faith perspective changes, health care practiceswill change. In fact, we are living in the midst of such changes in North Americaright now.Nursing developed out of a Christian worldview. It is important to see thatthe changes we are experiencing stem from a growing paradigm shift in our cul-ture. To fully appreciate this shift, we must ?rst look at who we are and hownursing developed in the ?rst place.How Did We Get Here?Optimism ran high in mid-nineteenth-century England. With the rise of empiri-cism, in which all knowledge is derived from experience, science blossomedand gave rise to high hopes for conquering drudgery and disease. FlorenceNightingale went to the Crimea, and by applying good principles of sanitationshe made a major difference in the death rate of British soldiers (from 42 percentto 2 percent). But the spectacular success of science and high hopes of the phi-losophers had an unsettling effect on the common people—and that troubledNightingale. She wrote to her friend John Stuart Mill, “Many years ago, I had a3Marsha Niven, “Somebody’s Son: A Patient Only a Mother Could Love,” Journal of ChristianNursing, spring 1995, pp. 28-30.4Joy Sterling, “The American Milk Mama,” Journal of Christian Nursing, winter 1996, pp. 28-3 Caring & the Christian Story15large and very curious acquaintance among the artisans of the North of Englandand of London. I learned that they were without any religion whatever— thoughdiligently seeking after one, principally in Comte and his school. Any return towhat is called Christianity appeared impossible.”5 The people were turning toempiricism and becoming atheists.At the same time, corruption and controversy ?lled the Church of England.While the church could be rigid in its outward requirements, it tended to be elit-ist and hypocritical in practice. In the light of the positivism of science and phi-losophy and the negativism of the church, many of the common people becamedisillusioned and simply dropped out.Florence Nightingale seemed most concerned about the ethical implicationsof religious belief. Respond with a paragraph In her book Suggestions for Thought she attempted to de-velop an alternative concept of God that would appeal to the disenchanted “ar-tisans” (merchants and craftsmen) so they would have a basis for morality. Hertheology was far from orthodox—she dismissed the incarnation, the Trinity andthe atonement as “abortions of a comprehension of God’s plan.”6 However, sheconsidered herself a Christian and her work a “call from God.”7The Enlightenment brought major changes in science, beginning with RenéDescartes (1596-1650) and his elevation of human reason. The move towardmodern science began with British physicist Isaac Newton’s Mathematical Prin-ciples of Natural Philosophy (1687), in which he postulated that mathematicalphysics could explain the whole of the physical universe (the “mechanicalworld”). John Locke (1632-1704) and George Berkeley (1685-1753) continuedthis move to empiricism, retaining a somewhat Christian ?avor that resulted intheological deism.The twentieth century brought another set of philosophical and theologicalin?uences into nursing. New philosophers built on the foundations laid by empiricism, then began tearing them down. The results were nihilism, existential-ism and eventually postmodernism. This philosophical ferment laid the founda-tion for the tension we face in nursing today.Do the philosophical and theological underpinnings of nursing really matter?Absolutely! For just as Florence Nightingale observed that the common peoplein her day were becoming atheists and thereby losing their basis for ethical be-havior, nurses today are affected by the philosophies of our time. The spirit of5Florence Nightingale, quoted in Michael D. Calabria and Janet A. Macrae, Suggestions forThought by Florence Nightingale (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1994), p. ix.6Ibid., p. 13.7JoAnn G. Widerquist, “Florence Nightingale’s Calling,” Second Opinion, January 1992, pp.108-21. 16CALLED TO CAREservice and compassion that once motivated nurses has evolved into a profes-sionalism that demands power, status and appropriate compensation.8 We seethe effects in a health care system controlled by the bottom line.What Is Nursing?In recent history, nursing has been closely associated with medicine and oftenconfused with the medical profession; however, nursing and medicine are twodistinct professions with very different histories. Western medicine developedout of a Greek, and later Cartesian, body-mind dualism that viewed the body asobject.9 The role of the nurse, however, grew out of a Christian understandingof the human person as created in the image of God and viewed the body as aliving unity and the “temple of the Holy Spirit” (1 Cor 3:16).Medicine has traditionally focused on the scienti?c dimension of the humanbody, relegating the spiritual and psychosocial dimensions to religion and psychology. The uniqueness of nursing is its emphasis on caring for the whole per-son as embodied. It is de?ned as both an art and a science. Anne Bishop andJohn Scudder insist that nursing is neither an art nor a science but a practice thatdraws on both the arts and sciences.10 Nursing, even in our most scienti?callyoriented periods, has always been concerned with the whole person. Nurse the-orist Patricia Benner asserts, Nurses deal with not only normality and pathophysiology but also withthe lived social and skilled body in promoting health, growth, and devel-opment and in caring for the sick and dying.11In other words, nurses work from an understanding of the self as embodied andare concerned with how we relate to one another and function in the worldthrough our bodies.The classic de?nition of nursing, developed by theorist Virginia Hendersonand adopted by the International Council of Nurses, states,The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well,8Suzanne Gordon and Sioban Nelson, “An End to Angels: Moving Away from the Virtue ScriptToward a Knowledge-Based Identity for Nurses,” American Journal of Nursing 105, no. 5(2005): 62-69.9Bonnie Bullough and Vern L. Bullough, “Our Roots: What We Should Know About Nursing’sChristian Pioneers,” Journal of Christian Nursing, winter 1987, p. 12.10Anne H. Bishop and John R. Scudder, “Nursing as a Practice Rather Than an Art or Science,”Nursing Outlook, March-April 1997, pp. 82-85.11Patricia Benner, ed., Interpretive Phenomenology: Embodiment, Caring, and Ethics in Healthand Illness (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 1994), p. xvii. Caring & the Christian Story17in the performance of those activities contributing to health or his recov-ery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had thenecessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as tohelp him gain independence as rapidly as possible.12Henderson further elaborates by listing fourteen activities that a nurse assistspatients to perform.13 Eight of these activities pertain directly to bodily functions.The remaining six relate to safety and ?nding meaning and purpose in life—enabling the embodied person to function in relation to other people and theenvironment in a healthy way.More recent de?nitions, while not completely denying the need for physicalcare, re?ect a growing paradigm shift by focusing more on the psychosocial as-pects of care and less on the physical. Respond with a paragraph For example, Martha Rogers states, “Professional practice in nursing seeks to promote symphonic interaction betweenman and environment, to strengthen the coherence and integrity of the human?eld and to direct and redirect patterning of the human and environmental?elds for the realization of maximum health potential.”14Jean Watson asserts, “At its most basic level nursing is a human, caring, rela-tional profession. . . . Caring in nursing is a ‘human mode of being’; caring is abasic way of ‘being-inthe-world’ and creates both self and world.”15Rosemarie Rizzo Parse further expands this approach to nursing: “The nursecenters with the universe, prepares, and approaches the other, attending in-tensely to the meaning of the moment being lived by the person or family.”16With the present tumultuous change in the health care system, nursing strug-gles to rede?ne itself. While theorists move toward the psychosocial and ethe-real, practitioners are positioning themselves for professional survival. Both tee-ter on a precipice, in peril of losing the true essence of nursing entirely. Theformer are looking more like shamans and the latter like physician-technicians.Neither embraces the full concept of nurse that grew out of the Christian gospel.We will de?ne Christian nursing as a ministry of compassionate care for thewhole person, in response to God’s grace toward a sinful world, which aims to12Virginia A. Henderson, The Nature of Nursing: Re?ections After 25 Years (New York: NationalLeague for Nursing Press, 1991), p. 21.13Ibid., pp. 22-23.14Martha E. Rogers, An Introduction to the Theoretical Basis of Nursing (Philadelphia: F. A.Davis, 1970), p. 122.15Jean Watson, “Nursing’s Caring-Healing Paradigm as Exemplar for Alternative Medicine?” Al-ternative Therapies, July 1995, p. 67.16Rosemarie Rizzo Parse, Illuminations: The Human Becoming Theory in Practice and Research(New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1995), p. 82. 18CALLED TO CAREfoster optimum health (shalom) and bring comfort in suffering and death foranyone in need.A Brief History of NursingAlthough some forms of health care were provided in ancient cultures,17 nursehistorian Patricia Donahue states, “The history of nursing ?rst becomes contin- uous with the beginning of Christianity.”18 Nurse historians Dolan, Fitzpatrickand Herrmann state,The teachings and example of Jesus Christ had a profound in?uence onthe emergence of gifted nurse leadership as well as on the expansion ofthe role of nurses. Christ stressed the need to love God and one’s neigh-bor. The ?rst organized group of nurses was established as a direct re-sponse to His example and challenge.19The impetus for this movement came when the ?rstcentury Christians beganto teach that all believers were ministers who were to care for the poor, the sickand the disenfranchised (e.g., Mt 25:31-46; Heb 13:1-3; Jas 1:27). As the churchesgrew, they appointed deacons to care for the needy within the church.20 Even-tually, more men and women were added to the roll of deacons, and their des-ignated responsibilities grew to include caring for the sick.21 Phoebe, the deaconmentioned in Romans 16:1-2, is often considered the ?rst visiting nurse.22By the third century, organized groups of deaconesses were caring for thesick, insane and lepers in the community.23 In the fourth century the church be-gan establishing hospitals. Most of these hospitals did not have a physician; theywere staffed by nurses. There were several periods when the early church didnot condone the practice of medicine, which they viewed as a pagan art.24 Nursehistorians Lavinia Dock and Isabel Stewart state,17These health care providers included midwives, shamans and wise women, but none of theseroles meet the criteria for professional nursing as de?ned in this chapter.18Patricia Donahue, Nursing: The Finest Art—An Illustrated History (St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby,1985), p. 93.19Josephine Dolan, M. Louise Fitzpatrick and Eleanor Krohn Herrmann, Nursing in Society: AHistorical Perspective, 15th ed. (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 1983), p. 43.20James Monroe Barnett, The Diaconate: A Full and Equal Order (Valley Forge, Penn.: TrinityPress, 1995), pp. 28-42.21David Zersen, “Parish Nursing: 20th-Century Fad?” Journal of Christian Nursing, spring 1994,pp. 19-21, 45.22Dolan et al., Nursing in Society, p. 45.23Mary Haazig, “Historical Presence of the Nurse in the Church,” in Oneness in Purpose—Diversity in Practice (Park Ridge, Ill.: National Parish Nurse Resource Center, 1989), p. 3.24Bullough and Bullough, “Our Roots,” pp. 11-12. Caring & the Christian Story19The age-old custom of hospitality . . . was practiced with religious fervorby the early Christians. . . . Their houses were opened wide to every af?icted applicant and, not satis?ed with receiving needy ones, the deacons,men and women alike, went out to search and bring them in.25Nursing in the Middle Ages centered in monasteries. Women who wanted toserve God and care for the sick joined together in monastic orders. In the lateMiddle Ages, the Knights Hospitallers of St. John, a military nursing order, builta hospital in Jerusalem, as well as others along the route of the Crusades. Whilethe original intent was to care for pilgrims to Jerusalem, they also cared for Mus-lims, Jews and Christian crusaders.26The Renaissance through the eighteenth century brought a dark period in thehistory of nursing. As Catholic religious orders were disbanded or suppressedin Protestant countries, hospitals deteriorated. Respond with a paragraph Nursing ceased to be a publicrole; it moved out of the church and into the home. However, some religiousorders in southern Europe continued providing nursing care, including those es-tablished by St. Francis of Sales (1567-1622) and St. Vincent de Paul (15811660).27However, care deteriorated even among the religious orders as nuns were notallowed to touch any part of the human body except the head and extremitiesand were often forced to work twenty-four-hour days.28By the nineteenth century, except for a few nursing orders of nuns, nursing wasdisorganized and corrupt. Dolan, Fitzpatrick and Herrmann describe hospitals inPhiladelphia in 1884:Hospital patients were penniless folk, usually homeless and friendless. In mostof the city hospitals the nursing was done by inmates usually over 50 yearsold, many being 70 or 80. . . . There was practically no night nursing, exceptfor the “night watchers” provided for women in childbirth and the dying.29Charles Dickens portrayed nineteenth-century nursing in the character of SaireyGamp in his novel Martin Chuzzlewit.30 A self-seeking alcoholic, Gamp has be-come the symbol of nursing at its worst. Dickens focused public attention on25Lavinia L. Dock and Isabel Maitland Stewart, A Short History of Nursing, From the EarliestTimes to the Present Day (New York: Putnam, 1931), p. 51.26Verna Benner Carson, Spiritual Dimensions of Nursing Practice (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders,1989), p. 57.27Ibid., pp. 59-60.28Dock and Stewart, A Short History of Nursing, p. 99.29Dolan et al., Nursing in Society, p. 137.30Charles Dickens, Martin Chuzzlewit (New York: Books, Inc., 1868). Sairey Gamp is intro-duced in chapter 19 and continues as a key ?gure for the remainder of the book. 20CALLED TO CAREthe nursing care being provided by alcoholics, prostitutes and women whowere uncaring and immoral.Reform again came through the work of the Christian church. Elizabeth Setonestablished the Widow’s Society, a Protestant mission in New York, to care forpoor women in their homes—to nurse and comfort them. She later joined theCatholic church and eventually established the Sisters of Charity at Emmitsburg,Maryland. Mother Mary Catherine McAuley founded the Sisters of Mercy, whoministered to the poor and sick in Dublin, Ireland, and eventually spread toother countries, including the United States. Elizabeth Fry, an American Quakerin London, began a campaign of prison reform that eventually developed intothe Society of Protestant Sisters of Charity, whose primary objective was to sup-ply nurses for the sick of all classes in their homes.31Fry had a strong in?uence on a German Lutheran pastor, Theodor Fliedner,and his wife, Frederika. Seeing the pressing needs of the poor and the sick intheir community, the Fliedners decided that the church must care for these peo-ple. They turned a little garden house into a home for outcast girls and eventu-ally organized a community of deaconesses to visit and nurse the sick in theirhomes. That experiment quickly grew into the Kaiserswerth Institute for theTraining of Deaconesses, with a huge complex of buildings, including a hospi-tal, and educational programs for nurses and teachers.32About the same time, a young woman in England, Florence Nightingale, feltGod calling her to future service. She responded to that call by becoming anurse, studying ?rst at the Kaiserswerth Institute, then at Catholic hospitals inParis. Nightingale went on to single-handedly reform nursing, bringing it backto its Christian roots and setting high educational and practice standards.33 How-ever, her theological in?uence also set the stage for an ongoing struggle be-tween those of her followers who wanted to be viewed as “professional” (sec-ular) and those who understood nursing as a calling from God—a con?ictNightingale herself did not envision.About this same period, church …Respond with a paragraph Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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