Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion

Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion For this discussion, you will be defining research in nursing and evidence-based practice in nursing. Along with your definitions, provide one example of each. Provide a sample research question and a sample clinical question. You may use questions you found in reviewing the literature as a guide, but may not use them as your own example. You must provide an original example of a research question and clinical question. Examples from the readings cannot be used as the example for clinical/research questions. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Your initial post must be posted before you can view and respond to colleagues, must contain minimum of two (2) Peer reviewed references less than five years old , in addition to examples from your personal experiences to augment the topic. The goal is to make your post interesting and engaging so others will want to read/respond to it. Synthesize and summarize from your resources in order to avoid the use of direct quotes, which can often be dry and boring. No direct quotes are allowed in the discussion board posts. Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Please use attached files in addition to another peer reviewed journal dated 2015 or above. nrse_4550_m1_im_finding_and_evaluating_sources.pdf nrse_4550_m1_im_evidence_based_practise.pdf Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion. TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 31b 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 348 FINDING AND EVALUATING SOURCES CHAPTER 31 Finding and Evaluating Sources 31a What is a source? A source is any form of information that provides ideas, examples, information, or evidence. For a research paper, sources can be books, articles, Web pages, Internet files, CD-ROMs, videos, lectures, and other types of communication. Sources can also be interviews, surveys, or direct observations, such as when you attend a performance or visit a museum. Sources differ greatly in terms of how accurate and reliable they are. To be able to use sources responsibly for your research, you need to judge each source’s trustworthiness and quality. This chapter explains how to locate and then evaluate sources. A source is either primary or secondary. A primary source is original work such as firsthand reports of experiments, observations, or other research projects; field research you carry out yourself; and documents like letters, diaries, novels, poems, short stories, autobiographies, and journals. When you use a primary source, no one comes between you and the material. A secondary source reports, describes, comments on, or analyzes someone else’s work. This information comes to you secondhand. That is, someone other than the primary source relays the information, adding a layer between you and the original material. This does not mean secondary sources are inferior to primary sources. Indeed, scholars and other experts are excellent secondary sources. However, you need to evaluate secondary sources carefully to make sure that what’s being relayed to you isn’t distorted or biased in the process. Turn to 31j for detailed guidelines for evaluating sources. 31b What is a search strategy? 348 A search strategy is an organized procedure for locating and assembling information for your research. You find this information in two places: on the Internet and in the library. Developing a strategy for your search is crucial. An effective, successful search strategy results from your working systematically and thoroughly to find material that helps to answer your RESEARCH QUESTION. A good search strategy helps you structure your research work so that you don’t mistake activity for productivity. No two research processes are exactly alike. Be guided by your personal needs as you adapt the search strategies I explain. Most of all, know that no search strategy is as tidy as I describe here. Following are three frequently used designs. The expert method is useful when you know your specific topic. Begin by reading articles or books by an expert in the field. Of course, this means TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 349 How do I find sources? 31c that you have to know who the experts are, and sometimes that’s difficult. Talk with people who are generally knowledgeable about your topic, learn what you can from them, and ask them to refer you to work by experts on the topic. (For example, if you’re interested in researching artificial intelligence, a computer science instructor may be able to tell you who are the leading experts on that topic.) Alternatively or in addition, INTERVIEW an expert, either in person, on the phone, or through e-mail. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion. Turn to 31i for detailed advice about conducting effective interviews. The chaining method is useful when you know your general topic and need to narrow it to a more specific, manageable topic. Start with reference books and bibliographies from current articles or Web sites. These references will lead you to additional sources. Keep up the chain, watching closely for sources that are mentioned frequently. The frequency is usually evidence that the sources are probably expert and well respected. As you work, your general topic usually begins to group and divide itself into subtopics, one of which might serve as the topic of your research paper. If such division and grouping doesn’t emerge for you, take a break of a few hours so that you can reconsider the material with fresh eyes. The layering method is useful when you need to find your own topic. You layer information by first consulting general sources and then finding ones that are more specific. You try to relate the information you gather to other scholarly sources in the same subject area. Chandra Johnson, the student whose research paper appears in 33e, started with the layering method and soon combined it with chaining. You, too, may find yourself switching or combining methods. This is perfectly acceptable. “Flexibility with focus” is the guiding principle for experienced researchers. Complete your search as soon as possible after you get the assignment. Discovering early in the process what sources are available allows you time to find those that are harder to locate; to use interlibrary loan if an item isn’t available in your library or online; to wait for someone to return checked-out books you need; or to schedule interviews, arrange visits, or conduct surveys. 31c How do I find sources? You want to start your search strategy by consulting library and online sources on your topic. To do this, you need to figure out the keywords (31c.4) and subject categories that can lead you to useful material. The library building is where generations of college students have traditionally gone to find sources. Today, the Internet, which includes the World Wide Web and additional files, greatly expands the ways you can access information. At the library, you find books, periodicals, and lists of sources in catalogs, indexes, and databases. While many college libraries offer home pages to give you remote access to their holdings via Internet connections, the library building itself continues to be a vital place for all research. One key 349 TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 31c 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 350 FINDING AND EVALUATING SOURCES advantage of going to the library is your chance to consult with librarians. They trained for their profession by learning how to advise students and other researchers about using library resources to greatest advantage. Never hesitate to ask questions about how to proceed or where to find a resource. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing DiscussionCatalogs list sources—usually books—that the library owns (see 31d). Indexes list articles in periodicals; each index covers a specific topic area (see 31e). Catalogs and indexes exist mainly in electronic format; less commonly, some catalogs and indexes are still in print format. Databases always exist electronically (see 31c.1). They consist of one or more indexes and contain extensive lists of articles, reports, and books. You can access and search electronic catalogs, indexes, and databases from computers in the library or by connecting to the library online. You can also subscribe to databases, but this can be expensive. At most colleges, your tuition pays for access to online library resources, so take advantage of them. If you’re accessing a database by connecting to the library online, you need to use a browser, a software program that gives you access to the Web and the search engines located there. Netscape Navigator™ and Microsoft Internet Explorer™ are the two most frequently used browsers. 31c.1 Using databases Each entry in a database contains bibliographic information, including a title, author, date of publication, and publisher (in the case of books or reports) or periodical (in the case of articles). The entry might also provide an abstract, or summary, of the material. Once you locate an entry that seems promising, you might need to read a print copy of the source. Some databases provide the full texts of the articles they cite. Other databases allow you to purchase full copies of the sources you find. If you’re on a tight budget, try to purchase only what looks truly useful. You can request materials that are not in your library through interlibrary loan (31g). Sources that you identify through scholarly databases are almost always more reliable and appropriate than sources you find through simply browsing the World Wide Web. Some scholarly research is available from World Wide Web sites, while others reside at Internet sites not necessarily part of the Web. The reliability of scholarly databases stems from their origins: Only experts and professionals who recognize works of merit compile them. The best way to access a database at your library is to go to your college library’s Web site, whether you’re online in the library, at home, or in a dormitory. Each home page of a library shows the resources available through that Web site. More might be available at the library building itself. Sections 31d and 31e explain how to use the catalog to find books and periodicals (newspapers, magazines, and journals). Most college libraries Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion. subscribe to one or more database services, such as EBSCO, FirstSearch, and IBIS. Because the college pays for these services, you don’t have to, but you’ll need an ID or password to use them. Commonly, your student number 350 TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 351 How do I find sources? 31c serves as your ID, but check with a librarian to see what’s required at your college. E X E R C I S E 3 1 – 1 Working either individually or as part of a group, access your library’s Web site. You may do this either by going to the library itself or by connecting to the library online. List all of the types of information available. In particular, list the indexes and databases you can search and the subject areas each one covers. Note whether any of the databases have full-text versions of articles. Note if the library’s Web site has any online “help” or “search suggestions.” 31c.2 Searching the World Wide Web The World Wide Web is organized around pages (called Web pages) that are linked together electronically. A group of pages that an individual or organization has created and linked together is called a Web site. The main page in a Web site (called the home page) acts as a table of contents. Although the Web contains billions of pages, including a great many books and periodical articles, only a fraction of these sources are available on the Web without subscribing or paying a fee. Therefore, searching library databases remains your most important method of finding many scholarly sources. However, the principles for searching the World Wide Web are much like those for searching databases (31c.1). You start with a broad subject and narrow it to arrive at a suitable topic for an academic research paper. Once you use a browser to get on the Web, you can search for sites by using a SEARCH ENGINE (31c.3) or by typing an address (called a URL, for Universal Resource Locator) into the search box. A L E R T: When you read, write, or type a URL, the Modern Language Association (MLA) tells you to surround it with angle brackets. For example, is the URL for our publisher’s Web site about our books, including this handbook. The brackets separate a URL from sentence punctuation so that no one mistakes it as part of the URL. However, never use angle brackets when you type a URL in the locator box at the top of your computer screen. 31c.3 Using search engines Search engines are programs designed to hunt the World Wide Web and Internet files for sources on specific topics that you identify by using keywords (31c.4). When you use a search engine, you generally can access materials in one of two ways: through keyword searches (31c.4) and through subject directories (31c.5). E X E R C I S E 3 1 – 2 Use at least three different search engines to search online for the same topic. List the different results for each search engine, and also note the strengths and weaknesses of each. (Pay attention to usefulness, 351 TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 31c 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 352 FINDING AND EVALUATING SOURCES ease of use, and so on.) Write a brief report on your findings. You may wish to try this exercise with a second topic before drawing your conclusions. 31c.4 Using keywords When searching for sources online or in library databases, keywords, also called descriptors or identifiers, are Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion. your lifeline to success. Keywords are the main words in a source’s title or the words that the author or editor has identified as central to that source. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Without keywords, you’d have no way to access sources listed in online or electronic database book catalogs and periodical indexes. Similarly, to find information on the World Wide Web or on the Internet, keywords are essential. Because Web search engines, such as Yahoo, often look for any occurrence of a word in the title or body of a page, you need to take particular care with keyword searches on the Web. When you use keywords to search for Web sources, chances are you’ll come up with a large or even overwhelming number of sources. Much of what turns up won’t be relevant to your topic. As a result, you need to figure out which items on the list might be useful. Whenever possible, narrow your list of keywords by using BOOLEAN EXPRESSIONS. Your other alternative is to use a “try and see” approach. Whichever approach you use, always keep a record of poor and good keywords for your TOPIC in your research log so that you’ll remember which keywords do and do not work well for you on each topic. This process might seem tedious at times, but don’t get discouraged. If you’re stumped, try asking a friend who’s experienced with online searches or a research librarian for help. As you become more adept at using keywords, your searches will become more directed and less time-consuming. The two main ways to make keyword searches more efficient are using guided searches and using Boolean expressions. Using guided searches Using guided searches means that you search a database or search engine by answering prompts provided, usually by filling in a form on the screen. Guided searches often allow you to select a range of dates of publication (for example, after 2002 or between 1990 and 1995) and to specify only a certain language (such as English) or a certain format (such as books). Using Boolean expressions Using Boolean expressions means that you search a database or search engine by using keyword combinations that narrow and refine your search. To combine keywords, you use the words AND, OR, NOT, and NEAR or the symbols that represent those words. Boolean expressions, generally placed between keywords, instruct the search engine to list only those Web sites in 352 TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 353 31c How do I find sources? which your keywords appear in certain combinations and to ignore others. Other commands similarly help you go directly to the sources you most need. Box 31-1 explains ways to search with keywords more effectively, using the subject of artificial intelligence as an example. Simply typing the words intelligence computers emotions would yield pages that include any of these words—and not necessarily in that order. Imagine the staggeringly long list of pages you’d get for the word computers alone, and then almost triple that B OX 3 1 – 1 S U M M A RY Refining keyword searches AND or the + (“plus”) symbol: Narrows the focus of your search because both keywords must be found. If you want to find information on the role of emotions in artificial intelligence, try the expression artificial AND intelligence AND emotions. While some search engines, such as, don’t require the word AND between terms because they assume that two or more terms are always connected by AND, most require it.Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion When in doubt, definitely use AND. NOT or the (“minus”) symbol: Narrows a search by excluding texts containing the specified word or phrase. If you want to eliminate robots from your search, type artificial AND intelligence AND emotions NOT robots. OR: Expands a search’s boundaries by including more than one keyword. If you want to expand your search to include sources about artificial intelligence in either computers or robots, try the expression artificial AND intelligence AND emotions AND computers OR robots. You’ll get pages mentioning artificial intelligence and emotions only if they mention computers or robots. NEAR: Indicates that the keywords may be found close to each other or on either side of each other. However, depending on the search engine, NEAR produces hits that are found only in the same sentence or on the same page. For example, entering intelligence NEAR emotions will yield only pages in which the words “intelligence” and “emotions” are very close to one another. ( ): These are parentheses that group two or more expressions together. For example, (artificial intelligence AND emotions) AND (Turing Test OR Chinese Room) would find documents about artificial intelligence and emotions along with either the Turing Test or the Chinese Room Test. (Chandra Johnson’s research paper in section 33e explains that these are two tests for judging whether people can regard a computer as “intelligent.”) “ ”: These are quotation marks that direct a search engine to match your exact word order on a Web page. For example, a search for “robots that ? 353 TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 31c 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 354 FINDING AND EVALUATING SOURCES Refining keyword searches (continued) think” will find pages that contain the exact phrase robots that think. However, it won’t return pages with the phrase thinking robots. Ohio University NRSE 4550 Research and Evidence Based Practice Nursing Discussion Also, if you search for James Joyce without using quotation marks, most engines will return all pages containing the words James and Joyce anywhere in the document; however, a search using “James Joyce” brings you closer to finding Web sites about the Irish writer. *: The asterisk functions as a wildcard in some search engines. It allows you to look for sites by listing only the first few letters of a keyword. This approach, known as a truncated search, is helpful when a term comes in varying forms. For example, a Yahoo search for cogni* would turn up directory entries for both cognitive and cognition. You can also direct the search engine to look for variants of a keyword by using the wildcard symbol * in place of either the word ending or some of the letters in the word. For example, a truncated search for wom*n would return hits for woman and women. Please note that not all search engines allow wildcarding;, for example, does not. A few search engines use specialized symbols such as ? or : instead of the * for wildcarding. number when you include the two other seemingly unrelated words in your list. In contrast, note the huge amount of weeding out that the Boolean expressions allow. To conduct a keyword search, type a word or group of words in the search box on the opening page of the search engine, and click on the “Search” or “Enter” button. The engine scans for your word(s) in Web pages, and then lists sites that contain them. Because the Web has billions of pages, a search on even a moderately common topic may produce thousands of hits—sites listed or visited in a search. Not every hit will be what you are looking for. Very general terms may appear on thousands of Web sites. If a search engine finds thousands of hits for your keyword, do not give up. Instead, try more specific keywords, use a guided or “advanced” search feature, or use the strategies listed in Box 31-1 for refining a keyword search. E X E R C I S E 3 1 – 3 Use a search engine of your choice to search for sources on “artificial intelligence.” For each option below, record how many hits occur. 1. 2. 3. 4. 354 Enter Enter Enter Enter the the the the word artificial. word intelligence. phrase artificial AND intelligence. phrase “artificial intelligence” (in quotation marks). TROYMC30_32_0131889567.QXD 1/27/06 6:37 PM Page 355 How do I find sources? 31c … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

Read more
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat

Good News ! We now help with PROCTORED EXAM. Chat with a support agent for more information