Human Evolutionary Studies Program

Human Evolutionary Studies Program Human Evolutionary Studies Program Lecture 1: Lecture 2: In class reading see attached file. Word count at least 350. For response posts, you need to respond to a different critical thought post each week. Similar to the above information on critical thought posts, your response posts should be a well-composed response and reaction. The purpose and goal of your response is to extend your classmates’ thinking, to expand your classmates’ knowledge or understanding, to add to your classmate’s thoughts and analyses, to incorporate the new material we learn since the last discussion week, to address questions and offer perspective. In other words, it is about adding to the learning of your classmates and the class in general, and engaging in discussion. You will be graded on the quality of a review of new course material that relates to the discussion post, the inclusion of an answer to the questions asked, and the inclusion of a couple new questions to encourage continued discussion, the quality of those answers/questions, the inclusion of outside material (e.g. from other classes, from peer-reviewed journals, from life experience), how you made and the quality of the connections between lectures and readings, the illustration of critical thinking skills, and the inclusion of (proper) references and citations. This is not a random internet blog site. This is not the place to insult or make fun of people even though you are friends. Please keep Netiquette in mind. I have a zero tolerance policy for disrespect and hate-speech. Discussion board reminders: Posted here is your voice . Posted here are the voices of students enrolled in Human Growth and Development. Please let each voice be heard. I encourage you to read through all critical thought posts within your assigned group, given that these are created by your peers for you specifically to read. You can always use the “like” button which is available in our Discussion Boards. Also, in order to see any post for the start of our Discussion board, you must first post yourself. This will challenge you to create your own unique critical thought post. Discussion board grading rubric: Here is a basic rubric for how we are grading each post. Please also consult the rubric provided in the syllabus: Discussion was posted – 3 (note: late posts are not graded unless there is an approved UO accommodation) Quality of review (see syllabus rubric)- 2 Questions (or answers) to engage others in a discussion- 1 Quality of those questions/answers- 1 Inclusion of outside material- 2 Connections between the lectures and the readings – 2 Critical thinking- 2 Inclusion of and accuracy of references and citations- 2 berk_meyers_2015_ch5_physical_development_in_infancy_and_toddlerhood__1_.pdf hoi_mckerracher_2015_emph_breastfeeding_and_infant_growth__1_.pdf ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health [2015] pp. 150–151 doi:10.1093/emph/eov012 clinical briefs Breastfeeding and infant growth Amber Gigi Hoi1,2 and Luseadra McKerracher1,3,4 1 Human Evolutionary Studies Program, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, 3Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, 8888 University Dr., Burnaby, BC, Canada, V5A 1S6 and 4Centre for Biocultural History, Aarhus Universitet, Aarhus C, Denmark, 8000 POOR INFANT GROWTH AND INSUFFICIENT BREASTMILK? Globally, mothers from a wide variety of socio-environmental contexts often assume slow-growing babies are underfed and erroneously attribute perceived growth retardation to inadequate milk supply or poor milk quality [1]. These assumptions frequently prompt replacement of breastmilk with formula or other nonbreastmilk foods to encourage infant weight and length gains [1]. This tendency to truncate breastfeeding to accelerate growth is exacerbated by some features of contemporary environments in both developing and developed nations such as growing rates of maternal obesity and caesarean section that interfere with breastfeeding. Unfortunately, regardless of the primary reason for truncation, cessation of exclusive breastfeeding before 4–6 months and of continued breastfeeding before 12 months is associated with increased risk of gastrointestinal infections and poor immune system development in infancy, and obesity and a variety of non-communicable diseases in later life [2]. Although stunting and wasting in children do represent major public health challenges in low- and middle-income countries, these phenomena should not be confused with unfaltering growth less than two standard deviations below global averages. EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVES FUTURE IMPLICATIONS Abundant evidence shows breastfeeding surpasses formula feeding nutritionally, immunologically, and emotionally [2]. These findings are unsurprising, given that humans share with all other mammals 4 200 million years of successful evolutionary history of milk production. Within this broader mammalian context, humans have evolved both resilience and substantial flexibility in infant feeding. Regarding flexibility, use of complementary foods pre-weaning can partially offload the energetic burden of feeding from mothers to other caregivers [3]. Regarding resilience, nearly all human mothers can produce sufficient milk to meet infant needs—if not all demands—for the first 6 months postpartum even in adverse conditions, with milk production well-buffered against environmental insults [3]. Indeed, evidence from contemporary, nonindustrialized populations indicates the most common infant feeding strategy is one of on-demand exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by introduction of easily digestible, nutrient-dense complementary foods combined with continued breastfeeding for 2–4 years. Our huntergatherer ancestors likely used infant feeding approaches similar to these norms, with variations attuned to local ecology [3]. Infant growth also likely varies with local population histories and environments. Growth trajectories vary widely within and especially among human populations, irrespective of infant feeding strategy [4]. Although new breastfeeding-based international infant growth standards (e.g. [5]) provide useful diagnostic guidelines regarding stunting, they should not be used to justify early cessation of exclusive or continued breastfeeding. Breastfeeding mothers can be assured that even very slow growth—if not interrupted by episodes of growth faltering—is often normal and healthy, only exceptionally rarely indicating milk insufficiency. With the aim of reducing infectious and non-communicable disease burdens, clinicians should offer infant feeding advice that is both evidence-based and feasible within a given ecological, historical and social context. We should pay special attention to obese mothers and mothers that birthed via caesarean section, since these evolutionarily-novel factors negatively affect breastfeeding performance [6]. funding AG receives support from Simon Fraser University (SFU). LM is supported two doctoral research fellowships, one provided by the Human Evolutionary Studies Program at SFU and one provided by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, award # CGS-7272011-33. references 1. Gatti L. Maternal perceptions of insufficient milk supply in breastfeeding. J Nurs Scholarship 2008;40:355–63. 2. AAP. Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics 2012;129:e827. ß The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Breastfeeding and infant growth Hoi and McKerracher | 151 3. Sellen D. Evolution of infant and young child Organization growth standards: a systematic 6. Dewey KG, Nommsen-Rivers LA, Heinig MJ feeding: implications for contemporary public review. BMJ Open 2014;4:e003735. 5. WHO. WHO child growth standards. Acta et al. Risk factors for suboptimal infant breast- health. Annu Rev Nutr 2007;27:123–48. 4. Natale V, Rajagopalan A. Worldwide variation in human growth and the World Health Paediatr 2006;95:1–106. feeding behaviour, delayed onset of lactation, and excess neonatal weight loss. Pediatrics 2003;112:607–19. … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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