HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay

HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Home > Humanities > HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay Question Description I’m studying for my Philosophy class and don’t understand how to answer this. Can you help me study? In a five paragraph response, pick the philosophy OR time period covered this semester that impacted you the most. Provide examples to support your position. You may use any of the materials and resources provided this semester. Rubric: Write a five paragraph response to the above prompt. Each paragraph need to have a MINIMUM of 5 sentences. Resources: Presocratic Philosophy -2 (Links to an external site.) Presocratic Philosophy -3 (Links to an external site.) Unformatted Attachment Preview Formation of City-States (polis) • Formed between 750-480 B.C.E. • City-States, known as polis, were made up of independent communities • Athens and Sparta were both a polis • That’s why many places today end in –polis, like Minneapolis, Indianapolis, Annapolis, etc. Athens & the Golden Age 480-430 B.C.E. Athens’ Gold Age • Followed the defeat of Persia (modern-day Iran) • Ushered in 50 years of creativity/prosperity • Drama, philosophy, music, art and architecture flourished during this time • The Greeks and particularly the Athenians referred themselves as “Hellenes” – reference to Hellen, first human being created by the Gods. • This is why Ancient Greece is known as Hellenestic Reforms to Democracy • Between 600-500 B.C.E. – reforms put in place giving more power to Athenian citizens • Debt slavery was abolished • Lower classes encouraged to serve public office • By 550 B.C.E. Popular Assembly of Citizens formed (made up of all classes of citizens) First Direct Democracy in History • By 508 B.C.E. Athens became the first direct democracy – power was exercised by the people, rather than representatives like in the United States today. • Origin of word DEMOCRACY: – demos = people – kratos = power POWER TO THE PEOPLE Power to the People…LIMITED HOWEVER, those who could exercise power in Ancient Athens were landowning males over the age of 18. Those Excluded: • Estimated population of Ancient Athens at time: 250,000 • Those landowners with actual power: 40,000 • Those excluded from power in the government: • Women, children, resident aliens, slaves, nonlandowners – approximately 210,000 or 84% of the population of Ancient Athens. Influence of PERICLES • Ran Board of 10 Generals (they were like a group of Athenian Presidents with power) • Instituted Reforms like holding politicians liable for corruption • Oversaw HUGE re-building of destroyed Athenian temples at the Acropolis, on a hill over-looking Athens, including the Parthenon • Cost in today’s dollars was $3 BILLION Contrast to Athens • Sparta, one of the largest cities in Greece outside of Athens. • Very militaristic society – an oligarchy (dictatorship). • Most adult males trained to be soldiers. • Ironically, women held more rights than their Athenian neighbors • Sparta was not known for much creativity Decline of Golden Age • Antagonism and disputes led by Sparta and other city-states (polis) • This led to the Peloponnesian War – a war lasting about 25 years between different Greek city-states • Led to Athens’ defeat and eventual decline of Athenian Influence Classical Greek Philosophy Philosophy: “the love of wisdom” Philosopher: “one who loves wisdom” truth vs. Truth ? Discussion point: What is the difference between truth and Truth? ? Can you think of an example of something that you would consider truth (with a small-case letter “t”)? ? Can you think of an example of something that you would consider True knowledge? ? Philosophers are interested in Truth, not truth. The Pre-Socratic MaterialistsHUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay ? The Greek philosophers from before the time of Socrates are known as Pre-Socratics. ? The earliest of these philosophers were called materialists. They searched for “Truth” in the material world, in the form of the elemental substance of which all other matter was composed (atoms, for example). Thales, known as history’s first philosopher The Presocratic Idealists ? A different vein of early Greek philosophy was called idealism. Idealists sought evidence of a divine and rational plan in the workings of the cosmos. In other words, they looked for the basic building blocks of knowledge in the form of abstract ideas, concepts, and laws rather than in physical form. Dualism Idealism evolved into a belief that the world was divided into two separate realms: one realm was material and known through the senses; the other was ideal and known only through rational contemplation. We refer to this belief as “dualism.” Aristotle One of Plato’s students at The Academy ?Briefly tutored the future Alexander the Great ?Founded the school The Lyceum ? Rejected Plato’s World of Forms ? ? ? ? Aristotle rejected Plato’s world of forms Insisted that the human senses play a vital part in understanding the world around us Otherwise, why do we have the ability to touch, hear, see, taste and smell the world Rejected the world of forms because it could not be proven scientifically through evidence, through EMPIRICAL study Thoughts on the pysche/soul ? ? Aristotle rejected that the psyche was immortal He admitted, however, that a portion of the soul that has to do with REASON and which was influenced by whatever created the universe (i.e., God) could be immortal Empirical Method ? ? Based all conclusions on careful observation All inquiries were dependent on direct experience Plato was a RATIONALIST – believed everything could be explained by reason/the mind alone Aristotle was an EMPIRICIST – believed everything had to be explained through evidence, study through the senses Father of Ethics ? ? ? Branch of philosophy concerning human conduct Aristotle believed happiness is the only human value that might be considered a life goal To fulfill this life goal one must find one’s unique function Unique Function ? ? Just as the function of an eye is to see, and the function of a knife is to cut. The unique function of a human being is to reason – know other creature can do that, according to Aristotle The Golden Mean ? ? In his treatise Ethics, Aristotle states that “The Good Life” and “Happiness” can be achieved when action and reason work together in harmony. Living a balanced life – not too much drinking, not too much stress, not too much partying, BUT not too little of these either, is the key to a happy life. Life in Moderation is the Golden Mean Impact on Greek Society ? ? The Golden Mean of moderation impacted Greek Society He urged people to reason their way to ethical conduct Aristotle and Politics ? ? ? Didn’t really believe in Democracy Believed some humans were more superior to others (an ancient idea of Darwin’s Survival of the Fittest?) In his Politics Aristotle argues why women are inferior to Men, and defends why they should not be allowed to hold office. Who’s Theory was Right? Which theory to explain the world do you agree with? ? ? Plato’s? Who believes we live in a mere copy of the real world, and only through reason, or our mind/soul we can achieve it? Aristotle’s? HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay Who believes the world can be understood through the use of our senses and that reason can also play a part? Origins of Greek Philosophy Originated around 6th Century B.C.E. ? Group of Greek thinkers who sought to explain world around them through REASON rather than superstition ? These thinkers are known as the first PHILOSOPHERS ? The word PHILOSOPHY comes from Greek: philos = love sophia = wisdom ? ? LOVER OF WISDOM Names have meanings Philadelphia: means city of brotherly love Phil – love; delphi(a) – brother Sophia: means wisdom Natural Philosophers/Pre-Socratics ? Came before Socrates ? Sought to explain origins of the world ? Asked What is Everything Made of? ? How do things come to exist? ? Sought scientific explanations rather than simply attributing the world to the gods or other superstitious thought Thales ? Lived from 625 – 546 B.C. ? History’s First Philosopher ? ? Held that WATER was the fundamental substance of the world Not a bad theory since he had no idea that 60 % of the human body is made of water & 70 % of the brain is made of water Heraclitus ? ? ? ? Lived between 540-480 B.C. Argued that the universe has no permanence, is always in flux, therefore CHANGE is the only true basis of everything “You cannot step twice into same river, for fresh waters are ever flowing upon you” & “Fire is always moving, changing form, yet it’s still fire” This CHANGE he called LOGOS-Greek term for a Guiding Force that caused everything Leucippus ? ? ? ? Lived around 500 B.C. Came up with revolutionary theory that everything was made of invisible particles, he called ATOMS THE word “atom” is Greek for “indivisible” This theory was made over 2500 years ago, and is a cornerstone of scientific theory today of the universe’s origins Democritus ? Lived from 460 – 370 B.C. ? Followed Leucippus ? Developed the Atomic Theory of Matter ? ? Believed the mind was made up of atoms just like the natural world was Atoms moved ETERNALLY through space, never dying and transcended the physical even after death Pythagoras ? Lived between 580-500 B.C. ? Founding father of pure mathematics ? Believed NUMBERS were the true reality ? ? All universal relationships can be expressed through numbers – these are eternal and cannot be proven wrong. 2+2 will ALWAYS = 4. It can never NOT = that First to demonstrate relationship between musical harmony and numbers Hippocrates ? Lived between 460-377 B.C. ? Founding Father of modern medicine ? ? Recognized cause & effect in matters of physical illness, and sought to prove influence mind has over the body. Bound to always heal the sick in ethical way, where we get the term Hippocratic Oath which medical personnel take to “do no harm” to their patients Pioneers ? The Pre-Socratic or Natural Philosophers led the groundwork and methodology for RATIONAL investigation of the universe ? Exercised pure reason ?HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay Did careful analysis and observation Who’s Theory was better? Activity/Handout Plato Pupil of Socrates, very influenced by him ? Born during Peloponnesian War – was born into wealth and reaped benefits of Golden Age culture, even as it was deminishing ?Profoundly affected by the killing of Socrates ?Wrote two dozen treatises on philosophy, cast in Socrates’ dialectical format, and used Socrates as the mouth-piece in almost all of them. ? Socrates wrote nothing down ?Plato founded the world’s first school of philosophy, known as The Academy ? Plato’s Treatise The Republic ? Asks 2 central questions: ? What is the meaning of justice? ? What is the nature of a just society? ? Plato asserts the existence of two realities in an attempt to answer this question: Reality 1 consists of constantly changing particulars our senses can access: basically the world we live in Reality 2 is unchanging, is eternal only our intellect can access: this is the real world Theory of Eternal Truths/Forms ? ? ? ? Plato called this intellectual reality a world of FORMS Everything we see in our physical world, is actually an imperfect copy of the ORIGINAL and perfect form in this intellectual world For instance, all apples or horses or whales in the world are shadowy copies of the real and perfect apple or horse or whale that exists in this intellectual world Numbers are already perfect and are part of this world already The FORM of the Good ? ? ? Ideas belong in this world as well Ideas such as Beauty, Justice, Love are unchaning, eternal – have always existed They are good A Part of You Exists in this Reality What part of humanity belongs to this eternal, real World of Forms? The Mind/Soul ? ? ? ? In Ancient Greece the mind/soul were one and the same – many would argue that is still the case Plato insisted that our mind/soul – our psyche has always existed since it’s from this eternal reality Once our psyche was imprisoned in our body,HUM 2020 University of Central Florida Humanities Final Journal Essay in this shadowy “unreal” world, the psyche forgot its origins It is the job of philosophy to re-educate the psyche, to wake us up from our sleep! Allegory of the Cave ? ? ? ? Plato imagines a cave with people chained to the ground from birth They live their ENTIRE lives staring at the same wall Behind them is a huge fire that creates shadows of images on the wall for the people to see Those shadows are the ONLY reality these people will ever know in their entire life Allegory of the Cave ? ? ? ? Somehow one of these people breaks free from the chains She finds the exit out of the cave and is initially blinded by the brilliance of the sun She doesn’t recognize all of the real images around her, real birds flying in the sky, real plants and flowers with brilliant colors Remember, all she has ever known are the shadowy replicas of these images on the wall Allegory of the Cave ? ? ? ? She runs back into the cave to tell the others of this new world she has discovered She describes how much more real it is, and how beautiful The others don’t believe her They don’t allow their minds to believe such a world could exist and choose to stay staring at the wall – denying reality that exists outside of the cave Allegory of the Cave ? ? The cave represents the human body and our senses The outside represents the real world that exists – the true reality of Forms Massive Impact on Religious Thought ? ? ? This theory was formed centuries before Jesus Christ/Christianity Influenced Jewish thought of a potential after life with God Influenced early Christian thought – and Plato’s theory of forms was a precursor to the idea that Heaven and God is the true origin of reality, and that earth is just a stepping stone to that reality once we die, where our souls go Plato’s Political Beliefs ? ? ? ? Plato did not believe in Democracy Believed the state should be ruled by philosophers who had the intellectual reason to rule a state well People’s role’s in society would be determined by their abilities Admitted that women should have all the same opportunities as men in life, but claimed that women were not as smart as men … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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