Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay

Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay People of Greek Heritage. People of Cuban Heritage. People of Hindu Heritage. Read chapter 11, 16 and 30 of the class textbook and review the attached PowerPoint presentations. Read Content chapter 30 in Davis Plus Online Website. Once done present an 800 words essay contracting the cultural and health care beliefs of the Greek, Cuban and Hindu heritage. Please note we are studying two oriental and one occidental heritage. In the essay mention how the Greek and Hindu heritage has influenced the Cuban heritage in term of health care beliefs. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay You must cite at least 3 evidence-based references no older than 5 years excluding the class textbook. A minimum of 800 words must be presented excluding the first and reference page. APA format, Times New Roman, 12 font cultural_nursing_ch16.pptx cultural_nursing_ch11.ppt cultural_nursing_ch33.ppt chapter_30.docx Chapter 30 People of Greek Heritage Irena Papadopoulos and Larry D. Purnell We wish to acknowledge Maria Athanasopoulou’s contribution in obtaining data that helped to update this chapter. Overview, Inhabited Localities, and Topography Overview This chapter presents two groups of people with Greek heritage. The first group refers to those people or their ancestors who emigrated from Greece. The second group originated in Cyprus. Both groups share the same history and have a common language and re- ligion. The Greek and Greek Cypriot diaspora is of considerable size and is spread to all continents and numerous countries. The largest Greek community outside Greece is in America; the largest Greek Cypriot community outside Greece is in Britain. Therefore, the main focus of this chapter is on the large Greek American community, with a secondary focus on the British Cypriot community. Although ge- ographic location and social context are important, many of the issues and principles discussed in this chapter can be applied to the broader diaspora. When the term American is used in this chapter, it refers to residents of both Canada and the United States. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Greece, a small country in southern Europe with a climate similar to that of southern California, covers slightly more than 50,000 square miles (131,940 sq km) and has a population of over 10.7 million (CIA World Factbook, 2011a). The capital, Athens, has a popula- tion of 3.252 million. The population is 93 percent Greek and the rest other. Greece does not collect data on ethnicity (CIA World Factbook, 2011a). The land is very mountainous with small patches of fertile land separated by hills, mountains, and a plethora of small and medium-sized islands. The main crops are wheat, grapes, olives, cotton, and tobacco. Geopolitical boundaries have shifted dramatically over time. Greeks struggled under 400 years of Turkish rule, which ended in 1829. At that time, the Peloponnese, central Greece, and some of the Aegean Islands were freed. Later, Thessaly, Macedonia, Crete, the Ionian Islands, Epirus, Thrace, and the Dodecanese were incorporated into Greece’s boundaries. Greece joined the European Union in 1981. Cyprus, located in the most eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea, is a small mountainous island with an area of 3572 square miles (9251 sq km). The capital is Nicosia with a population of 240,000 people. The total population of Cypriots is 1,240,000 million of whom 77 percent are Greek Cypriots, 18 percent are Turkish Cypriots, and 5 percent other (CIA World Factbook, 2011b). Since the entry of Cyprus into the European Union, a significant increase of economic migrants and asylum seekers has been recorded (Cyprus Statistical Services, 2011). Cyprus has a rich history and culture, the result of many influences over 9000 years. Mycenean and Achaean Greeks settled in Cyprus around the 14th century B.C. After the Trojan War, legendary Greek heroes visited the island, where they were associated with the founding of great cities such as Salamis, Kourion, and Paphos. The Achaean Greeks had a profound and lasting influence on the culture of Cyprus, introducing their language, religion, and customs. After the death of Christ, St. Paul trav- eled to Cyprus, where he was joined by St. Barnabas and St. Mark. The island was the first country to have a Christian ruler when Sergius Paulus was converted. The Greek Orthodox Church stems from Cyprus. Cyprus gained its independence from Britain in 1960; however, the Constitution of the Republic of Cyprus proved unworkable, making a smooth imple- mentation impossible. Following episodes of ethnic conflict between Greek and Turkish Cypriots, Cyprus was divided in 1974 following the invasion of Turkey. Almost half the population was displaced, with Greek Cypriots settling in the south and west of the island and Turkish Cypriots settling in the north and east. The characteristics of members of the Greek and Greek Cypriot communities vary considerably accord- ing to the time of immigration (with earlier immi- grants being predominantly younger, rural males), the characteristics of the site of immigration (rural, 1 2 Aggregate Data for Cultural-Specific Groups island, or urban), the variant cultural characteristics (refer to chapter 1 in this book ), and the number of generations since initial immigration. Despite consid- erable temporal and geographic variation, several core themes are common to people who retain affiliation with a Greek community—emphasis on family, honor, religion, education, and Greek heritage. The core values of philotimo (honor and respect) and endropi (shame) are key when considering the experience of Greeks and Greek Cypriots. Although values of honor and shame are found in all societies, these attain immense importance among Mediterranean groups. Although philotimo is a characteristic of one’s family, community, and nation, it most centrally implies con- cern for other human beings. Philotimo is a Greek’s sense of honor and worth, derived from one’s self- image, reflected image (respect), and sense of pride. Philotimo is enhanced through courage, strength, fulfilling family obligations, competition with other people, hospitality, and right behavior. Shame results REFLECTIVE EXERCISE 30.1 Mr. Marios Stavrakis is a 49-year-old Greek who arrived in NewYork from Crete at the age of 21.After working very hard doing different jobs for a number of years he saved enough money with which he started a business with his best friend Mr. Soteris Ioannou, who is also his son’s godfather. As the busi- ness grew the partners spent less time with each other since each one had separate responsibilities within the company. About a year ago Mr. Stavrakis developed signs of depres- sion. His wife noticed that he was worried about something, was frequently anxious, and at the same time appeared to have less energy and vitality than usual.When he started ne- glecting the business he so much loved and had worked so hard to make successful, his wife insisted that he see a doctor. Mr. Stavrakis was prescribed antidepressants but took the medication infrequently and then he stopped it all together. His condition deteriorated and he began to obsessively talk about philotimo .When he eventually saw a psychiatrist he explained that he discovered that his best friend and business partner was making deals behind his back and that he was embezzling money from the company. He had suspected this some time ago but did not want to report his best friend to the police while at the same time he could not deal with his anger and disappointment as he felt totally betrayed by a man whom he trusted. from any conduct that is considered deviant. The sys- tem of honor and shame in the Mediterranean coun- tries derives from the complementary opposition of the sexes, the solidarity of the family, and the relation- ships of hostility and competition between unrelated or unconnected families. Heritage and Residence Today, Greeks in America are a composite of three immigrant groups: an older group who came before or just after World War I, a second group who arrived after the relaxation of immigration laws in the mid- 1960s and who constitute the main group in the Greek American community, and the American-born chil- dren and grandchildren of these immigrants. The earlier Greek immigrants congregated for the most part in the western states of Utah, Colorado, and Nevada, where they worked in mines and on railroad crews; in the New England states of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Connecticut, where they worked in shoe and textile factories; and in the large northern cities of Chicago, Detroit, Toledo, Milwaukee, Philadelphia, Buffalo, Cleveland, and New York, where they worked in factories or found jobs as shoe shiners or peddlers. The greatest proportion of Greeks in America contin- ues to live in the Northeast and the Midwest. Most live in large urban areas such as New York and Chicago. Whereas new immigrants still tend to gravi- tate toward the established Greek communities in cities, many Greeks in America have relocated to the suburbs (Moskos, 1989). The Greek communities in the United States and Canada are the biggest Greek diasporic communities. It is estimated that there are 1.2 million people of Greek heritage living in the United States and around 350,000 in Canada (Kitroef, 2009). Reasons for Migration and Associated Economic Factors Significant Greek migration occurred during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During this period, mi- gration depleted the population of Greece by about one-fifth. Economic factors were largely responsible for this mass exodus. In the latter part of the 19th century, Greece suffered a major economic crisis resulting from a nearly complete failure of its major crop, currants; relatively heavy governmental taxation to sustain an army against hostilities with Turkey; and family pres- sure on fathers and brothers to supply a substantial dowry for unmarried women in the family. Before the 1880s, relatively few Greek immigrants entered the United States. It was not until the start of the 20th century that massive numbers of Greek immi- grants came to America. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Between 1900 and 1920, almost 350,000 Greeks came to America, 95 percent of them men (Scourby, 1984). They came with dreams of economic opportunity in How has the belief about the importance of philotimo influenced the behavior of Mr. Stavrakis? Why was Mr. Stavrakis reluctant to report his friend to the police? What cultural values influenced his actions? Why did he not seek medical help and why was he eventually persuaded by his wife to see a doctor? America, hoping to make enough money to provide good dowries for their sisters and daughters and to be able to return to Greece with enough money to live comfortably in their villages. At the time, Greece was beleaguered by turbulent internal politics and was a difficult place for the average Greek peasant to earn a decent living. Most Greek migrants planned to stay in the United States for a short period of time, and one in four of them managed to achieve this. As the arrival of young Greek women—potential wives—post 1920s increased, a number of men decided to put more permanent roots in their host country. With growing communities, and the establishment of small family businesses, Greek migrants began to integrate into American society (Kitroef, 2009). Legislation passed in 1921 and 1924 transformed America’s open-door policy toward European immi- grants into a closed-door policy greatly affecting the number of Greek immigrants who came into the country. While in 1921, 28,000 Greek immigrants came to America, the next year, the quota of Greeks allowed into the country was reduced to 100. This was raised to 307 in 1929, and remained at that level for three decades (Moskos, 1989). Greek immigrants who had cared little about becoming American citizens saw citizenship as the only chance to bring other family members to America or to be able to return to America after visiting Greece. In addition, because fewer people were emigrating from Greece, member- ship in the Greek American community consisted of increasing numbers of American-born Greeks. During most of the 1930s, the number of Greeks returning to Greece exceeded the number coming to America (Moskos, 1989). Despite the economic down- turn in the United States, Greeks in America managed to invest a great deal of energy in their communities. Greek-language schools were started for their chil- dren, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese centralized, and charitable organizations were established for the poor. When the Great Depression came, however, everyone in America was affected, including the Greek immigrants. Many businesses failed, jobs were lost, and fortunes disappeared. The Italian invasion of Greece in 1940 precipi- tated Greece’s entry into World War II and a great outpouring of support from the Greek American community for the home country. After America en- tered the war in 1941, the intermingling of Greek and American interests produced a combination of American patriotism with Greek ethnic pride, which underscored the great love that Greeks in America felt for both their home and their adopted countries. The immigration laws, however, kept the actual number of new Greek immigrants to a minimum until the 1950s (U.S. Immigration and Naturaliza- tion Service, 1993). Although the quota system was maintained, special legislation in 1953 allowed those who had been dis- placed by the war and those who wished to reunite with their families to enter America. In addition, countries were allowed to “borrow” on quotas for future years. As a result, approximately 70,000 Greeks entered the United States between World War II and 1965. During this time, the immigration laws dating from the 1920s were liberalized. This large influx rejuvenated the Greek American community’s ties to Greece and changed the composition of the Greek community from Greeks with American citizenship to Americans of Greek descent. By this time, the third generation of Greek Americans was being born. The Immigration Act of 1965 lifted the earlier restrictive quotas, allowing more Greeks to immigrate to America. Whereas the U.S. Census 2000 reported that 1,153,307 people of Greek descent lived in America, in 2006, 12,723 Greeks emigrated to the United States (Statistical Yearbook, 2006). The decline in Greek im- migration to the United States is attributed to several factors that are largely economic. Improvement of economic conditions in Greece has lessened the impe- tus to emigrate. Canada and Australia have more lenient visa requirements than the United States. Finally, with the entry of Greece into the European Union (EU) in 1981, Greeks were able to freely move within the EU, thus reducing the number of people emigrating to the United States to an estimated 2000 per year. Greece in the 21st century is changing from a country of outward emigration to one of inward immigration. Immigration for Greek Cypriots is a very old phe- nomenon (Panayides, 1988). This is exemplified by the figures from a survey published by the Ministry of Education in Cyprus and cited by the Cyprus High Commission in Britain (1986), which numbered the Cypriot population in London as 208 in 1911; 1059 in 1931; 10,208 in 1941; 41,898 in 1961; and 78,476 in 1964. The first major group of Greek Cypriots who emigrated to Britain arrived in the 1930s. Because Cyprus was a British colony, young men seeking employment made their way to Britain and primarily settled in the Camden Town and Soho areas of London but later spread to Islington, Hackney, and northward to Haringey. The second wave of emigration occurred in 1960 to 1961 when 25,000 Cypriots left for Britain when Cyprus became a republic. This number was reduced to less than 2000 a year after the Commonwealth Immigrants Act of 1962. The last wave of emigration occurred in 1974 following the troubles between the Turkish and the Greek Cypriots, when an estimated 50 percent of Cypriot people became refugees in their own country. By 1974, an estimated 120,000 Cypriots were in Britain, of whom five out of six were of Greek origin and the remainder of Turkish origin. People of Greek Heritage 3 4 Aggregate Data for Cultural-Specific Groups In 1986, the Cyprus High Commission reported that some 200,000 Cypriot-born people and descendants of Cypriots (Greek and Turkish) were living in Britain. In 1996, the Greek Orthodox Archdiocese in Great Britain reported that London alone was home to more than 250,000 Greek and Greek Cypriot people. These figures were derived from church attendance, numbers of wed- dings, baptisms, and funerals performed, as well as by the number of children attending the church-run and independent Greek schools. In addition to the London- based Greek Cypriot population, large communities are found in many other British cities, particularly Birmingham, Bristol, Manchester, Great Yarmouth, and Glasgow. The Greek and Greek Cypriot commu- nities in Great Britain continue to increase, and in 2011 they are estimated to be in excess of 300,000. Educational Status and Occupations Most early Greek and Greek Cypriot immigrants were poor men who had limited education. However, they had a very strong work ethic, determination, and eth- nic pride. Their achievements are evident in the schooling patterns of Greek immigrants and fostered by the competitive dimension of the Greek character. Greek children are expected to succeed in school. This attitude is fostered by an achievement orientation, high educational and occupational aspirations, a cohesive family unit that exhorts children to succeed, nationalistic identification with the cultural glories of ancient Greece, and private schools that teach the Greek language and culture (Marjoribanks, 1994). Typically, this pattern of achievement continues into adulthood and is reflected in career success. Most third-generation Greeks in America have at- tended college. During the 1965 immigration, Greeks coming to America included educated professionals and students in professional fields such as engineer- ing, medicine and surgery, and other academic areas (Moskos, 1989). A common theme (repeated so often it has become an archetype) is that of Greek parents who came from an impoverished land with no money or education. Lacking English language skills, most of these immi- grants had no recourse except to accept low-paying jobs as peddlers pushing carts and shoe shiners. Greek and Greek Cypriot men disliked working for others and considered it a violation of pride ( philotimo ). They were industrious and frugal and eventually saved enough money to start their own businesses, such as restaurants and cigar and candy stores (Lovell-Troy, 1990). In Britain, a number of Greek Cypriots estab- lished small clothing factories, and some opened food shops specializing in foods imported from Cyprus. Greek and Greek Cypriot people take pride in con- trolling their own businesses and have done very well economically. Initially, they sought these opportuni- ties to save money to return to their homeland, but the more successful they became, the more likely they were to remain in America and Britain. In America, Greek immigrants who earned only mar- ginal wages were more likely to return to Greece. This description represents the typical pattern in the eastern and northern parts of America. In the west, men worked on railroads and in mines and exhibited greater rates of marriage outside the Greek community because of their smaller numbers in these more-remote commu- nities. Often, once they had settled, worked hard, and acquired some capital, these Greeks too became entre- preneurs, opening shops and small businesses and even- tually acquiring American citizenship. In the United States, Greek immigrants attained middle-class status more rapidly than most of their fellow immigrants. As America grew more affluent in the 1920s, so did the Greek immigrants. During the 1950s, even more Greeks in America ascended into the middle class. American-born Greeks held mostly white-collar jobs, and many Greek immigrants owned small businesses. Professions such as engineering, medicine, pharmacy, scientific research, and teaching are favored by Greek Americans (Kunkelman, 1990). Second and subsequent generations of Greeks and Greek Cypriots continue to establish their own or run family businesses (Kapa Research, 2007), although more of them are currently entering professions such as medicine, accounting, and law. Communication Dominant Languages and Dialects Although all Greeks, whether in Greece, Cyprus, or the diaspora, use the same form of written Greek, regional and country variations in spoken Greek do exist. Diasporic Greek communities regard the reten- tion of the Greek language as an essential part of their Greek identity, so numerous efforts are continually being made to encourage second and subsequent generations to speak Greek. Papadopoulos and Pa- padopoulos (2000) surveyed young British-born Greeks and Greek Cypriots living in Britain to deter- mine how they defined themselves in terms of ethnic identity. Of the 94 people who responded, 87 defined themselves as British Greek/Greek Cypriots or just Greek/Greek Cypriots. Forty-six reported that they spoke Greek fluently, 35 spoke enough to “get by,” and 10 spoke “basic” Greek. Only three respondents reported not being able to speak any Greek. The spread of the Greek language is achieved by attending Greek-language schools, using Greek in the home, and regularly visiting Greece or Cyprus. Robins and Askoy (2001) argued that people of second and sub- sequent generations of any migrant community who are able to speak their mother tongue are more suc- cessful as they achieve greater cultural mobility. Knowledge of both Greek and English (or any other language, depending on the country of residence) en- ables people of Greek heritage to move through the cultural spaces both of their ancestors and of their adopted country. This is a helpful and nourishing process for both the individual and the collective. Cultural Communication Patterns Because Greeks and Greek Cypriots value warmth, expressiveness, and spontaneity, northern Europeans are often viewed as “cold” and lacking compassion. Protection of family members and maintenance of family solidarity tend to be foremost among their values. As a consequence, they are often friendly but somewhat superficial and distant with those considered “outsiders.” Greek and Greek Cypriot people tend to be expres- sive in both speech and gestures. They embrace family, friends, and others to indicate solidarity. Eye contact is generally direct, and speaking and sitting distances are closer than those of other European Americans. They gesture frequently with their hands while talk- ing. Whereas innermost feelings such as anxiety or de- pression are often shielded from outsiders, anger is expressed freely, sometimes to the discomfort of those from less-expressive groups. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay In health-care situations, patients often appear to be compliant in the presence of the health-care worker, but this may be only a superficial compliance, employed to ensure a smooth relationship. Greeks consider deeds to be much more important than what one says. Temporal Relationships Greeks and Greek Cypriots demonstrate a variety of temporal orientations. First, they are oriented to the past because they are highly conscious of the glories of ancient Greece. They are present oriented with re- gard to philotimo , family life, and situations involving family members. Finally, they tend to be future ori- ented with regard to educational and occupational achievements. Greek Americans differentiate between “Greek time,” which is used in family and social situations, and “American time,” which is used in business situa- tions. Greek time emphasizes participating in activities until they reach a natural breaking point, whereas American time emphasizes punctuality. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Format for Names It is customary for honorific titles to be given to mem- bers of the community who are older people or oth- erwise respected. Terms such as Thia (aunt), Kyria (Mrs.), or Giagia (grandma) may be used. For Greeks and Greek Cypriots everywhere, having a Greek name is an important sign of their heritage. First names come either from the Bible, such as Maria and Petros (Peter), or from ancient Greek mythology and history, such as Eleni (Helen) and Alexandros (Alexander). Ideally, first daughters are named for the mother’s mother, and first sons after the father’s father. Follow- ing tradition, middle names are the first name of the father; thus, all children of Stavros might carry his first name as their middle name. In health-care situations, it is not appropriate to call older women or men by their first names. The prefix “Kyria” (Mrs) or “Kyrie” (Mr) should be used with the first name, for example, Kyria Maria or Kyrie Alexandre; the preferred mode of address is to use their surname preceded by Mr., Mrs., or Miss. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Family Roles and Organization Head of Household and Gender Roles The father is considered the head of the household in Greek and Greek Cypriot families. However, the com- plexity of household dynamics is noted in the well- known folk phrase “the man is the head, but the wife is the neck that decides which way the head will turn.” This saying acknowledges the primacy of fathers in the public sphere and the strong influence of women in the private sphere. In recent years, increased recog- nition of a trend toward more equality in decision making has occurred. Most important, however, in consideration of gen- der roles are the complementary values of honor ( philotimo ) and shame ( endropi ). These core values tend to set the pattern for the family and for the enactment of gender roles. Although the educational levels of women have often matched those of their brothers in the past, women usually did not work out- side the home, particularly after they married. A woman may, however, have worked in her husband’s store or restaurant. Women of later generations who obtained professional degrees tended to work after their children were in school. The roles of husband and wife are characterized by mutual respect (a part- nership). However, their relationship is less signifi- cant than that of the family as a unit. Fathers are responsible for providing for the family, whereas women are responsible for management of the home and children. Traditionally, the cleanliness and order of the home reflect the moral character of the woman. Prescriptive, Restrictive, and Taboo Behaviors for Children and Adolescents Children are included in most family social activities and tend not to be left with babysitters. The child is the recipient of intense affection, helpful interventions, and strong admiration. The child may be disciplined through teasing, which is believed to “toughen” chil- dren and make them highly conscious of public opin- ion. The family environment has been identified as strongly pressuring for dependence and achievement. People of Greek Heritage 5 6 Aggregate Data for Cultural-Specific Groups REFLECTIVE EXERCISE 30.2 Mr. Andreas Georgiou was born in the United States in 1955. His parents had left Greece in 1952 to join his father’s brother, who had migrated a few years earlier.They both worked in his uncle’s small restaurant until they were able to open their own in partnership with his uncle.Andreas has two younger sisters. His parents spent whatever little time they had helping at the local Greek Orthodox Church and insisted that he and his sis- ters attend the Saturday Greek school. Andreas remembers his father saying,“We must never forget where we come from.” He also remembers how protective his parents were, particularly toward his sisters who, in his view, did not have the freedoms he had.“My parents always said that young women with sexual freedom have bad reputations and decent men do not want to marry them.” Both his sisters did well at school and were able to find good jobs and good husbands. He stud- ied art at the university and has his own printing business.Ten years ago,Andreas suffered from depression.“This started when I found out that my second child was severely disabled. I could not cope with it.We consulted numerous specialists searching for a cure.We prayed and prayed.At first,I could not speak about my son to anyone other than my closest family. I never shared my emotional turmoil with my work col- leagues, and this was a major stress for me. When I eventually had to share my ‘secret,’ they were all very understanding.” Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Today,Andreas was visiting his therapist for the last time.The therapist had helped him work through his self-blame, anxiety, and sadness. He has come to love his son for who he is. grades in high school. Adolescents in more-traditional families may experience stress as the differences in family and peer values precipitate family conflict. In fact, suppression of personal freedom by parents is a major risk factor for suicidal attempts among Greek and Greek Cypriot adolescent girls (Beratis, 1990). Additional areas of high stress for Greek adolescents include extreme dependence on the family, intense pressure for school achievement, and a lack of sexual education in the home. Family Goals and Priorities Greek and Greek Cypriot families tend to be very close. Within the family, members are expected to express unlimited respect, concern, and loyalty. Sym-betheri (in-laws) are considered first-degree relatives. Family solidarity is the context in which the values of honor and shame are measured. Prestige is connected to the idea that honor is not individualistic but collective. Because a person loses honor if kin act improperly, the honor of each family member is a matter of concern for all family members. Greek Indian and Cuban Heritage Essay Older people hold positions of respect within the Greek and Greek Cypriot communities. Their stories, whether as pioneers, veterans, or hard-working busi- nessmen, are well known throughout the community. Their notable deeds are heralded and documented in community histories, which are usually maintained by the Greek Orthodox churches in each local commu- nity. Treatment of the giagia (grandmother) and the pappou (grandfather) reflects the themes of closeness and respect emphasized in the family. Grandparents tend to participate fully in family activities. Families feel responsible for caring for their parents in old age, and children are expected to take in widowed parents. Failure to do so results in a sense of dishonor for the son and guilt for the daughter. If the older person is ill, living with the family is the first preference, fol- lowed by residential-care facilities. Although living alone is often the least-preferred residential pattern, many older people are choosing to live alone in their own home, supported by family, friends, and health- care providers. Older Greek and Greek Cypriot wid- ows and widowers, particularly those who speak little or no English, may experience social isolation if they do not have close contact with their children. An important role is that of fictive kin, termed koumbari (coparents), who serve as sponsors in either (or both) of two religious ceremonies: baptism and marriage. Ideally, the baptismal sponsor also serves as the sponsor of the child’s marriage. The relationship of sponsor is so important that families who are joined by this bond of fictive kinship are prohibited from intermarrying, although this is not always ad- hered to nowadays. The basis of social status and prestige is family philo- timo and cohesiveness. However, social status is also What cultural values drove Andreas’ parents after their migration to the United States? Why were his parents so protective toward their daughters? What cultural values might have led Andreas to feel so devastated that he tried to hide his son’s disabilities? The family goals of achievement are directed toward and internalized by the children. Greek American and British Greek Cypriot fami- lies stay intact longer than other American or British families because adolescents, particularly young women, tend to reside wi

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