Assignment: General Study Guide

Assignment: General Study Guide
Assignment: General Study Guide
Assignment: General Study Guide
Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1. One of the reasons to study psychology is to
a. better understand human behavior.
b. learn how to manipulate others for personal gain.
c. utilize it in combination with the field of astrology in predicting human behavior.
d. have the answers to all of life’s questions.
2. An industrial-organizational psychologist conducts an experiment to determine whether having control over difficult
tasks reduces stress for game designers and finds this explanation to be true. Drawing on the results of similar
experiments, this psychologist explains these overall findings by creating a
a. hypothesis.
b. testable observation.
c. theory.
d. law.
3. The more general the prediction a fortune teller or palmist makes, the more believable are the results. This fact has been
called the
a. Guilford effect.
b. phenologist’s fallacy.
c. Barnum effect.
d. Gall fallacy.
4. Simister and Cooper decided to find out if there is a relationship between crime and the weather. They obtained data on
temperatures and criminal activity in Los Angeles over a four-year period. When they graphed air temperature and the
frequency of aggravated assaults, they found that assaults and temperatures rise and fall more or less in parallel.
Therefore, knowing the temperature in Los Angeles now allows us to
a. predict the number of aggravated assaults.
b. explain why aggravated assaults occur.
c. prevent aggravated assaults from occurring.
d. do all of these.
5. Which of the following is NOT one of the six elements of the scientific method?
a. making observations
b. intuitive analysis
c. proposing a hypothesis
d. theory building
6. In an experiment to determine if meditation increases mental concentration, the group of subjects who would be
required to meditate would be the __________ group.
a. dependent
b. independent
c. experimental
d. control
7. Which of the following psychological approaches is matched correctly to its view of human nature?
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a. behaviorist——————positive, philosophical view
b. humanistic——————neutral, scientific, somewhat mechanistic view
c. psychodynamic————somewhat negative, pessimistic view
d. cognitive——————–positive, philosophical view
8. A person who praises his or her dog for its loyalty and devotion to its master is committing a(n)
a. deductive-inductive confusion.
b. scientific generalization.
c. the Barnum effect.
d. anthropomorphic error.
9. You have discovered a new vitamin that you believe will improve memory in the elderly. Your best bet for accurately
testing the effectiveness of the vitamin would be to use
a. naturalistic observation.
b. the experimental method.
c. case histories.
d. the survey method.
10. The study of similarities and differences in the behavior of different species is called
a. biology.
b. comparative psychology.
c. environmental psychology.
d. differential psychology.
11. Many teachers underestimate the abilities of ethnic minority children in their classes, which may hurt the students’
chances for success due to the occurrence of a(n)
a. Barnum effect.
b. anthropomorphic error.
c. placebo effect.
d. self-fulfilling prophecy.
12. Regarding psychology and cultural diversity, which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Currently, over 100 million Americans are African American, Hispanic, Asian American, Native American, or
Pacific Islander.
b. In some large cities, “minority” groups are already the majority.
c. In the past, psychology was based mostly on the cultures of North America and Europe.
d. The interactionist view of human nature that emphasizes that behavior is related to one’s environment is
referred to as the evolutionary perspective.
13. Which of the following is the best description of a research method?
a. an intuitive process by which cause and effect can be established
b. a systematic process for answering scientific questions
c. any experiment that lacks a control group
d. an investigative observation that relies on commonsense reasoning
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14. Which of the following psychological professionals is allowed to prescribe drugs in all 50 states of the United States?
a. counselor
b. therapist
c. psychiatrist
d. psychologist
15. An environmental psychologist helps redesign a college dorm to reduce feelings of crowding. The psychologist’s
work reflects which of psychology’s goals?
a. description
b. control
c. prediction
d. understanding
16. Placebos have such a strong effect on people because
a. only medical doctors can prescribe them.
b. their impact is immediate.
c. their impact is long-term.
d. they alter conscious and unconscious expectations.
17. Brain mechanisms involved in hunger and thirst would most likely be studied by a
a. personality theorist.
b. sensory psychologist.
c. learning theorist.
d. biopsychologist.
18. To assess your personality, a graphologist would want to
a. study your handwriting.
b. examine the shape of your skull.
c. study your palm.
d. record your brain waves with an EEG.
19. After a football game, several well-respected citizens of this town participate in tearing down the goal posts. This
behavior that occurs in groups would be of primary interest to __________ psychologists.
a. comparative
b. developmental
c. social
d. community
20. Experiments can determine cause-and-effect relationships with the effects being measured by the __________variable.
a. extraneous
b. independent
c. correlational
d. dependent
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21. Jake is a psychologist, who is interested in how people’s behavior is affected by the language they speak, the foods
they eat, the laws they obey, and how their families disciplined when they were children. Jake is most likely a
__________ psychologist.
a. learning
b. cultural
c. community
d. cognitive
22. In an experiment, if the obtained results would occur by chance in less than five experiments out of 100, the results
a. were randomly assigned.
b. cannot be replicated.
c. were statistically significant.
d. were part of a meta-analysis.
23. The functionalists were interested in how thoughts, feelings, perceptions, and habits help people and animals
a. form meaningful Gestalts.
b. introspect and experience the phi phenomenon.
c. adapt to their environment.
d. form connections between stimuli and responses.
24. Which psychologist said, “Give me a dozen healthy infants … and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train
him to become any type of specialist I might select …”?
a. William James
b. Ivan Pavlov
c. Sigmund Freud
d. John Watson
25. You see a psychologist and tell her that you are feeling depressed. The psychologist talks to you about your past and
attempts to link your present situation with unconscious patterns developed in your childhood as you interacted with your
parents. The psychologist would probably belong to which school of psychology?
a. humanistic psychology
b. behaviorism
c. psychoanalytic psychology
d. Gestalt psychology

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