Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System

Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System I need help with a Management question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Hello Dear, you have done this research but it was not accepted because it doesn’t have 5 chapters Now all I need from you to save time to turn this research to systematic research which has 5 main chapters 1- Introduction 2- Literature review 3- methodology 4- analysis for literature review ( you can charts for references ) 5- Managerial application / conclusion SO, I have in my project a good introduction and literature review which contains 5 thesis questions which mentions in the research as part one and part 2 and part and so on. Now all I need is to paraphrase his methodology and apply it to my research which allowed with starting sentence of a systemic review ……… ! also I need analysis for my literature review and managerial application with conclsuin I will post a Alkhalan thesis to follow and you can paraphrase his methodology and apply it my research final_thesis_project.docx alkahlan_thesis__1_.doc The impact of Covid-19 on development of Healthcare Informatics System Abdulaziz AlDhafeeri Advisor: Dr. Harris Tahir MBA Independent research Development of Healthcare Informatics System Executive Summary In December 2019, the Chinese authorities reported cases of deadly pneumonia in Wuhan. Later on, the new disease was identified to be a novel Coronavirus COVID-19. Since then, the virus has spread all over the world as almost all countries have reported cases. In March 2020, the world health organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic. Also, the majority of the countries around the world have declared the virus a national emergency. At the time of writing, 43.5 million cases have been reported worldwide. More than 29 million patients have recovered so far and 1.16 million death cases have been reported (Worldometer, 2020). The pandemic has resulted in the biggest societal crises and has posed numerous challenges for healthcare sectors across the world. The healthcare systems have been left with no other choice but to rapidly adapt and prepare to meet the rising clinical demands. Biomedical informatics is one of the critical areas that could play a critical role to research efforts related to COVID-19. The informatics would also enhance quality care delivery to coronavirus patients. Crucial to this effort is the informaticians’ active collaboration to enhance clinical and scientific research processes. Introduction Coronavirus is one of the numerous viruses classified under the zoonotic virus. The genome sequences that were obtained after the first case was confirmed in Wuhan pointed at-bats as the intermediate hosts. However, comprehensive studies are been conducted on three broad areas that could assist in identifying the origins of this particular virus. The three key areas include destination of the intermediate hosts in the market, collection of comprehensive records on the type and source of wildlife species, and environmental sampling directed to the wholesale seafood markets. An individual gets infected after coming into contact with fomites and droplets from a patient. To be specific, the virus is transmitted through unprotected interaction between an infectee and an infector. The COVID-19 symptoms differ from one person to the other and have been confirmed to be lethal among patients who have underlying health issues such as cancer, chronic respiratory illness, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and diabetes. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Signs and symptoms Besides, the symptoms range from asymptomatic (no symptoms) to death as a result of severe pneumonia. The typical signs of the disease include conjunctival congestion, hemoptysis, diarrhea, nasal congestion, vomiting and nausea, and chills. Other signs and symptoms include arthralgia or myalgia, headache, sore throat, shortness of breath, sputum production, fatigue, dry cough, and fever (Struyf et al., 2020). Apart from that, older adults above the age of 60 years have been said to be at a very high risk of developing severe disease that increases the probability of death. As of now, the highest mortality rate has been recorded among older adults above the age of 80 years. The transmission rate among men has also been found to be high among men than women. COVID -19 among children is mild and rare with just under 5% reported cases for young adults under the age of 19 years. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Part one-factors that affect the healthcare informatics system during the pandemic Health technologies available as of now can be of great benefit if they are effectively exploited. The technologies can be used to strengthen the IT’s capacity for pandemic control and prevention purposes, foster service efficiency, and enhance innovative treatment and diagnosis (Peek et al., 2020). Health informatics systems have been used and applied in various ways. First, the systems are been used to gather health information and analysis as well. Informatic systems have also enhanced effective prediction, key screening, and pandemic screening. The collection of big data has facilitated sound policy development and scientific prevention of COVID-19. The healthcare informatics systems have established a multisource platform that incorporates medical data convergence, exchange, and monitoring. It has also integrated feedback mechanisms such as communications, civil aviation, railway, and road. These integrated platforms have facilitated information linkage with transportation, Public security among others. The informatic system has enabled the health practitioners to gather data related to COVID-19 diagnosis and used it to carry out an analysis. These analyses have aided in corona related scientific research, clinical treatment, control, and prevention. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System During this covid-19 period, many factors are affecting the healthcare informatics system. The first factor is privacy protection. To put the spread of coronavirus under control, tracing human activity has become a crucial method to determine the source. The health information of an individual has become a reliable measure to limit and monitor peoples’ movement. Besides, health information is being shared among medical institutions and health care organizations as a requirement for better provision of patient care and treatment. However, this has raised privacy issues as sensitive information is been shared across various health-related purposes. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System The concerns here are that the information could be used without the patient’s consent. There are also concerns that personal information from close contact and suspected patients could be misused. These privacy concerns have impacted healthy informatics in various ways. The situation has led stakeholders to establish that the current informatics in place lacks a unified framework. There is therefore need to enhance a unified framework for purposes of sharing epidemiological data without placing sensitive information at risk of been misused. Once an appropriate framework is put in place, the sharing of health-related data between communities, agencies, and governments will become more orderly. Another factor that has affected the healthcare informatics system during the corona pandemic is emerging technologies. One of the emerging technologies is social media platforms. Currently, social media platforms have a great following and they have become crucial during this pandemic. Members of the public are using various platforms for purposes of accessing diverse information about COVID-19. Almost all governments especially in the first world countries have leveraged digital technologies such as blockchain, AI, mobile internet, the internet of things, big data, and cloud computing. All these efforts have been made to complement the services offered by the health informatics systems. The services are meant to establish the efficiency of resource allocation, virus tracking, and epidemic monitoring. Besides, emerging technologies and social media have streamlined the process of coronavirus treatment, control, and prevention. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Through the highlighted technologies, people can use mobile internet to access COVID-19 prevention knowledge and situation dynamics. The technologies related to big data are now been used to monitor the movement of the personnel, material allocation, and epidemic situation assessment. The infrared and computer vision technology has been leveraged to enhance technology-based temperature measurement, medical imaging, and intelligent diagnosis. At the international level, 5G is been applied to facilitate international collaboration and aid in the treatment of patients with extreme COVID-19 (Moore et al., 2020). This has also highlighted the need to move health informatics into cloud computing to allow better management of data and security. Still, the capability of the current and future informatics systems has become a factor of concern. The current situation has stressed the need to focus on the development and design of the health information systems not only today but also in the future. The first critical ability focuses on the rapid deployment following the emergence of a pandemic such as a coronavirus. The information systems need to be deployed on time to support the treatment and admission of patients. Another capability that has been put to test is the information exchange between hospitals designated to handle COVID-19 patients, the shelter hospitals, the center for disease control and prevention (CDC), and medical institutions. The last capability is the electronic health record’s (EHRs) rapid response to coronavirus. As a result of the outbreak, the professionals in the clinical informatics docket have initiated EHR configuration to respond to the corona pandemic effectively (Whetton et al., 2020). The configuration in this context includes outbreak-associated data statistics, suspected case reports, order tools, triage, and screen processes. Another factor of consideration is service delivery. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, digital evolution has influenced both outpatient and primary care. Coronavirus has led to the recognition that digital health technologies can protect the community, clinicians, and patients. To avoid physical interactions, countries have adopted telehealth platforms, remote monitoring, and digital-first strategies. The success attributed to the application of these technologies can be associated with companies’ readiness to offer solutions that were already existing. Covid-19 struck at a time when medical technology had matured sufficiently and the efforts did not begin from the scratch. Also, the majority of the countries had well-developed data and privacy regulations even before the corona outbreak. Technological change was much needed during this time to facilitate remote consultation hence preventing physical interaction. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Quality service delivery is critical during this period and requires comprehensive remote management. Remote management is important especially for the patients under hospital outpatient and primary care clinics. This includes the coronavirus patients whose condition can be controlled remotely using symptomatic self-isolation and management. However, several remote digital technologies are been tested to confirm their suitability and ascertain whether there are serious concerns related to them. Research of high-quality technologies is therefore needed to allow societies and communities to make well-informed decisions as far as handling pandemics is concerned. Also, artificial intelligence (AI) is another factor that is affecting the healthcare informatics systems during this pandemic. After the pandemic struck, all eyes turned to AI with the hope that it would supplement the healthcare informatics systems in terms of enhancing timely delivery of care, personalized care, information flows, optimization of data, and development of new drugs (Ye et al., 2020). The pandemic has forced the key stakeholders to reflect on the AI’s responsibility to assist health-related systems to control the crisis. The AI-based assessment of new reports and social media data analysis is assisting predict the outbreak’s spread pattern. Through AI, massive data are been generated from various sources that include public health statistics, local news outlets, Facebook Twitter among many others. The big data obtained from the process is been used to make predictions about the behavior and spread of the Coronavirus outbreak. AI is been widely used in informatics systems to offer quality data analyzed to predict and model the illnesses’ behavior. The mobile phone data is been triangulated to detect the movement of people to give a timely prediction of illness and risk. Monitoring movement has enabled the public to adhere to social distancing rules. Apps used to store data in an individual’s phone are been used to facilitate contact tracing. AI is a recommended application for diagnostics and imaging. For instance, it can be used by the medical team to take x-rays and help differentiate other forms of pneumonia from COVID-19. The successful application of this approach has led to speedy tracking and isolation of patients. Besides, the implementation of AI in informatics has assisted healthcare staff to be on track as far as the spread of COVID-19 is concerned. However, there are concerns about enhancing the performance of AI in informatics worldwide to ensure that there is transparency in how the needs reporting is carried out. Besides, AI as a major factor can foster the redeployment of drugs that are in existence and treatment of the virus through the advancement of the latest drugs. For instance, AI has enhanced accessibility of huge numbers of research papers that offer necessary information on the latest drugs that could of great advantage to treat COVID-19. As of now, AI is affecting informatics by been implemented to enhance the development of treatments and effective vaccines. Insilico Medicine is one of the organizations that applied the use of AI to develop more than six molecules that could curb the spread of the deadly virus. Apart from what has been mentioned, artificial intelligence can assist healthcare sectors to halt the spread of Coronavirus. The AI aids in the development of initiatives with the motive of decreasing and predicting the spread through fostering treatment and diagnosis. However, artificial intelligence has led to several questions directed at the protection of issues and access to data as information and results are been transferred across various health systems. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Apart from what has been discussed above, data sharing is another factor in healthcare informatics. The aggressive coronavirus response has a significant impact on how healthcare-related information is used. It is has been understandable to make data a priority since it has supported the surveillance of the disease and highlighted operational needs that include resource management and hospital capacity planning. Besides, data sharing has facilitated a wide range of research requirements that cover studies such as drug trials, clinical outcomes, patient risk factors, and virus mutations (Tangcharoensathien et al., 2020). Data sharing in informatics have aimed to enhance policy decision that includes freedom of movement, social distance rules, targeted isolation advice, health system management, and tracing and testing strategy. Achieving these goals emphasizes the high need for clinical narratives, diagnostic imaging, laboratory test results, genome analysis, social circumstances, prior medications, prior conditions, and demographics. Analytics that cover major areas of health as far as COVID-19 is concerned to have been linking data from health record systems and multiple healthcare organizations. This has posed challenges as it has become burdensome to establish safe linkage while keeping in control the risks of reidentification and sustaining information security. However, regulations have been put in place to assist organizations to assess patient’s confidential information for purposes of managing and treating COVID-19. Widespread studies have shown that clinicians are trusted with data where they use it for legitimate purposes. Unfortunately, distrust has been confirmed on how pharmaceutical organizations and institutions use these data. At the peak of this pandemic, issues to do with how data is been utilized have been ignored more so by the public. This has raised many questions on whether everything will return to normalcy once COVID-19 has been wiped from the face of the earth. The health QR codes are also another factor that has impacted healthcare informatics systems. The QR codes based innovations are widely been applied during this pandemic to enhance individual tracking. The health QR codes have played a fundamental role in the control and prevention. It has also been praised for enabling individuals to resume their places of work. the health QR codes require individuals to carry out scans while exiting and entering public places that include subways, supermarkets, and communities. The codes are based on three colors namely green, yellow, and red. Red, for instance, shows that an individual has corona-related symptoms while green on the other hand is proof that an individual is not infected with the virus. This has enabled the big information systems to track an individual’s travel routines. Healthcare informatics systems and big data technology can assist health practitioners to ascertain whether an individual has come into indirect or direct contact with a suspected or confirmed COVID-19 patient (Atique et al., 2020). This in turn has enhanced traceability that has allowed government healthy authorities to locate people who might be infected with the virus. With this in mind, it has become easier for agencies to make timely interventions to curb the spread of the deadly virus. The internet of things (IoT) is another factor that can be linked to healthcare informatics systems. The IoT includes objects such as computing devices, digital mechanical, and digital machines. The IoT combines with communication protocols put in place to enhance the intelligent management of data. Through communication technologies that include sensors, the internet, and networks, everything becomes interlinked to establish connections between objects and objects or objects and people (Nkechinyere, 2020). IoT has enabled remote monitoring which has led to the achievement of long-term, continuous, and real-time monitoring of COVID—19 patients. Sphygmomanometers, ventilators, electrocardiographs, and smart devices are currently been used to collect physiological factors such as breathing and heart rate. The gathered data is then sent back to the informatics system via a network or Bluetooth in real-time. once the information has been collected, the system executes analysis whose outcomes are widely been applied to make informed clinical decisions. Through analysis, the system can highlight abnormal data and trigger an alarm. This has assisted the doctors to judge and investigate the situation based on the alarm information. Mobile health apps are another factor affecting healthcare informatics systems. The smartphones based tracking applications are been widely used to share, gather, and collect critical information related to this deadly pandemic. Through the apps, it has now become easier for users to verify whether they have into contact with a patient or a suspected case. The apps require users to key in personal information to enhance tracking and monitoring. Users also give necessary information such as zip code and age to register with these apps. The phone numbers are also integrated into the apps to allow users to get a notification once contact with identified patients is detected (Reeves et al., 2020). Tracking apps are using Bluetooth technologies and networks. The apps have been advanced in such a way that they can execute digital handshakes once they get closer to a specific social distance range. The interaction is then encrypted, recorded, and stored by the system. The information has proved to be effective to determine potential and high-risk populations. It is during these corona times that the apps are been widely used to enhance early warning, tracing, and tracking to manage the spread of this virus. This has in turn enhanced efficiency in the control and prevention work. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Part 2-people affected by pandemic before and after taking precautionary measures The rise of coronavirus can be evaluated from different perspectives. For instance, the assessment can focus on the number of people affected by the pandemic before and after the precautionary measures were developed and affected. According to Worldometer, Asia has the highest number of cases. At the time of writing, Asia had around 13 million reported cases. Asia is closely followed by North America that has more than 10 million confirmed cases. Europe and South America have an estimated 9 million cases each while Africa has 1.7 million total cases. Oceania comes last with just around 37,000 confirmed cases. Somewhere in December 2019, health experts noted rare pneumonia among several patients in Wuhan, China. Samples were gathered to conduct deep research on the new virus whose origin had not been determined. The virus’ genome sequences were generated following nanopore and Illumina sequencing. The bioinformatic analysis indicated that the virus shared the same features with those of the coronavirus family and it was categorized as a Betacoronavirus 2B lineage. At the end of December, health agencies reported hundreds of confirmed cases in Wuhan. In early January, the transmission had started to spread to other adjoining provinces of Wuhan including Jingzhou and Xiaogan. During the Chinese New Year, there were increased population movement across the country and the celebrations led to widespread transmission across China. Individuals concentrated in traffic and cities facilitating human to human transmission resulting in thousands of cases in the country. As of mid-January, around six thousand people had developed COVID-19 symptoms and the prior results turned out to be positive. At the end of January 2020, there were an estimated seven thousand confirmed cases in 19 countries. This alarming trend prompted the World Health Organization to proclaim the illness an outbreak and called out for PHEIC (public health emergency of international concern) (world health organization, 2020). On 11th March 2020, several countries that include Japan, South Korea, Iran, and Italy reported escalating numbers of patients with COVID-19. At the end of March, the number of confirmed cases had exceeded cases in China. Europe was considered the epicenter of COVID-19 by WHO on March 13 th . Also, WHO noted the increasing transmission to other continents and regions as a result of international flights. After WHO declared COVID-19 a pandemic of international concern, governments rushed to enact containment measures to slow the spread of the virus. Nevertheless, despite the measures, countries continued recording the increasing transmission. In June, WHO issued a warning that the spread was proliferating as countries worked towards reopening their suffering economies. In October 2020, WHO summoned a special meeting and it noted that one in every ten people around the world may have contracted the deadly virus. As of that time, the organization asserted that an estimated 780 million individuals around the globe may have being infected. At the time, WHO noted that there were more than 35 million confirmed infections worldwide. So far, COVID-19 has claimed around 1.17 lives while 44.7 million have been tested positive across the world. Also, an estimated 30.1 million people have recovered from the illness globally. It is beyond no reasonable doubt that the COVID-19 pandemic has numerous impacts on the healthcare sectors in all the affected countries. Saudi Arabia is not exempted from this as it has also witnessed both positive and negative outcomes of the pandemic on its healthcare sector. The pandemic has resulted in a decrease in visits made to the hospital for various reasons. Studies have indicated that Saudi Arabia has reduced hospital visits as a result of panic and fear among the patients. Also, there have been reported shortages of medically related supplies and this has provoked the Arabian ministry of health to step in and ensure that the hospitals are better equipped to slow the spread of the virus. Besides, the ministry has reported decreasing transmission of respiratory viruses such as influenza as a result of social distancing measures and quarantines (Adly et al., 2020). Social distancing measures have led to increased loneliness hence mental health concerns are proliferated in the country before the measures were reviewed. Saudi Arabia has a population of around 34 million. It is one of the middle east countries that has been said to be the most affected by the pandemic and the government is working towards decreasing the rate. The government decided to cancel the highly rated hajj. Hajj attracts around 2.5 million pilgrims around the world. The ministry of health has also initiated mass testing to determine the number of cases in the country. As July 2020 was coming to an end, the ministry made an announcement in which it confirmed 262,772 positive cases out of 3 million tests. There were around 2700 deaths while the number of recoveries has reached 222,000. The ministry of health in Saudi is categorized as a reliable and authentic source of health information for Saudi Arabian citizens. the ministry works collaboratively with the private sector, university teaching hospitals, and other ministries like that one of defense to deliver healthcare-related information across the kingdom. As of now, the ministry is applying the use of information technology and electronic communication to enhance the high quality of healthcare, availability, equitability, and improvement of crucial standards (Hassounah et al., 2020). It also works in line with the vision 2030 national transformation program whose objective is to foster prevention of common health threats, improve the healthcare services quality, and enhance increased access to quality care. It is also working closely with the National Health Information Sector to roll out the eHealth or electronic health to enhance crucial healthcare transformation. Through the ministry, the private sector has received a great boost from the ministry to allow them to serve patients who do not need in-person visits to the hospitals. Some of the hospitals that have these apps include Dr. Sulaiman Al Habib Medical Group and King Saud medical city. Other hospitals became innovative and shared WhatsApp numbers to assist suspected patients to inquire about the laboratory outcomes, enhance remote-based routine follow-ups, and help patients refill medication requests. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Notable events On 2nd March 2020, the government of Saudi Arabia confirmed its first case of coronavirus in the kingdom. The first case involved a Saudi national who returned to the country from Bahrain. Following the confirmation of this first case, King Salman announced a nationwide curfew that would restrict unnecessary movements from 7 pm to 6 am on the 23 rd of March. At this particular time, the number of confirmed cases had reached 562. The following day (24 th march), around 205 cases were reported bringing the total of infected patients to 767. The first victim of the disease succumbed on the same day and it involved a 51-year-old male. As of 26 th march 2020, the positive cases exceeded 1000. By 29 th March, the cases had surpassed 1400. This prompted the king to declare free treatment of COVID-19 patients irrespective of legal or social status. On the 8 th of April, it was estimated that around 150 individuals affiliated with Saudi’s loyal family were COVID-19 positive. This brought the number of infected individuals to 2932. One week later, the cases exceeded 5000. On 20th April, the cases reached 10000 following mass active testing in the kingdom. On May 16 th , the cases in Saudi Arabia surpassed 50,000. As of 7 th June, the cases exceeded 100,000 (Alharbi et al., 2020). Two weeks later, the Saudi government dropped some of the restrictions except mask-wearing in public and social distancing measures. On 3rd July, the international community expressed concerns that the government was underreporting cases in the kingdom forcing many US diplomats to free as noted by the Wall Street Journal. Response by the government Closure of medina, mecca, and other religious sites Due to the increasing number of COVID-19 cases in Saudi Arabia, the government announced the closure of Medina and Mecca. Each year, millions of Muslims visit Mecca to pay the Umrah pilgrimage. The government temporarily suspended visits to the Madinah prophet mosque and the great mosque of mecca. On 5 th March, the government emphasized the importance of sterilization during this pandemic and went ahead to initiate further precautionary measures. These measures were focused on temporal closure of daily prayers in all Great mosques and other Islamic holy sites across the kingdom. The Friday prayers were all also temporarily called off to reduce the spread of the outbreak. Later on, the government announced the reopening of mosques on 30 th may without including the great mosque of mecca. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Curfew In the first week of March, the government declared that transport in Qatif Governorate would be temporarily halted but inhabitants would be allowed to access the city. On the 24 th of March, the government through the ministry of interior imposed a curfew from 7 in the evening to 6 in the morning to restrict the movement of citizens hence reducing the increasing transmission. Besides, the movement was completely restricted in and out of the Jeddah governorate. Starting from the 2 nd of April, the government suspended the holy cities of Madinah and Makkah toa 24-hour curfew (Alrashed et al., 2020). On the 6 th of April 2020, curfews were also imposed in Hofuf, Dhahran, Tabuk, Dammam, and Riyadh cities as well as Khobar, Ta’if, and Jeddah governorates. Assignment: Development of Healthcare Informatics System Transport and mobility The government recognized the risk associated with transport and mobility from outside countries that reported cases of coronavirus. As a result, the Saudi government imposed a travel ban on china on the residents as well as citizens. besides, the government through the ministry of foreign affairs suspended entry to Madinah and Makkah for citizens affiliated to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC).in early February, the government announced the suspension of taxis, buses, trains, and domestic flights for the next two weeks to further stop the transmission of COVID-19. The measure was effected on 2 nd March. After the first case was reported in Saudi Arabia in March, the government through the ministry of health moved swiftly to impose measures meant to contain the spread of the COVID-19. Trained medical staffs were grouped into teams whose purpose was to lead the war against the pandemic in the country. Also, the ministry shared a designated telephone number with a member of the public and it could be used as a hotline to report suspected cases. Through the number, members of the public would be able to ask questions related to COVID-19 and seek necessary information about the infection. Apart from that, the ministry spearheaded the establishment of isolation and treatment units to manage cases that turned out positive for coronavirus. Also, the ministry fostered training of health workers from

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