[Get Solution] Study Approaches

Compare and contrast 3 study approaches including advantages and disadvantages. example:  Of the many study approaches, the three I will focus on in this discussion are case series, cohort studies, and qualitative studies. Jacobsen (2017, p.41) defines a case series as studying a group of individuals with the same disease or who have undergone the same procedure. Case series require no comparison group and use analysis of individual-level data through a primary or secondary approach. There are several benefits to case series studies, such as they are useful in developing hypotheses for future research as well as identifying new syndromes. One of the main disadvantages of a case series is the possible gaps in data recording, with secondary data is often the primary source of the research. Another drawback being the number of people studied. If participants in a case series are followed for more extended periods, the study approach may become a cohort study per our textbook. Cohort studies follow within the category of analytic observational studies. Following participants through time to calculate the rate at which a new disease occurs and identifying risk factors for the disease is the description and goal of this study approach (Jacobsen, 2017, p 59). The three categories of a cohort study (retrospective, prospective, and longitudinal) are determined based on the time baseline data is collected during the study. One strength of cohort studies is they are efficient for rare exposures, and exposure effects can be studied on multiple outcomes (Friis & Sellers, 2014). One disadvantage of a cohort study is that there is a potential for recall and selection bias dependent on the type of cohort design chosen. Another disadvantage is the time these studies often require and possible barriers to participant follow-up long term studies may present. Cohort studies and case studies are closely aligned, but cohort studies are more focused on exposure or risk factors while case studies are more descriptive.  Lastly, I have chosen to discuss qualitative studies. The notes I gathered from the course text on this descriptive study approach is that the focus is to look for themes and meanings that emerge from observations with key informants. Qualitative studies are not based on quantitative research but focus on answering “why” and “how” with purposive sampling through narratives. The disadvantage of this study approach is the ability to measure statistical data. Still, an advantage to this approach is it allows researchers to obtain a deeper understanding of the topic through interactions with the informants. Though its focus is on data collection as with the two above studies and one contrast is that data from qualitative studies can only be collected from primary analysis while the other two approaches can use primary or secondary analysis. There were many research methods to choose from, and of the three mentioned, there were several advantages and disadvantages. Whether using a descriptive study such as a case series or analytic study, researchers need to understand the differences in study approaches to choose the one that will be most beneficial to informing the public of ethically sound data.    Jacobsen, K., (2017). Introduction to Health Research Methods: A Practical Guide (2nd ed). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

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