Students should write a 2-page research plan. The plan describes how you test the validity of a theory or theories, without actually carrying out the plan. It is only the description of the test, not actually doing it. You should describe the theory, the major concepts, and what do they do so that readers know what you are testing. Then you explain how you want to test it. You can use questionnaires, interviews, personal experiences, or cite many earlier cases, books, research findings to support your research. You can write: At a social, how you observe a stranger, what qualities can you find out? What info can you not get from observation? Then, you ask someone about the person, using active method to get info. Maybe you get on social media for info. (extra active method). How will you contact the person? What info you want to disclose, and why? How will you further or terminate the contact? …….. Basically, you write a detailed description of how you want to test a theory, the expected outcome of the test. In another example: There are endless signs in daily life, a bus stop, a monument, a national flag, a national anthem, a certification, an emblem, an award, a road sign, a NBA ring…… they are all signifiers, you can easily identify the signified. Use examples to show the validity of the semiotics. You can do research and find out the origins of some signs (denotative) and the signified, then explain the connotative meanings of these signs, like the yellow ribbon example. Then you talk about how people or media use signs to express meaning to show the theory of semiotics works.