RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER Permalink: university-of-wo…ethodology-paper / ? Unformatted Attachment Preview RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 1 Relationship Between HIV and Absentee Father in the African American Families Introduction According to research, the African American ethnic group is one of the most affected groups with HIV/AIDS in the United States. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC cites that the African American ethnic group makes up more than 40.0% of individuals living with AIDS in the U.S. (CDC, 2017). Additionally, among the newly acquired HIV infections in the U.S., the African American ethnic group accounts for more than 40.0%. Considering the effects HIV has on society, those statistics are worrying. There are many factors associated with the spread of HIV, including poverty, women in the community who are of lower status, failure to change sexual manners, prostitution, and drug abuse, among other factors. African American families have been widely known to live without father figures (Smith, 2017), making it essential to look into the issue as a possible factor behind the high HIV infection rate. With the African American community widely known to have families without fathers, this paper seeks to evaluate if the presence or absence of a father figure in the African American family will influence in any ways the prevalence of HIV infection amongst those who are part of the family. By establishing the relationship between HIV and absentee father, this research outcome will serve as a possible solution to the spread of HIV among the African American community. Role of Father in a Family HIV infection remains a significant threat in the health care system across the world. As of 2019, more than 30 million lives had been lost globally due to HIV (WHO, 2020); despite measures to curb the spread, it is still a concern among the African American community. Different factors contribute to the high infection rate, including poverty, unemployment, and substance abuse, among others. HIV affects different groups, and therefore this research work aims at identifying the relationship between the absence of a RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 2 father and HIV infection. Research Design and Methodology Paper. #To establish whether or not there is a relationship between HIV and absentee fathers among the African American community, it is essential to understand the role of a father in a family. Even though there has been a history of African American fathers missing during parenthood, a look at a father’s role in a family helps understand the possible relation with HIV infections among the African American group. The commonly cited reasons for people contracting HIV are linked to economic and social factors. Fathers have been known as a source of security to families just by their presence. They also provide family guidance, which prevents indulgence in activities that could cause HIV infections. Family guidance includes initiating morally acceptable behaviors in both the children and wife. A well-guided family is not subject to behaviors like engaging in drug and substance abuse by a well-grounded family. Mothers and children will not engage in acts of drug and substance abuse while living under an organized family led by a father. Drug and substance abuse predispose its users to HIV through the sharing of syringes. Also, drugs result in individuals losing their moral sense, and people will likely indulge in unsafe sex when under the influence of drugs. A father’s presence also instills ethical conduct in the woman, preventing them from engaging in activities that predispose them to HIV, like prostitution. Another role of a father in a family that determines the prevalence of HIV in the family includes providing for the family. Fathers are heads of the families, and in most families, they are known as breadwinners. As leaders of families, they pick up jobs to ensure they provide for their wives and children. Fathers provide for their families by ensuring that their children have access to education. Education is a fundamental element in the well being of a society. Through education, individuals can land better jobs and fight unemployment and poverty, which is one cause of HIV spread. Research Design and Methodology Paper. Education has been cited as a social determinant of health, and it plays a significant role in fighting diseases, including HIV. According to research, individual health and overall well-being are molded by their education (Braveman RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 3 & Gottlieb, 2014). For instance, it was discovered that 50% of cases happening in the U.S. that lead to contracting a disease or loss of life were said to be purely based on behavior. The presence of fathers plays a role in educating their children, reducing drop out rates, and instilling education, one of the social determinants of health. The company of fathers in families provides financial support, which ensures that members receive basic needs. On the contrary, in the absence of a father and a higher dependency ratio, especially in the inner cities, most African American women engage in activities like prostitution to fend for their families. Engaging in activities like prostitution, predisposes women to HIV. Based on fathers’ roles in a family, it becomes clear that families under a single mother, either widowed or divorced, will try to fend for their families, but in most instances engaging in activities that contribute to HIV prevalence. Therefore, families without a father contribute to the majority of HIV by engaging in activities that predispose them to contracting aids or spreading AIDS trying to provide for themselves and their children. How Families Without a Father Contribute to the Prevalence of HIV There is a higher percentage of people affected with HIV aids among the American population. However, the most affected population remains the African American group among all the ethnic groups. Although the community makes around 12% of the overall population in America, studies indicate that they are the group most affected by HIV. Studies suggest that women with HIV are high than men living with the virus (Frew et al., 2016). Although among the African American population men are considered as the highest population with HIV as a result of homosexuality (Han et al., 2015), single mother family is more likely to contract the infection. Studies have indicated a high rate of African American women having high rates of HIV, especially those who are divorced or widowed. There are different causes of the high infection rates that lead to the high quality of HIV among the families without a father ranging from social-ecological problems and community-level factors. Research Design and Methodology Paper. There have been efforts put in RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 4 place to help reduce the rate of spread of HIV in the U.S. CDC reported to have observed a significant drop in the number of new HIV infections; however, women from the African American race still recorded the highest number of HIV new infections (Bradley at al., 2019). Compared to other races, i.e., the Latino and women from the white race, black women recorded higher HIV infections. Among the cited concerns were alarming poverty levels. Most of the black women from the inner city are single mothers, having dropped out of school with no hands-on job skills to land them a living. As a result, they can not fend for themselves due to economic constraints like lack of income source. Considering that leaving school without enough skills to get a job makes them unemployed, they have to depend on men for survival. In the case where the men become absent, the women of color are left with limited options to sustain their families; thus, they engage in activities like prostitution and other small sexual networks. Therefore, the absence of a father in those families can be said to be associated with HIV infections among African Americans. Families without a father are likely to contract HIV due to inadequate access to health care, poverty, unemployment, mistrust in the health care services that lead to discrimination, and sociocultural factors (Tarantino et al.,2016). Instances of inadequate access to healthcare among African Americans are prevalent due to many limitations like unemployment, limiting their levels of health utilization. Gender disparity among African American women compared to other races could be associated with lower income levels. Lack of finances means there is limited access to healthcare services. The role of a father in the family is to provide and protect his family. Thus, the father ensures that the family has access to education, good health, and guides the family members’ behaviors. However, mothers are unlikely to play his role in his absence and may end up in harmful acts such as prostitution to feed the family. The sexual misconduct thus leads to increased chances of HIV infections among the family. (Mustanski et al.,2017). The absence of a father figure in most of the African American households can be RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 5 attributed to the rising instances of HIV infection among African American women. Prostitution among these women opts for due to financial constraints—the sexual misconduct results in the women contracting HIV. Compared to a scenario where their men are present, they would be providing for their families; thus, the women would not be forced to engage in commercial sexual activities like prostitution to sustain their needs. Poverty among single-mother families leads to indulging in drugs and substance abuse for both the mother and the teenagers. The absence of fathers automatically renders most of the inner-city families in turmoil. Mothers plus their children, especially those in their teenage years, end up being distressed by the need to sustain themselves, yet they are economically disadvantaged. Like any other individuals, these single mothers will engage in drug and substance abuse. A look into this habit has more to do with poverty. Like most people, these African American families resort to drugs as a counter to stress. Another determinant of addiction, aside from poverty, is an individual’s level of education. Research states that more educated individuals will show a lesser tendency to use drugs compared to the less educated person (Foundation Recovery Network, 2020). Research Design and Methodology Paper. Since most of the inner-city households are characteristic of lower levels of education, i.e., few make it past high school education, their story of being addicted to drugs is high. Also, due to low levels of education, these households have limited access to decent jobs; thus, there are high levels of unemployment. Unemployment also has an interrelation to poverty, which causes mental distress pushing people to become addicted (Foundation Recovery Network, 2020). The foundations set by single mothers through drug and substance use create a habit even in their children to abuse drugs. Substance abuse remains a significant cause of HIV transmission due to risky behaviors that may include sharing needles and engaging in sexual activities. Single mothers may be affected by the lack of a father in the family to support the basic needs, which leads to stress hence substance abuse (Bello et al.,2018). Substance abuse RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 6 among families without a father may also affect the teenagers who have no one to correct their actions. As they indulge in substance abuse, their judgment is impaired, making decisions that may put them at risk of contracting HIV aids. Also, the sharing of needles during substance abuse puts them at risk of HIV infections (Frew et al., 2016). Besides, the failure to make rational decisions due to drugs’ influence leads to engaging in unprotected sex, causing teenage pregnancies and a higher risk of contracting HIV. The absence of a father due to divorce or death may lead to sexual misconduct among women. This has a high risk as she may contract the virus and then transmit it to the unborn child in case of pregnancy. In a Florida based study, it was ascertained that the absence of men increases the possibility of being born with issues. Despite numerous efforts to reduce HIV infection rates in Florida, most of the HIV tests that came out positive were women from the minority group, mostly African American. Based on their description, most of them were single mothers and aged thirty-five years and below (Alio et al., 2013). Among those who tested positive for HIV, most of them recorded the absence of men in their lives. The research cited that the lack of men in the lives of African American women risked the fetus being born with complications, including being vulnerable to contracting HIV. Prostitution is also another factor that may put the family at risk of HIV. (Gaydosh,2015) These are individual factors that put the family at risk when a father is absent. This may be a result of gender imbalance or poverty among the family members. Research indicates that financial problems remain a major cause of HIV infections, especially among women without husbands, Mainly due to the small sex related trades the financially constrained women engage in (Mbirimtengerenji, 2007). The need to provide food and other necessities to the family results in prostitution; in carrying out the sex trade, these women end up contracting HIV infections. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 7 The lack of education also limits the ability to get decent employment to provide for the family. Therefore, fathers have a significant role in preventing the likelihood of HIV infections in the family (Han et al., 2015). Since performing their responsibilities limits the occurrence of instances that cause single mothers and or divorced women to contract HIV. Conclusion Based on the previous section’s information, it is evident that there is a relationship between HIV and absentee fathers in African American families. Although the relationship might not directly correlate, it is through attempts by African American women to provide for the families that they contract/spread HIV. Hypothetically assuming that the absent men among most African American households perform their duties, then the predisposing factors will significantly reduce. The absentee father figures among African American families lead to the homes economically constrained, thus unable to access better education and medication. The lack of knowledge leads to unemployment, which breeds poverty. The mental distress caused by poverty renders both the single women and their children becoming drug addicts, which predisposes them to more possibilities of HIV prevalence. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 8 References Alio, P.A., Mbah, A.K., Shah, K. et al., (2013). Paternal Involvement and Fetal Morbidity Outcomes in HIV/AIDS: A Population-Based Study. American Journal of Men’s Health. Volume 9 Issue 1 Page 6-14 Anakwenze, U., & Zuberi, D. (2013). Mental Health and Poverty in the Inner City. Health and Social Work. Page 147-157 DOI: 10.1093/how/hlt013 Bello, C. B., Irinoye, O., & Akpor, O. A. (2018). Health status of families: A comparative study of one-parent and two-parent families in Ondo State, Nigeria. African journal of primary health care & family medicine, 10(1), e1–e8. Bradley EL, Williams AM, Green S, et al. (2019). Disparities in the Incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Among Black and White Women — the United States, 2010–2016. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2019; 68:416–418. DOI: Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it’s time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports (Washington, D.C.: 1974), 129 Suppl 2(Suppl 2), 19–31. Center for Disease Control and Prevention CDC (2020). HIV Among African Americans. CDC Fact Sheet. Retrieved: Foundations Recovery Network (2020). Economic Status and Abuse. Dual Retrieved: Frew, P., Parker, K., Vo, L., Haley, D., O’Leary, A., & Diallo, D. D. Golin,… HIV Prevention Trials 064 (HTPN) Study Team.(2016). Socioecological factors RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HIV AND ABSENTEE FATHER 9 influencing women’s HIV risk in the United States: Qualitative findings from the women’s HIV seroincidence study (HPTN 064). BMC Public Health, 16, 803. Gaydosh, L. (2015). Childhood Risk of Parental Absence in Tanzania. Demography, 52(4), 1121–1146. Han, C. S., Ayala, G., Paul, J. P., Boylan, R., Gregorich, S. E., & Choi, K. H. (2015). Stress and coping with racism and their role in sexual risk for HIV among African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, and Latino men who have sex with men. Archives of sexual behavior, 44(2), 411-420. Mbirimtengerenji, N. D. (2007). Is the HIV/AIDS epidemic outcome of poverty in subSaharan Africa? Croatian medical journal, 48(5), 605–617. Mustanski, B., Swann, G., Newcomb, M. E., & Prachand, N. (2017). Effects of Parental Monitoring and Knowledge on Substance Use and HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Men Who have Sex with Men: Results from Three Studies. AIDS and Behavior, 21(7), 2046–2058. Smith, M.D. (2017). The Dangerous Myth of the “Missing Black Father.” The Washington Post. Retrieved: Tarantino, N., & Armistead, L. P. (2016). A Parent-Based Intervention to Prevent HIV Among Adolescent Children of Mothers Living with HIV: The Ms. Now! Program. Vulnerable children and youth studies, 11(2), 160–172. World Health Organisation WHO (2020). HIV AIDS Key Facts. Retrieved: … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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