Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health

Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health Home > Current Issue > Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health: The… < Previous Article | Next Article > Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing: November/December 2013 – Volume 28 – Issue 6 – p 503 – 504 doi: 10.1097/JCN.0b013e31829eae4f DEPARTMENTS: Progress in Prevention Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health: The Promise and Potential of Policies and the Affordable Care Act Hayman, Laura L. PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison RN, ANP, PhD, FAAN Free Acce ss Article Outline Author Information Laura L. Hayman, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN Associate Dean for Research and Professor of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, and Associate Vice-Provost for Research, University of Massachusetts Boston. Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, RN, ANP, PhD, FAAN Associate Professor, Department of Acute and Chronic Care, School of Nursing, and Division of Health Sciences Informatics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, and Deputy Director, Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Baltimore, MD. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. Correspondence Laura L. Hayman, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125-3393 ( [email protected] ). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States has increased substantially over the last 4 decades. The most recent (2009 – 2010) population estimates based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) indicate that 35.7% of adults and 16.9% of children and adolescents are obese. 1 Although there has been no change in the prevalence of obesity among adults or children from the 2007 – 2008 to the most recent 2009 – 2010 NHANES survey, there continue to be racial and ethnic as well as socioeconomic and geographic disparities. Non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics have a significantly higher prevalence of both overweight and obesity compared with their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health 1 Approximately 44% of non-Hispanic blacks are obese and 80% of Hispanics are overweight or obese. Similar racial and ethnic disparities have been observed in children, particularly among Hispanic boys and non-Hispanic black girls. Of note, the prevalence of obesity is highest among low-income children. In addition, geographic disparities have persisted throughout the NHANES surveys conducted from the late nineties (1998 – 1999) through 2010. Specifically, the highest rates are observed in the Southeast, Appalachia, and tribal lands in the West and North Plains. 1 Clearly, the changes in prevalence of both overweight and obesity over a relatively short period of time cannot be attributed to genetic factors. Changes in potentially modifiable environmental factors that promote reduced energy expenditure and increased energy intake have been cited as Sign up to view the full document! lock_open SIGN UP important factors contributing to the development and expression of overweight status. Taken together, the prevalence and trends in obesity observed over the past several decades have prompted the attention of the scientific community as well as healthcare providers, consumers, and policy makers. Recent attention has emphasized the need for a life course approach to prevention of this adverse health condition and multilevel policy changes necessary to create healthy home, school, workplace, and community environments. 2,3 The evidence and rationale for emphasis on primordial and primary prevention are compelling. Accumulated data indicate that obesity present in childhood and adolescence is associated with adverse cardiometabolic conditions, including dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. 4 In addition, obesity present in childhood and adolescence tracks into adulthood. 4 That is, compared with their normal-weight school-age and adolescent counterparts, obese children and adolescents are more likely to be obese in adulthood. Obesity present in adulthood is also associated with adverse cardiometabolic health and is considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. 5 Collectively, this evidence argues convincingly for prevention of obesity beginning early in life and extending throughout the life course. Obesity results from an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure. Viewed within a socioecological life course perspective, patterns of dietary intake and physical activity, central to energy balance, develop early in life and are influenced over time by potentially modifiable contexts, including family, school, and community factors. 2 These critically important lifestyle behaviors are also influenced by policies that affect the food and physical environments of these contexts. Schools are a viable venue for population-based approaches to prevention of obesity and its comorbidities, with potential to reach 95% of our children and youth, including those from diverse racial-ethnic backgrounds and low-income communities. 6 The Congress has recognized the important role that schools play in health promotion and disease prevention. In 2004, the Congress passed the Child Nutrition and Women Infants and Children Reauthorization Act,Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health 7 requiring, by law, that all local education agencies participating in the National School Lunch Program or other federally subsidized child nutrition programs create local wellness policies focused on enhancing the food and physical environments of our schools. Although it was an unfunded mandate, the legislation placed the responsibility of developing a wellness policy at the local level in an attempt to ensure that the individual needs of each local education agency would be addressed. In 2010, Congress passed the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act, 8 adding new provisions for local wellness policies related to implementation, evaluation, and publicly reporting on progress of local wellness policies. Requiring each local educational agency participating in the National School Lunch Program or other federally subsidized child nutrition programs to establish policies for all schools under its jurisdiction, minimum policy- specific requirements are also included. 8 Emphasis is placed on goals for nutrition promotion and education, physical activity, and other school-based activities that promote student wellness; evidence-based nutrition guidelines for all foods available in each school district (with emphasis on student health and reduction of childhood obesity); information provided to the public regarding the content and implementation of the local wellness policy; and periodic public report of progress toward policy related goal attainment. Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health 8 Although the effectiveness of these wellness policies in promoting healthy patterns of dietary intake and physical activity and reducing childhood obesity on a national level remains to be determined, research that has incorporated components of these policy-specific requirements has demonstrated the potential of healthy food and physical activity school environments in reducing childhood obesity. 9 Sign up to view the full document! lock_open SIGN UP Sign up to view the full document! lock_open SIGN UP ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Home>Current Issue>Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health: The…Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing:November/December 2013 – Volume 28 – Issue 6 – p 503504doi: 10.1097/JCN.0b013e31829eae4fDEPARTMENTS: Progress in PreventionPreventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health: The Promise and Potential of Policies and the Affordable Care ActHayman, Laura L. PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN; Himmelfarb, Cheryl Dennison RN, ANP, PhD, FAANFree AccessArticle OutlineAuthor InformationLaura L. Hayman, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAANAssociate Dean for Research and Professor of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, and Associate Vice-Provost for Research, University of Massachusetts Boston.Cheryl Dennison Himmelfarb, RN, ANP, PhD, FAANAssociate Professor, Department of Acute and Chronic Care, School of Nursing, and Division of Health Sciences Informatics, School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, and Deputy Director, Johns Hopkins Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Baltimore, MD.The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose.CorrespondenceLaura L. Hayman, PhD, RN, FAHA, FAAN, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Blvd, Boston, MA 02125-3393 ([email protected]).The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States has increased substantially over the last 4 decades. The most recent (20092010) population …Preventing Obesity and Promoting Cardiometabolic Health Purchase document to see full attachment Review Honor Code flag Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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