Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry

Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry This question/project would be m aking CHANGES to an already COMPLETED/DONE paper to meet instructors expectations/suggestions: Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry Hello Jesus, You have done a very nice job. I do have a few suggestions with my first being to keep it simple. You are not doing a mixed method study. You are doing a case-control where you are comparing depression/suicidal risks and area of employment. (1) Title: Critical Care Nurses Depression and Suicide Risk Compared to Telemetry and Medical-Surgical Nurses (2) Under Methodology Design: A cross-sectional case-control; Sampling Purposive will be used to select….. Instrument BDI (Include statement on reliability/validity). Analysis is ANOVA. What you are predicting is that ICU nurses are at a greater risk of depression and suicide as measured by the BDI compared to either Telemetry or Medical-Surgical nurses. You are not measuring the death rates of patients, so you cannot say that there is a relationship between death rates and depression or suicide risk, but what you can suggests is that ICU nurses work under more stressful conditions that include increased death rates of their patients which can place them at a greater risk for depression and suicide. Under your Introduction cite the author of your statement that ICU nurses are subjected to emotional stress, especially with the death of their patients. This is significant and supports your need to evaluate the risk of depression/suicide risk. What you are trying to show is that while nurses employed in an acute care hospital are at risk for depression and suicide, ICU nurses are at a greater risk. While you listed a number of reasons for depression, none included stressful working conditions. Best wishes, Dr. Linda Eanes jrebolledo_critical_care_nurses_depression_and_suicide_compared_to_medical_telemetry_2.doc Running head: NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE Critical Care Nurses Depression and Suicide compared to Medical Telemetry Jesus G Rebolledo The University of Texas at Rio Grande Valley NURS 6302.90L Dr. Linda Eanes March 17, 2019 1 NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 1.0 2 Abstract Nurses are professionals trained to save human lives. A large number of nurses experience depression and some even end up committing suicide thanks largely to their exposure to frequent patient deaths. The purpose of the proposed research project is to use the case-control design to compare three different groups of nurses working in different areas within an acute care hospital on their risk of depression. The three groups include nurses in the telemetry unit, intensive care unit, and medical-surgical unit. To measure the depression experienced by the nurses, the Beck Depression Inventory would be used. The statistical tool that would be employed is ANOVA. The expected result is that nurses in the ICU department have the highest risk of depression and therefore suicide due to the fact that they witness more patient deaths than nurses in the other departments. The expected conclusion is that ICU nurses are at a greater risk of depression followed by telemetry nurses. The risk of depression is lowest among nurses in the medicalsurgical unit since patient deaths are lowest in this department. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 3 Critical Care Nurses Depression and Suicide compared to Medical Telemetry 2.0 Introduction According to the American Association of Critical Care Nurses (AACN), critical care nurses have 9 advocacy roles to address. The rights of the patients, intermediary and intervention roles are the first duties to be delivered by nurses. Additionally, they are expected to monitor the quality of care provided, assist patient when provided facility fails and act as champions where patients are unable to speak for themselves (Nagy et al., 2015). Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry Other duties are representing the patient’s needs to a medical doctor, supporting patient’s spokesperson and assisting in transfer care. Some working conditions like cleaning patient’s wounds, tracking life support are among duties delivered by critical care nurses. Just like the family members of the patient, critical care nurses are subjected to emotional stress especially when a critical patient succumbs to death. Cardiovascular disease is the leading killer disease according to the American report on the leading cause of death. Patients are admitted to hospitals where they are placed under the care of medical telemetry nurses. These nurses observe, analyze and record patient progress on the electrocardiogram and report vital signs to the in charge. Additionally, they ensure quality care provisions, assist patients when the machine fails and convey information from the patient to the medical team. This progressive nurse is required to assist family members in delivery emotional support to the patients thus exposing them to stress and depression just like the family members. According to reports on trends in nurses, stress and depression originating from the working environment have led nurses to commit suicides (Cummins et al., 2015). In some cases, the patient’s survival may be impossible but the nurses must remain composed. This situation forms the basis of this study that will be conducted in Arizona State. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 3.0 4 Background problem Nurses are professionals trained to save human lives. Critical care nurses have duties to save patients’ lives as well as addressing issues professionally in information delivery on the progress of patients. Consequently, addressing patients’ issues requires the highest application of emotional intelligence. On the other hand, nurse job description requires appropriate decision when support machines fail to respond as well as influencing the patients to make positive decisions that will lead to preserving life and reducing deaths (Khan et al., 2019). However, this job is facing threat as nurses are subjected to depression that leads to suicidal cases in some regions. Causes of depression among nurses arise from their working environments. Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry Taking, for example, the critical care nurses witness deaths of patients admitted at the ICU on daily basis. According to a report provided by expert analysis, about 10 patients die while under the care of nurses in the ICU (Cummins et al., 2015). On the other hand, medical telemetry nurses form a vulnerable group that attends to patients with heart complications. According to the Forbes report, cardiovascular heart disease is the leading killer disease among Americans. Medical Telemetry nurses are supposed to monitor patients’ conditions as well as making decisions on providing alternatives when support machines fail. From these incidents, research has proved that nurses suffer depression that leads to loss of life through suicidal cases. Depressed nurses also tend to make ineffective decisions and have poor work performance (Ranse, 2019). Deterioration of nurses’ mental intelligence is bringing a threat to the wellbeing of patients admitted hospitals. This formed the background of this study to identify the most vulnerable group that suffers depression and to some extent suicidal cases NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 5 between the critical care nurses in the ICU, medical-surgical nurses, and the telemetry nurses. The findings from the study will help in enhancing parent care conditions provided by nurses. 4.0 Purpose, Problem Statement and Significance of the Problem During the study, the general objective that will lead the research is to identify the type of nurses exposed to frequent death of patients leading to depression and suicide. The specific objectives will be to obtain statistics on the number of nurses lost to depression and suicide, and to establish the number of deaths that ICU nurses, telemetry nurses, and medical-surgical nurses are exposed to. Additionally, the research will seek to establish the relationship between depression and nurses’ suicidal cases instead of seeking alternative measures. In line with the objectives of the study, the research question will be: Are critical care nurses in the ICU who are exposed to frequent patient deaths at higher risk of major depression and suicide than medicalsurgical nurses and telemetry nurses who have less exposure to patient deaths? This question will analyze the similarity in nurses working conditions and the number of deaths recorded per group. On the other hand, it will answer the question of increased risks of depression and suicide and associate it to mental issues that arise when nurses witness patients dying. The research question will also answer the question on the most vulnerable group of nurses that needs attention to improve services provided by nurses in hospitals. The hypothesis of the study is that nurses in the medical-surgical unit and telemetry unit are not as highly depressed as nurses in the ICU department. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 5.0 6 Literature Review According to the World Health Organization, about 15% of individuals in a given age group suffer from clinical depression in their lifetime. Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry In addition to this, 5% of the affected individuals are males while 9% of the population is made up of females. According to studies conducted, one of the causes of depression is an imbalance that originates from the neurotransmitters. The experts explain that neurotransmitters coordination may experience a shortage in supply thus leading to the occurrence of clinical depression in an individual (Brown, 2019). This type of depression is chemically triggered. Another cause of depression is sexual hormones that exist in an individual. Women tend to suffer depression more than males. The influx in female hormones trigger depression as experienced during the menstrual period, childbirth and perimenopause stages of their lives. According to doctor’s reports, depression among females affects them from teenage until the latter stages of their lives. The seasonal affective disorder is a type of depression that is caused by disturbance on the normal cardiac rhythm of the body. Disturbance in circadian rhythm is triggered by light entering the eye, which is experienced in winter seasons. People residing in colder regions suffer this type of depression. Poor nutrition can trigger depression in an individual. Studies have revealed that diets low in omega-3, fatty acids or imbalance ratios of omega six are associated with increased rates of depression (Coppens et al., 2018). On the other hand, taking too much sugar from junk foods may trigger depression. Poor nutrition is normally influenced by mental conditions that symbolize the early symptoms of depression in an individual. Stressful events in life such as death may overwhelm an individual leading to depression. According to studies on life events related stress, hormone cortisol is scattered during stress leading to the production of serotonin by neurotransmitter which results in depression. Grief and NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 7 loss of loved one contribute to grief and feeling of emptiness. This results in troubled sleep, poor appetite and low interest in normal activities. Continuous feelings of grief and loss result in depression that may affect an individual. Depression is a serious issue that affects lives in society and will result in suicide or death. According to Bell et al. (2018), depression is a common bet serious mood disorder affecting how we feel, think or carry ourselves in daily activities. According to this definition, forms of depressions are persistent depressive disorder, postpartum disorder, and psychotic depression. Another definition of depression is that it is illness marked by sadness worthless and hopelessness arising from problems surrounding an individual (Oliveira, 2018). According to this argument, depression can be caused by environmental factors that limit an individual’s capacity to concentrate on daily activities like work or leaning. According to this definition, a model is provided to illustrate how different factors of the environment will influence an emotional intelligence and lead to worthlessness as well as hopelessness that leads to individual’s ending his/her life. A model is applied to explain how stress develops in an individual and affects the life of the person in the future as follows. Figure 1: Showing model of the life of an individual NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 8 The proposed study has several limitations and a few assumptions would be made. During the study, limitations will be on the study topic to avoid additional expenses that will be incurred in the evaluation of other parameters.Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry This will involve an evaluation of activities managed by critical care ICU nurses, medical-surgical nurses, and telemetry nurses that may lead to depression or suicide among them. On the other hand, during the study, limitations will be considered on the geographical scope where related risks that will contribute to the development of stress among nurses. The study will apply random sampling but limitations will be allowed where participants will be allowed to recommend other participants based on their experience. According to the planning of the research, the allocated time to evaluate risks associated with depression and suicide will be one month. However, other issues associated with depression and health-related risks may involve analysis of finer details that will provide the required evidence to show the vulnerable group. During data collection, some respondents may be hostile and reluctant to provide essential information on the risk factors. This will entail provisions to attempt the questions or walk out of the study. Additional participants will be recruited in the course of the study to meet the required numbers for the collection of comparative data. Researchers may be exposed to critiques from the respondents on questions asked against their expectations. This will involve linking findings provided to make conclusions. From the data collected, assumptions will be made that the information collected is provided in an honest opinion. The study will apply both qualitative and quantitative research approach where analysis will involve making assumptions on missing links across depression causative factors and the group that is likely to be affected the most. Assumptions will be made after considerations made on primary data to enhance reliability and validity. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 6.0 9 Research Methodology Approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) would be obtained. Approval from this administrative body is important since the proposed study will use human subjects. The study will follow all IRB rules and protection of the human participants would be ensured. 6.1 Participants/Study Subjects Nursing staffs working in a major hospital organization would be included in the study. These are nurses who experience depression as a result of their nursing role. The depression mostly comes about when they witness the deaths of their patients. 6.2 Research Procedures The study will enlist 100 participants who will be selected at random. They would be recruited from three different departments of a large hospital: medical-surgical unit (n = 35), telemetry unit (n = 35), and intensive care unit (n = 30). Simple random sampling technique would be utilized in which every nurse will have an equal chance of being chosen. The inclusion criteria are as follows: work in telemetry, intensive care unit (ICU), or medical-surgical unit; experience of at least 1 year at the hospital; and experienced stresses or depression related to nursing. The depression experienced by them would be measured. Regarding research design, the proposed study will use the case-control research design. Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry Three different groups with similar characteristics would be compared; they are groups of nurses working in different areas within an acute care hospital. They would be compared on their risk of depression. The three groups are as follows: Group 1 comprising nurses working in the hospital’s Intensive Care Unit department. Group 2 includes nurses in the telemetry department. Group 3 comprises nurses in the medical-surgical department. Nurses in each of these groups experience stresses associated with nursing. They also experience patient mortality, although NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 10 nurses in the ICU department experience more patient mortality than those in the other departments. National statistics on the rates of mortality indicate that the medical-surgical unit experiences about 110,000 patient deaths annually, telemetry experiences 330,000 patient deaths each year, and roughly 500,000 deaths take place in the ICU every year (Lyons et al., 2017). Collection of data will apply a cross-sectional study because it is the most commonly used and participants have an understanding of how it works. On the other hand, both quantitative and qualitative analysis will be applied to gather the required information for the study. In this case, qualitative research will produce numerical facts that will be analyzed using mathematical formulas to arrive at conclusions. Similarly, surveys and counting will be applied to collect information on a number of victims affected, the extent of depression and the number of nurses from both sides of the study. Meta-analysis will be applied to secondary data to calculate data gathered from the parameters. Collected data will be analyzed using graphs, and cluster analysis for testing the hypothesis. Tables will be applied for making entries on numerical information gathered from the field. Qualitative research will involve seeking opinions on how and why depression affects critical care nurse and medical telemetry nurse. Since this study will be general in data to be collected, techniques that will be applied for data collections are interviews, focused group discussions as well as direct observation of parameters. Postcards will be applied to inform of small written questionnaires while secondary data will be collected through photographs on the occurrence of events during the study. Since general data will be collected, coding will be applied to enhance analysis other statistical tools provided by a computer such as SPSS, and Microsoft Excel will be applied for further analysis to provide a comparative analysis on the NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 11 study parameters involved for data collection. The analysis from both qualitative and quantitative data will be used for drawing conclusions. To measure the depression experienced by the nurses, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). This is a 21-item self-report rating inventory used in measuring depression symptoms and characteristic attitudes (Garcia-Batista et al., 2018).Nurses Depression and Suicide Compared to Medical Telemetry It measures the depth, severity, as well as intensity of depression in people who have psychiatric disorders. Using BDI, higher scores would indicate that the nurse has a higher risk of depression and suicide. The statistical tool that would be used is ANOVA, which is a parametric statistical method utilized in comparing datasets (Kim & Cribbie, 2018). It is suitable in where at least two samples or populations are compared. Since the proposed study seeks to compare three samples/populations of nurses, the ANOVA statistical tool is most appropriate. 7.0 Expected Results and Conclusions Upon completion of the research, this study will be of benefit to critical care nurses, medical-surgical nurses, as well as telemetry nurses in managing depression that may lead to suicidal thoughts. The most critical group will be highlighted on measures to be taken to manage depressions occurring following exposure to deaths. On the other hand, this information will be provided to the less vulnerable group for addressing stress and depression arising from their working environment. The local authorities responsible for the development of a work plan will be able to realize working environments that affect the lives of nurses and formulate improvements on how to provide effective care. On the other hand, medical doctors will be able to understand conditions that are critical to nurses and create a counseling plan to address depression and related cases among the critical group identified. This will help in improving patient care as well as reducing suicidal cases among nurses in society. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 12 Depression management is a critical step to ensure among nurses. When patients are admitted in a health facility, their hope remains on the nurse who is committed to handling duties diligently. On the other hand, family members of the patients depend on the nurse to make decisions on how the patients will be managed. However, depression affects how humans think. This will affect the capacity of the assigned nurse to act effectively following feelings of hopelessness. To secure the future of our nurses as well as ensuring effective attention offered to the patients, there is a need to motivate nurses for an improved outcome. This improvement involves identification of the most critical group then recommending best practices to manage depression that may end in suicide. Taking this step will not only enhance nurse performance but also save a life. NURSES DEPRESSION AND SUICIDE 13 8.0 References Bell, C. M., Ridley, J. A., Overholser, J. C., Young, K., Athey, A., Lehmann, J., & Phillips, K. (2018). The role of perceived burden and social support in suicide and depression. Suicide and Life?Threatening Behavior, 48(1), 87-94. Brown, K. M., Jones, M. B., Moore, L., Meliones, C., Montgomery, J. A., & Ascenzi, J. (2019). Advanced Nursing Practice in Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care. In Critical Heart Disease in Infants and Children (pp. 82-93). 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