Nigeria health and medicine homework

Nigeria health and medicine homework Nigeria health and medicine homework This is a discussion, I need a response to a paper written by classmate. read paper thoroughly and add something to the discussion giving examples from paper 200 words nigeria_pfizer_scandal.doc Nigeria health and medicine homework . Running head: NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL Nigeria-Pfizer Scandal Stella 1 2 NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL Nigeria-Pfizer Scandal In 1996, an American drug company Pfizer went to Nigeria to test a meningitis drug on 200 children without any adherence to medical ethics on medical research involving humans. Pfizer failed to get proper consent for the trial. As a result of their action eleven children died and many more became disabled. The company was in breach of global ethical guidelines on pharmaceutical trials. As a result of horrifying acts and unethical medical research experiments in the past, like the Tuskegee Syphilis Study and the Willowbrook Study, guidelines were developed to ensure the protection of human participants while research is conducted. These guidelines are based on the articles of the Nuremberg Code (1947) and the Declaration of Helsinki (1964) (Ghooi 2011). All health research projects that involve humans are supposed to be approved by ethics committee commonly called Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) or Research Ethics Committee (RECs) (www.apus.edu). Review boards will not approve studies that do not meet three main ethical considerations of health research: beneficence, respect for persons and distributive justice (Fain 2013). Pfizer did not give any ethical considerations before actually carrying out their trials on humans. ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS According to worldpress.org Pfizer’s trial was set up hastily in conditions where parents of meningitis-infected children were panicking. No informed consents were obtained from the parents of these children before the drugs were given to them. The parents claimed that they did not know they were submitting their children to trial of an experimental drug and were not told that Trovan had never been tested on children. Pfizer’s main motivation here is financial. According to Washington post, Pfizer was hoping that Trovan would become a multibillion-dollar brand, and had been waiting for opportunity to test the drug on children suffering from meningitis. Knowing that they would never carry out such an unethical research in the United States, the 1996 Kano epidemic presented a rare opportunity for NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL 3 a trial. This is a typical exploitation of third world country, the poor and helpless by a multinational company in the name of humanitarian gesture and philanthropy. The independent Vanguard Daily of Lagos reported that Pfizer’s claim that it was acting on humanitarian grounds was “coating a lie in a glossy, believable color” (Vanguard daily Jan, 10). To make the matter worse, Pfizer claimed that the result was “remarkable”, given that the epidemic killed 10% of those infected, (forbes.com, 2008) WHAT ARE YOUR CONCLUSIONS? WAS THIS AN ETHICAL STUDY? My conclusion from reviewing this study is that Pfizer was in violation of human right as stated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights-“freedom from torture and cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment” (www.un.org). These children were subjected to inhuman treatment, torture and cruelty because they were used as guinea pigs to test an experimental drug. This was an unethical study. Pfizer obtained no informed consent for the study. Nigeria health and medicine homework help Nigeria health and medicine homework . For ethical studies, a voluntary informed consent to participants in trial/research must be obtained from all prospective subjects or their regal representatives and the trial must be approved by an Internal Review Board. Pfizer did not meet any of this requirements. Also risk-benefit ratio was not explained to the participants before intervention was given, the benefits should exceed the risks. The-risk benefit ratio remains a primary objective standard by which we can judge the ethics of certain research procedures (Fain 2013). No disclosures were made. During this trial a kid died just after receiving one dose of Trovan. Then during a 1997 FDA audit Pfizer produced a letter dated a week before the trial began from a Nigerian hospital granting it ethical clearance. The letter was backdated. Pfizer also shamelessly argued that there’s no Nigerian law or regulation requiring ethical committee approval before conducting a clinical trial. This is another lie by Pfizer in order to cover up their atrocities. The trial was not done in accordance with good NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL 4 medical practice and ethical norms. There was no due diligence. They capitalized on panicking parents. WHAT DO YOU BELIEVE ABOUT PHILANTHROPIC ACTIVITIES? DOES THIS MAKE A DIFFERENCE? Philanthropy which is the desire to promote the welfare of others, expressed especially by generous donation of money to good causes is a noble cause. I certainly believe that businesses, wealthy individuals should be active in philanthropic activities. I also believe that individuals should be involved in their communities. Donating time, money and goods to worthy causes can benefit the givers as much as the receivers. But I do have some reservations with some philanthropic activities especially, donations made to areas with less scrutiny like the third world countries. According to PepsiCo, a beverage company “we believe doing good is good for your business”. When it is strategically done, charitable giving is good for business. Nigeria health and medicine homework . While the organization appreciates your donation, you can promote your charitable activities to build goodwill in the community, enhance customer loyalty, heighten brand awareness and yes, even increase sales (www.pepsico.com). This means that this company is just looking at the gains they will make by giving. They give not just for charitable activities but to boost their sales. Some rich individuals and companies also give to charity to get tax breaks. Some gifts are also motivated by a reciprocal benefits that is paid in non-monetary terms, example a gift could be given to a university with the hope that it will improve the donor’s children chance of acceptance. My skepticism also come from the fact , that sometimes substandard goods and services are given as humanitarian aids especially to third world countries and underprivileged. Sometimes conditions are attached to gifts. The conditions may be politically manipulative or may be contrary to human rights. The Nigeria-Pfizer scandal is an example of where a NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL 5 humanitarian act can violate human right. According to forbes.com, “under pressure to reduce research costs and win fast-track approvals, drug companies do 43% of their clinical trials abroad, up from 14% ten years ago. Nigeria-Pfizer scandal is an example of the exploitation of third world countries. Pfizer is an American company, which in the name of philanthropy conducted an unethical drug trial in Nigeria.Nigeria health and medicine homework help Nigeria health and medicine homework . Pfizer knew that such trial will never be allowed in the United States. This Pfizer trial only boosted my believe that most philanthropic activities to third countries come with strings attached and in most cases benefits the donor instead of the recipient. It is nothing but quid pro quo. CAN THE NURSE BE AN ADVOCATE FOR ETHICAL HEALTHCARE IN THIS TYPE OF STUDY? WHY OR WHY NOT? The nurse can be an advocate for ethical health care in any type of study involving humans more so when drug trials are being conducted. The nurse should ensure that studies are conducted in line with relevant legislation, research protocol and guidelines (Paterson 2012). Advocacy, one of the core provisions of the code of Ethics for nurse, is a pivotal role that a nurse undertakes when caring for patients. According to Mahlin (2010), nurses are ideally positioned to act as advocates due to their proximity to patients and their caring nature. When advocating for patients the nurse promotes patients’ best interest and defends them against violations of their rights (Simmonds 2008).Because of the natural concern for the well-being of patients, nurses should be knowledgeable and have the ability to evaluate research for ethical violations. Nurses’ role in research include screening, recruitment, obtaining informed consent, administration of intervention being studied, monitoring participants, collecting data and reporting any adverse events (Wechsler 2013). It is extremely important that nurses understand the treatment, its NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL 6 indication, side effects and adverse reactions. The nurse should also understand the laws governing research involving humans like making sure that informed consent is obtained from patients or caregivers if the patient is a minor or lacks mental capacity to make decision. With this knowledge the nurse will make sure that the research is conducted whilst adhering to the trial protocol and the 1996 international conference on harmonization and good clinical practice standards for research.Nigeria health and medicine homework help The nurse therefore in her role as patient advocate will be a whistle blower when patients’ rights are violated. In this Pfizer drug trial in Nigeria, informed consents were not obtained, parents were not informed of the potential side effects of the drug, which makes me wonder if nurses were involved in this drug trial and why they did not advocate for these children. A nurse promotes, advocates for and strives to protect the health, safety and rights of the patient (American nurses association). 7 NIGERIA-PFIZER SCANDAL References About us/institutional review board, www.apus.edu/community-scholars/institutional-reviewboard American nurses association, code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements. Fain, J.A., (2013). Reading, understanding and applying nursing research (4th ed), Philadelphia, PA, Davis Company Ghooi R.B., (2011). The Nuremberg code-a critique, prospect clin resc 2(2):72-76 Global citizenship/pepsico.com, www.pepsico.com/purpose/global-citizenship International conference on harmonization of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use, Geneva, swizerland (1996), www.ich.org Mahlin, M., (2010). Individual patient advocacy, collective responsibility and activism within professional nursing association, nurs ethics, 17(4):247-254). Paterson, J.G., (2012). The role of the clinical research nurse, nursing standard 26(27):37-40. Simmonds, A.H., (2008). Autonomy and advocacy in perinatal nursing practice, nurs ethics, 15(3):360-370 The universal declaration of human rights/united nations, www.un.org/en/universal-declarationhuman-rights Wechsler, D., (2013). Advocacy Nigeria health and medicine homework helpand the clinical trial nurse, nursing 43(3):1-3 … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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