Instructional strategies to increase student motivation

Instructional strategies to increase student motivation Instructional strategies to increase student motivation Include a PDF of the actual article along with your journal article review (the assignment submission area allows multiple document uploads). Write your article review using Microsoft Word (no other computer program, such as Works or Word Perfect, is acceptable). Each Journal Article Review must be accompanied by a title/reference page, as well as at least 3 in-text citations and an APA formatted reference page with a minimum 2 references. One reference will be the selected article, another can be any other scholarly sources related to the topic Include a biblical Scripture(s) that relate to the topic. Give a brief explanation of the selected Scripture. Utilize a professional writing style. Do not begin with “This article is about…” Open the review with a strong thesis statement and thoroughly summarize the author’s main points in the first part of your review. First-person can only be used in your detailed response to the article. Make sure you identify each section with headings/sub-topics. Each journal article review must be 350–500 words and adhere to current APA formatting. (Note: make sure that you have reviewed the grading rubric.) Instructional strategies to increase student motivation motivating_students_in Peer Review Motivating Students in the 21st Century Mandy L Sedden, MSRS, R.T.(R) Kevin R Clark, EdD, R.T.(R) Purpose To examine instructors’ and students’ perspectives on motivation in the classroom and clinical environments and to explore instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students in the 21st century. Methods Articles selected for this review were from peer-reviewed journals and scholarly sources that emphasized student and educator perspectives on motivation and instructional strategies to increase student motivation. Results Understanding how college students are motivated can help educators engage students in lessons and activities, ultimately improving the students’ academic performance. Discussion Students exhibit increased motivation in classes when educators have high expectations, conduct an openatmosphere classroom, and use multidimensional teaching strategies. Instructional styles such as connecting with students, creating an interactive classroom, and guiding and reminding students improved student motivation. Conclusion Radiologic science educators must be mindful of how college students are motivated and use various instructional strategies to increase students’ motivation in the classroom and clinical setting. Keywords motivation, motivating millennial students, instructor perspectives, student perspectives, instructional strategies to motivate, clinical learning environment, mentors in clinical setting, clinical learning motivation M otivation is an important foundation for students’ academic development.1,2 Many factors affect students’ motivation to learn, such as an interest in the subject or the desire to learn the material.3 Motivation often is classified as intrinsic or extrinsic. Students who are motivated intrinsically have an internal drive to succeed and a personal interest in the material.2 Students with extrinsic motivation engage in activities to obtain external incentives, such as grades or rewards.2 Some students in the radiologic sciences are enthusiastic about learning, whereas others need instructors to encourage them.3 Understanding how students are motivated can help educators engage students in learning activities and ultimately improve their academic performance. Although ages of 21st century college students vary, many students fall into the millennial cohort, a generation generally born between 1981 and 2000. 4,5 RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, July/August 2016, Volume 87, Number 6 They live in a time of convenience, with exposure to technology and electronic devices from the first day of life.5-7 Many in this generation—as well as some older students—view education as an acquisition rather than a process of learning.8 This attitude results in a lack of motivation in many of today’s students. A 2006 survey of high school students found that 66% viewed college as a means to an end.9 They believed attending college would improve their living standards and increase their chances of finding better jobs.9 This reasoning could be why instructors perceive a lack of motivation among today’s college students, many of whom are millennials. Some students are more concerned about the end result and finding a high-paying job than they are about learning and retaining information. Even students who do not fall into this category might go through a phase of burnout during a course and need additional stimulation. Educators need ways to 609 Peer Review Motivating Students in the 21st Century encourage and motivate students throughout the course and during burnout phases. This literature review summarizes students’ and instructors’ perspectives on motivation and explores instructional strategies educators can use to motivate college students. Methods Multiple databases were searched including CINHAL Complete, EBSCO Host, and Academic Search Complete. Instructional strategies to increase student motivation Articles were limited to peerreviewed and scholarly journal articles published between 2006 and 2015. Searches included combinations of the following keywords: motivation, motivating millennial students, instructor perspectives, student perspectives, instructional strategies to motivate, clinical learning environment, mentors in clinical setting, and clinical learning motivation. An exhaustive search was conducted to include only studies and reviews with well-defined concepts, reliable methods, and well-reasoned conclusions that focused on motivation within health profession education and general higher education. Studies that were not empirical in nature were excluded. Forty articles were selected for this literature review. Students’ Perspectives Instructors Students are not shy when it comes to voicing an opinion of what they like or dislike about an instructor. They often speak of the negative more than the positive; however, multiple studies have identified educator qualities that motivate students to learn and engage in learning activities.2,3,8,10-12 Several researchers found that students respond to instructors who are motivated themselves, and for some students, the instructor’s personal qualities were more important than the management and design of the course.3,10 An instructor who was open-minded, knowledgeable, and enthusiastic about the course received better responses from students.3,10-12 For students, the student-instructor relationship and the instructor’s teaching and social ability rated higher in importance than did an instructor’s intellectual characteristics and professional training.2,3,8,10-12 This connects the importance of social relationships in the classroom and the compartmentalizing of students’ lives.3,8,10 Students want to feel connected to and 610 supported by their instructor, and when they feel this, students gain intrinsic motivation to learn.3,8 Students earned higher grades in classes where the instructor used humor, developed a rapport with the learners, provided an open atmosphere where students were free to ask questions and argue viewpoints, and exhibited high expectations of the students.10,11 Instructors who had a good command of these categories were more likely to be perceived as effective and motivating.10 Students expected instructors to demonstrate a commitment to creativity, conduct ongoing reflection of teaching strategies, improve student efficacy, and reach out to other professionals and parents for students’ success.2,10 Validating this point, when instructors demonstrated a sincere concern for the students’ individual success, the students showed improved motivation and the instructors had higher pass rates.3,11 Incidentally, one study documented a lack of engagement and a poor use of technology as significant instructor mistakes perceived by college students.13 Classroom Environment Students preferred a more interactive lesson rather than a lecture.3,8,13 For example, in a radiography program’s positioning course, students are introduced to positioning and anatomy via lecture and then apply what they learned in the laboratory setting. The students might pay more attention during the lecture because they know they will have to perform the position in the laboratory setting and earn a grade for their performance. Instructors should not rely on lecture alone but should incorporate several teaching methods to keep the students curious and motivated.2,3,9,13 Regarding an instructor’s management of the classroom, students reported they were more motivated in a well-organized, positive atmosphere with relevant lectures.3,8-11,14 Furthermore, the importance of the culture in the classroom and the interaction between student and instructor can facilitate or impede student motivation.Instructional strategies to increase student motivation 3 Knowledge of students’ beliefs, opinions, values, and motivational needs helps an instructor create a more open environment for learning and interacting, increasing student motivation.2-3,10,14 If students felt the course content was not relevant, they had difficulty staying interested or motivated.3,8-11,13,14 Students also found it RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, July/August 2016, Volume 87, Number 6 Peer Review Sedden, Clark was important for the instructor to relate the content to the clinical setting and future professional work.3 Clinical Environment The clinical environment is an important aspect of the learning process for many medical professions including radiography. It includes staff, patients, and equipment and allows students to learn the values of the medical profession at the bedside while contributing to student knowledge, thinking, and learning.15,16 The clinical setting offers students a social learning experience not available in the classroom.15 Students appreciate and value this type of social learning. 3,8,10,13 Researchers found the social aspect of the clinical environment to be the foundation of student motivation in the clinical setting.1,15-18 Observations and interactions with patients, along with feedback from instructors, were important for the learning process.15-18 Clinical instructors who were enthusiastic, encouraging, knowledgeable, and who could foster a positive atmosphere improved the learning experience and motivation levels for students.1,15,17 Helpful clinical instructors who gave direct guidance, linked theory to practice, and offered constructive feedback had students who were more involved and motivated to learn.15,16 Effective supervision with frequent formative feedback and a reliable system for assessing student performance were key to student success.15-18 Students rated highly the need for early specific feedback to help them improve their clinical skills.15-18 Incidentally, some researchers found that students were apprehensive asking for feedback.19 They advised instructors at clinical sites to be aware of this and to find ways to encourage students to ask for feedback.19 Instructors’ Perspectives Students Notable differences have been identified between the perspectives of tenured and nontenured faculty. Tenured professors attributed teaching effectiveness to factors outside their control, such as student motivation, whereas nontenured professors attributed teaching effectiveness to personal factors.20 Research demonstrated the drive and preparedness from students and the institution guidelines were the determinants in RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, July/August 2016, Volume 87, Number 6 teacher effectiveness in the opinions among tenured professors.20 Nontenured professors attributed their effectiveness to themselves and their own efforts.20 One researcher found that tenured and nontenured professors’ perceptions of student motivation were low.21 The author noted that professors did not believe students had an intrinsic motivation to learn.21 However, other studies found that instructors with high expectations for their students’ success had higher motivation rates among students.10,20,22 These instructors set a high standard for their students and expressed clear expectations. They assigned challenging tasks to encourage student success. From an instructor’s perspective, the motivation to learn should be intrinsic; students should want to learn the material, not just memorize it to pass the course.14,22 Using a qualitative approach, one study explored instructors’ general perceptions of college students.23 The thematic analyses revealed multiple challenges facing instructors. Instructors perceived students to have a sense of entitlement, doing what they wanted rather than what was expected of them.23 Instructors also commented on the students’ passive approach to problem solving and their dependence on others to solve problems during class.23 The researchers suggested encouraging students to use campus resources, such as student support services, to improve in areas of weakness. Classroom Environment Instructors are aware of the importance of engaging and motivating students in the learning experience; however, many instructors struggle with finding suitable approaches.13,14,24 One strategy that demonstrates increased student motivation is increasing the level of instructor engagement.24 Instructors recognized the importance of being invested personally in the content they teach.13,24 It is easier for students to see the relevance of the course material and be engaged and motivated when their instructors appear excited and eager to teach.13,24 One study suggested using small group discussions as well as alternating between 10 minutes of lecture and 5 minutes of debriefing during class discussions to keep the students engaged and motivated throughout the lesson.Instructional strategies to increase student motivation ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS 13 Another study associated instructor clarity and organization with gains in students’ critical-thinking 611 Peer Review Motivating Students in the 21st Century skills and academic motivation levels.25 Instructors who implemented clear and organized classroom instruction contributed to improvements in students’ overall academic performance and level of motivation.25 Other studies stressed the importance of giving clear instructions to students to avoid misunderstandings or confusion and to promote a classroom environment conducive to learning.13,24 Clinical Environment Clinical teaching in health professions education is an important factor that influences students’ motivation and performance.26-29 One analysis suggested instructors interact with their students in a more student-centered teaching style to foster motivation.28 Some student-centered strategies included providing multiple choices, situations that require criticalthinking skills, structured guidance, and emotional support.28 Valuing student work and providing positive and constructive feedback also were recognized as strategies instructors could use in the clinical environment to increase motivation.15-18,26-28 Improved motivation and increased retention rates also were identified in undergraduate athletic training students when clinical instructors helped students identify their role in the clinical setting, established a network of support, and taught time-management skills.29 Instructional Strategies Connect With Students Connecting with students and engaging them in their own learning can motivate them to learn course content.2,3,21,30 Several studies noted the importance of the students and instructors getting to know one another.2,3,21 Students related more with and exhibited greater levels of respect with an instructor they felt they could trust.2,3,21 Knowledge of students’ beliefs and a willingness to negotiate granted students autonomy and convinced them that the instructor truly was interested in their learning and success.26-28 Including students in the decision-making process gave them opportunities to develop responsibility and independence.16,31 One author encouraged students to meet with him at least once in the semester.30 This open-door policy provided him and his students the time to develop mutual 612 respect. The meetings also gave the instructor the opportunity to encourage students in their academic endeavors, and students were able to ask questions and receive feedback.30 Positive, constructive feedback increased students’ self-efficacy along with self-motivation.2,16,26-28 Instructors who focused on individual student success instead of general class performance were able to increase the students’ self-efficacy and motivation.16 Research indicated feedback should be early, frequent, specific, and constructive to show the students how and where to improve.2,3,26-28 Self-efficacy and motivation increased when the instructor reminded students that their success was a result of the effort they exerted.2 Students are involved in many activities such as family, work, extracurricular, and cocurricular activities. They compartmentalize their life activities and often allow the minimal time needed for education.8 Several studies agreed on the importance of scheduling regular but brief meetings with the instructor to help the students reflect, refocus, and connect with the instructor and course content.8,16 Along with these meetings, several studies demonstrated that incorporating multiple learning strategies, such as active or problem-based learning, helped students stay focused and become more motivated.32-36 Create an Interactive Classroom Students are more likely to stay involved in a class when they interact with the instructor, students, or equipment as part of their own learning experience.8,31 An interactive classroom provides students practice and relates the material to their career choice to create a rich learning experience. Active learning is any instructional method that engages students in the learning process and has been shown to improve student motivation.32-34 For example, a lesson on object-to-image distance magnification asks students to shine a light on the back of their hand and watch the shadow get larger as they increase the distance from the desktop (ie, image receptor). Instructional strategies to increase student motivation Active learning allows students to interact with their classmates and instructors through discussion in small, informal groups and performance of hands-on simulations, as well as reading case-based studies, writing, reflecting, RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, July/August 2016, Volume 87, Number 6 Peer Review Sedden, Clark and participating in open-ended discussions in class.32-34 Instructors can improve students’ performance and motivation to participate through careful planning and providing clear instructions,32,33 but any interaction with students during class also showed a great improvement in student motivation.3,31,36 Simply asking questions in class increased students’ attention and retention.31 Other active learning ideas were short games, use of humor, short group projects, and class discussions.3,31,36 Problem-based learning allows the instructor to present a problem to small groups and have them work together to solve the problem.32,35,36 With problem-based learning, the students are self-directed and responsible for their own learning, with the instructor serving only as a guide.32,36 Case-based learning is similar to problem-based learning, except it is not a group assignment, and it usually relates to real-world cases.32,36 Students are presented with an assignment to complete outside of class and then class time is used for discussion and application.32,35 Instructors should introduce student-centered learning gradually so students do not become overwhelmed and discouraged. 36 Researchers also found that autonomous motivation and student achievements increased with student-centered learning. 36 Several studies noted that as long as the projects and discussions were relevant to the content, students were involved and motivation increased.3,31,36 Guide and Remind Students To increase motivation and self-efficacy, instructors should help students monitor their own progress and build confidence in their ability to learn.37 Several researchers suggested that students keep a journal of accomplishments focusing on their strengths.2,35 The journal entries then could be reviewed for the next class as a way to remind the students continually of their progression in the course. Other suggestions included having students write goals in their journals and check them off as they are accomplished.14 Students need to learn how to evaluate their own work and improve the quality based on their personal evaluation. 3,37 This personal evaluation gives students an idea of their progress (ie, achievement) and allows them more control over improving their work. When instructors asked students questions as a way of advising them, students were more RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, July/August 2016, Volume 87, Number 6 successful compared with when instructors provided quick answers.8 The use of inquiry forced students to focus on the challenge at hand and develop a solution on their own, motivating them to take action, whereas a quick answer would not.8 When …Instructional strategies to increase student motivation Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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