Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper

Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper For the assignment, please answer the following questions and submit in a Word document (750 words) and you should follow APA formatting rules for your in-text citations and the References list. 1. Analyze the assigned articles on public health nursing and immunizations and describe how those articles relate to what you learned by reading the Giddens chapter on Health Care Law. University of West Georgia Module 3 Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper 2. When faced with a patient who is vaccine hesitant or resistant, how will you fulfill your role as an educator in addressing your patient’s fears or concerns? Be sure to cite your Giddens text and both of the assigned articles or journals. Use APA formatting correctly with your in-text citations and in the References section. module_3_assignment_instructions.docx assigned_article_1.pdf assigned_article_2.pdf giddens_book_material.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Module 3 Assignment Instructions Assignment Name: Health Care Law Online Assignment Purpose: This assignment will help nursing students to analyze how current laws in the U.S. healthcare system relate to the provision of quality, safe, and cost-effective care. The COVID19 pandemic has brought public health into the spotlight. News media are now frequently talking about such public health issues as disease surveillance and immunizations (especially related to the development of a potential vaccine for COVID-19). By having a greater understanding of health care law, including exemplars such as public health and safety and immunizations, nursing students will be better prepared to transition into the role of novice nurses within a complex health care system. Skills: The purpose of this assignment is to help you practice the following skills that are essential to your success in this course and as a future nurse: Explaining how Health Care Law impacts patient care -this will ultimately help students to protect both their patients and their licenses by practicing within established legal boundaries. Explaining how public health laws related to such issues as disease surveillance and immunizations are likely to impact both individual patients’ and the community’s ultimate health outcomes, and how nurses can use this information to help their patients and communities. Analyzing how nurses can work as advocates and educators regarding the importance of public health initiatives. Knowledge: This assignment will help you to become familiar with the following important content knowledge in this discipline: Healthcare Law and the specific exemplars related to public health: disease surveillance and immunizations. An understanding of this concept impacts nurses’ ability to provide patient-centered care. Task: Start by reading the chapter titled Health Care Law in your Giddens book. Then, read: 1. Assigned Article 1: This brief piece, co-written by the Chair of the Public Health Nursing section of hte American Public Health Association, highlights many of the reasons that a strong public health nursing workforce is more important than ever. 2. Also read: Assigned Article 2: Immunization laws have long been a part of public health efforts to keep communities safe, and with the upcoming 2020 influenza season, combined with the COVID-19 pandemic, nurses being able to educate the public and individual patients about the importance of immunizations will be more critical than ever. As you’re reading the articles, think about how they relate to what you read about Health Care Law in your nursing concepts book. For the assignment, please answer the following questions and submit in a Word document (750 words) and you should follow APA formatting rules for your in-text citations and the References list. 1. Analyze the assigned articles on public health nursing and immunizations and describe how those articles relate to what you learned by reading the Giddens chapter on Health Care Law. 2. When faced with a patient who is vaccine hesitant or resistant, how will you fulfill your role as an educator in addressing your patient’s fears or concerns? Be sure to cite your Giddens text and both of the assigned articles or journals. Use APA formatting correctly with your in-text citations and in the References section. References Austin, N. (2017). Health care law. In J. F. Giddens (Ed.), Concepts for nursing practice (2nd ed., pp. 533-540). [VitalSource Bookshelf Online]. Retrieved from Edmonds, J. K., Kneipp, S. M., & Campbell, L. (2020). University of West Georgia Module 3 Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper A call to action for public health nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Public Health Nursing, 37(3), 323-324. Retrieved from Perkins, A. (2018). Immunizations: What nurses should know. Nursing Made Incredibly Easy! 16(4), 30-37. doi:10.1097/01.NME.0000534111.98635.e4 DOI: 10.1111/phn.12733 EDITORIAL A call to action for public health nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic Public health nurses (PHNs) are on the frontline of the public health the pandemic are going to be exacerbated, and public health nursing crisis the world now knows as the COVID-19 pandemic. They serve will remain part of the solution to address these challenges. on mobile strike teams investigating case-contacts, deliver educa- Recognition of the need for a strong nursing workforce is part of tion on self-isolation and quarantine through hotlines and home vis- our nation’s history. After the end of World War II on February 28, its, and interpret the rapidly shifting guidance from the Centers for 1946, President Truman acknowledged the fundamental capacities Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). They are reliable and proven of public health nurses to attain health security for all Americans, responders during infectious disease emergencies, providing safe, recognizing them as “one of the most important groups of health effective, and nondiscriminatory care to the communities in which workers in the country” (Associated Press, 1946, February 28, p. they serve. Yet, despite their critical role, PHN positions have been para.1). He went on to stipulate that adequate public health services underfunded, left vacant, eliminated, or replaced over the past three will require “more than two new nurses in addition to every one now decades. Combined with outsourcing services to agencies that lack on duty in local, State, and Federal agencies”—remarks made in con- the public health mandate and institutional experience necessary to nection with the first annual observance of Know Your Public Health provide public health services to communities, the erosion of the Nurse Week. Over seventy years later, in 2020, the Year of the Nurse, PHN workforce has made us all more vulnerable to both chronic dis- we call for resources to support the national minimum standard ease and emerging infectious disease threats. of one public health nurse per five thousand people in the United National, state (territorial and tribal), and local public health departments have lost 55,000 public health workers since the Great States (Association of State & Territorial Nursing Directors [ASTDN], 2008, September). Recession of 2008, and PHNs constitute the largest professional Federal financial assistance to support public health and segment of this group (Trust for America’s Health, 2019, April). The this workforce standard was recently issued. This includes the consequences of this nearly 25 percent reduction in the public health Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) act that be- workforce has resulted in years of short staffing in health depart- came Public Law No. 116–136 on March 27, 2020 (Coronavirus Aid, ments where, now, at a time of intense demand has compromised Relief, & Economic Security Act or the [CARES Act], 2020). This aid their ability to both mount an effective response against the coro- package contains $1.5 billion to support state and local public health navirus outbreak and maintain the routine essential functions of a departments and territories and tribes in their efforts to conduct health department (Centers for Disease Prevention & Control [CDC], public health activities, including: the purchase of personal protective 2017). In some communities, non-essential public health services un- equipment, surveillance for COVID-19, laboratory testing to detect related to the prevention and mitigation of COVID-19 are currently positive cases, contact tracing to identify additional cases, infection suspended, including monitoring of tobacco and electronic nicotine control and mitigation at the local level to prevent the spread of the sales and regular inspections of food establishments. Moreover, the virus and other public health preparedness and response activities skeleton crew our country assigns to primary and secondary preven- (Centers for Disease Control & Prevention [CDC], 2020, March 11). tive services is being diverted. During a well-documented crisis in While beneficial, it is far from the $4.5 billion shortfall in the U.S. maternal health care, the Nurse–Family Partnership Project, an ev- public health system estimated prior to the pandemic (Public Health idence-based program that serves over 38,000 of the highest risk Leadership Forum, 2018, October). University of West Georgia Module 3 Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper Funds will be allocated to local moms in 41 states, has seen diversion of their nursing workforce to health departments through the Centers for Disease Control and COVID-19. The impact of the withdrawal of trusted and established Prevention in the form of cooperative agreements. States and other care to families who are at highest risk for our most pressing public jurisdictions have previously had flexibility in determining how such health problems—maternal and infant mortality, intimate personal funds are appropriated. This includes deciding which sector of the violence, child abuse and neglect, mental health and substance use public health workforce has the skills and training needed to carry disorders—will scale back any recent progress made in these areas. out the activities allowable under the law. In addition to this bolus The collateral harm from withdrawing these services will undoubt- of funding from the CDC, state governments have also issued emer- edly compound the societal impact of COVID-19. We can anticipate gency funding earmarked for state and local public health, and more that many of the public health problems that we already faced before coronavirus-related emergency funding is expected. Public Health Nurs. 2020;37:323–324. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. | 323 324 | EDITORIAL This COVID-19 pandemic brings public health to the forefront, reading this editorial must advocate for routing resources to bolster and it can serve as a catalyst to financial investment in public health the public health infrastructure with the PHNs necessary to protect nursing with the potential to bring improvements to population the public’s health. health in the near term and farther into the future. We urge public Tell us about how you are advocating for public health and nurs- health nurses to advocate to authorities making funding decisions ing. Share your stories and comments with us HERE. Please share that the emergency money coming into states be transparently al- with your colleagues and anyone whose work we can feature. located. We urge public health nurses to work directly with their (The authors are, respectively, the Chair-Elect, Chair and state health department, boards of health, county commissions, Immediate Past Chair of the Public Health Nursing Section of the professional coalitions, and Governor’s offices to direct support American Public Health Association.) to public health needs, including PHN positions, stipends, and services. As we have witnessed in the past, state and local officials will Joyce K. Edmonds PhD, MPH, RN1 look to make the most efficient use of these funds to respond to Shawn M. Kneipp PhD2 the challenge that lays before them. However, efficiency goals can- Lisa Campbell DNP3 not be met by substituting lower-cost employees for public health 1 nurses, given their preparation, knowledge, clinical decision-making skills, and their ability to flexibly be deployed across a diverse 2 range of activities in response to rapidly evolving public health needs (Campbell, Harmon, Joyce, & Little, 2020). To be sure, these School of Nursing, Boston College, Boston, MA, USA School of Nursing, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA 3 School of Nursing, Texas Tech University Health Sciences professional skills will be in more demand if we hope to contain Center, San Antonio, TX, USA the second wave of transmission that will inevitably occur when Correspondence physical distancing measures are relaxed, while herd immunity remains low. Joyce K. Edmonds, Boston, MA, USA. It is also time to call on new and retired nurses to come into the Email: [email protected] fold of the public health response. Given the proven history of public health nursing’s response during times of crisis and the elimination REFERENCES of PHN positions at the local level over the past several decades, it Associated Press. (1946). Public health nurses lauded by Truman. New York Times. Association of State & Territorial Nursing Directors [ASTDN]. (2008). Report on a public health nurse to population ratio. Retrieved from http://www.quadc?o unci?l nts-3/2008-astdn?-repor?t-on-a-publi?c-healt?h-nurse?-to-popul?ation?-ratio?/ Campbell, L. A., Harmon, M. J., Joyce, B. L., & Little, S. H. (2020). Quad Council Coalition community/public health nursing competencies: Building consensus through collaboration. Public Health Nursing, 37(96– 112), https://onlin?elibr? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]. (2020). Immediate plans for Coronavirus disease 2019 supplemental funding to jurisdictions. Retrieved from downl?oads/suppl?ement?al-fundi?ng-to-juris?dicti?ons.pdf Centers for Disease Prevention and Control [CDC]. (2017). University of West Georgia Module 3 Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper The public health system & the 10 essential public health services. Retrieved from ?vices?/ essen?tialh?ealth?servi?ces.html Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act or the [CARES Act], H.R.748, U.S. Congress. (2020). Public Health Leadership Forum. (2018). Developing a financing system to support public health infrastructure. Retrieved from https://www. resol? cing?s yste?mtosu?p port?p ubli?cheal?th636?86943?96886?63025.pdf Spetz, J.(2020). There are not nearly enough nurses to handle the surge of Coronavirus patients: Here’s how to close the gap quickly. Retrieved from https://www.healt?haffa? Trust for America’s Health. (2019). The impact of chronic underfunding of America’s public health system: Trends, risks, and recommendations, 2019. is time to invite our retired workforce, and soon to be matriculated nursing students alike, to adopt this call to action and enter or re-enter public health nursing practice (Spetz, 2020). Today, we as public health nursing leaders are issuing a call to action among PHNs to combat this infectious disease pandemic. A central feature of this movement is undertaking advocacy for the profession at the state and local institutional level to develop and maintain a strong public health nursing infrastructure necessary to provide the foundational public health services. Our advocacy for funding the public health nursing infrastructure is not intended to minimize the absolute and critical needs of nursing in acute care settings at this time, but rather, it reflects an equally urgent population health need. We have heard from members of the public across the United States, and they want to see nurses in their neighborhoods, towns and communities, the faces of the country’s most trusted profession and information source at this time of uncertainty and fear. This is particularly true for the socioeconomically and under-resourced communities, who will likely suffer the most in the wake of the virus’s path, and with consequences that will be worse if appropriate health resources are not made available. Currently, plans for how the first wave of emergency funds from the CARES Act are to be distributed are being finalized. Thus, now is the time for advocacy on behalf of the communities and public we serve. To ensure a return of nursing to the core public health workforce, and maintenance of critical services in disadvantaged communities, every nurse August is National Immunization Awareness Month Downloaded from by BhDMf5ePHKav1zEoum1tQfN4a+kJLhEZgbsIHo4XMi0hCywCX1AWnYQp/IlQrHD3wX04VDhDA64KX6KVP5ddWWv52xn2KdAtPzvt2YvZG3g= on 06/26/2020 Immunizations: What nurses should know Negative attitudes toward vaccines have existed since they were developed even though they’re important for population health. Learn what you can do to educate parents, patients, and families. By Amanda Perkins, MSN, RN Immunization refusals from both parents and patients have increased in the last 10 years. This is alarming because following the CDC recommended immunization schedule can prevent approximately 322 million illnesses, 21 million hospitalizations, and 732,000 deaths. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that if all available vaccines were adopted so that 90% of all people were covered globally, 2 million deaths per year could be prevented in children under age 5. Immunizations are associated with healthier, longer lives, and are a cost-effective way to prevent debilitating illness, disability, and death. In fact, treating a child with measles costs 23 times more than the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.University of West Georgia Module 3 Immunization and Public Health Nursing Paper Immunizations: What nurses should know Negative attitudes toward immunizations have existed since they were developed even though they’re important for population health. Learn what you can do to educate your patients. By Amanda Perkins, MSN, RN 30 Nursing made Incredibly Easy! July/August 2018 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. 1.5 RICCARDO LENNART NIELS MAYER / THINKSTOCK ANCC CONTACT HOURS July/August 2018 Nursing made Incredibly Easy! 31 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Immunization preventable diseases • • • • • • • Influenza Measles Meningococcal disease Pneumococcal disease Rabies Tetanus Typhoid fever Immunizations are important because they protect against a variety of illnesses and greatly minimize the risks associated with immunization preventable diseases, such as paralysis, blindness, deafness, and infertility (see Immunization preventable diseases). Immunizations prevent 2 to 3 million childhood deaths per year worldwide, according to the WHO. Although globally more than 100 million children will be immunized before their first birthday, approximately 24 million will remain unvaccinated. This article discusses how immunizations work, different types of immunizations, contraindications, safety, misconceptions, and your role in patient education. How they work Infections occur when bacteria or viruses enter a person’s body, attack the body, and multiply within the body. The immune system has certain tools that can be used to fight infections, such as red blood cells that are necessary for carrying oxygen to the body’s tissues and organs; white blood cells (WBCs), including macrophages, B lymphocytes, and T lymphocytes; and antibodies. Immunizations help our bodies build antibodies that mount a defense against certain illnesses. Macrophages are WBCs that ingest, digest, and destroy foreign material within the body. These cells are also responsible for ingesting and digesting dead or dying cells. When macrophages act, they 32 Nursing made Incredibly Easy! July/August 2018 leave behind antigens—markers that sit on the cells’ surface and identify them as self or foreign. B lymphocytes are defensive WBCs responsible for creating antibodies—proteins that prevent the development of infection by destroying foreign organisms in the body. The antibodies that are created by B lymphocytes find antigens; when foreign material is detected, the antibodies attack it using antigens as a guide. T lymphocytes are also defensive WBCs. Unlike B lymphocytes, the T lymphocytes atta … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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