Health Information Management Questions Paper

Health Information Management Questions Paper Health Information Management Questions Paper Permalink: https://nursingpaperessays.com/ health-informati…-questions-paper / ? Unformatted Attachment Preview Copyright @ 2013. AHIMA Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. chapter 20 Research Methods Elizabeth Forrestal, PhD, RHIA, CCS, FAHIMA Learning Objectives Describe basic research designs and methods used in the practice of health information management ?? Formulate research problems in terms of research questions ?? Search knowledge bases such as bibliographic databases ?? Plan research projects appropriate to the research questions ?? Conduct research projects using standard and suitable tools and techniques ?? Present research findings in formats consistent with the purpose of the research ?? Critically evaluate research studies in health-related fields ?? Key Terms Abstract Alternative hypothesis Applied research Basic research Bivariate Case study Case-control (retrospective) study Categorical data Causal relationship Causal-comparative research Census survey Cluster sampling Common Rule Comparative effectiveness research (CER) Confidence interval (CI) Confidence limit Confounding (extraneous, secondary) variable Construct validity Content analysis Content validity Continuous data Control group Convenience sampling Correlational research Coverage error Covert observation Cross-sectional study Data cleansing Data mining Deductive reasoning Dependent variable Descriptive research Descriptive (summary) statistics Discrete data Double-blind study Effect size Empiricism Ethnography Evaluation research Experimental (study) group Experimental research External validity Focus group Focused study Generalizability Grounded theory 545 21_AB103311_ch20.indd EBSCO : eBook Business Collection Trial – printed on 4/8/2018 11:42 AM via LOUISIANA STATE UNIV AT SHREVEPORT AN: 667492 ; LaTour, Kathleen M., American Health Information Management Association, Eichenwald, Shirley, Oachs, Pamela K..; 545 Health Information Management : Concepts, Principles, and Practice Account: s3563253.main.ehost 12/21/12 7:27 PM Copyright @ 2013. AHIMA Press. Health Information Management Questions Paper. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. 546 Chapter 20 Health services research Health technology assessment Heterogeneity Historical research Hypothesis Imputation Independent variable Inductive reasoning Inferential statistics Institutional review board (IRB) Instrument Internal validity Interrater reliability Interval data Intervention Interview guide Interview survey Intrarater reliability Level of significance Likert scale Literature review Longitudinal Meta-analysis Metric Missing values Mixed methods research Model Mortality (attrition) Multivariate Naturalism Naturalistic study Negative (inverse) relationship Nominal data Nonparametric (distribution-free) technique Nonparticipant observation Nonrandom sampling Null hypothesis Observational research One-tailed hypothesis Operational definition Operationalize Ordinal data Outcomes research Paradigm Parametric technique Parsimony Participant observation Peer review Peer-reviewed (refereed) journal Pilot study Placebo Population Positive (direct) relationship Positivism Power Primary analysis Primary source Prospective Protocol Purposive sampling Qualitative approach Quantitative approach Questionnaire survey Random sampling Randomization Randomized clinical trial (RCT) Ratio data Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis Reliability Research Research design Research frame Research method Research methodology Retrospective Sample Sample frame Sample size Sample size calculation Sample survey Sampling Scale Scientific inquiry Secondary analysis Secondary source Semantic differential scale Semistructured question Sensitivity Simple random sampling Simulation observation Specificity Stratified random sampling Structured (closed-ended) question Survey Systematic literature review Systematic sampling Target population Test statistics Theory Translational research Treatment Triangulation Two-tailed hypothesis Type I error Type II error Univariate Unstructured (open-ended) question Validity Variable EBSCO : eBook Business Collection Trial – printed on 4/8/2018 11:42 AM via LOUISIANA STATE UNIV AT SHREVEPORT AN: 667492 ; LaTour, Kathleen M., American Health Information Management Association, Eichenwald, Shirley, Oachs, Pamela K..; 21_AB103311_ch20.indd 546 Health Information Management : Concepts, Principles, and Practice Account: s3563253.main.ehost 12/21/12 7:27 PM Copyright @ 2013. AHIMA Press. All rights reserved. Health Information Management Questions Paper. #May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. Research Methods Health information management (HIM) is an intersection of many different fields of study. Health information managers are business people in a health-related profession. Thus, health information managers draw on theories from the many fields associated with both business and healthcare, including management, organizational behavior, sociology, psychology, medical sciences, computer science, and decision support. In this chapter, research concepts are applied to healthcare settings and the role of the HIM professional as a researcher is explored. Research is thoughtful, planned activity that expands or refines knowledge. The purpose of research is to create generalizable knowledge. Research answers questions and provides solutions to everyday problems. Research is not some vague, mysterious activity for geniuses, as some people believe; rather, it is a step-by-step method that ordinary people can use to collect reliable and accurate facts in order to generate valuable information. HIM professionals are contributors to research studies. (See table 20.1.) They are experts on health data; the data’s location, accuracy, and format; and other aspects of HIM practice. Their training and education provide specific research skills, and their professional values are supportive of research. Knowledge of research also supports HIM practice. Understanding research methods aids HIM professionals whenever they use data or information to answer a question or to make a decision. This chapter provides an overview of the role of research in HIM and healthcare and the development of theories and models. It also presents a step-by-step process for conducting research. Finally, the chapter addresses how HIM 547 professionals can use the techniques of research to improve HIM practice and data quality. Research Frame A research frame is the overarching structure of the research project. Another term for the research frame is paradigm. A research frame comprises the theory or theories underpinning the study, the models illustrating the factors and relationships of the study, the assumptions of the field and the researcher, the methods, and the analytical tools. Research is conducted within frames. Theories and Models A theory is the systematic organization of knowledge that predicts or explains behavior or events. Theories and research have a chicken-and-egg relationship. Theories are both the result and the foundation of research. Researchers begin with informed predictions or raw theories of what they believe will happen. As they collect observations and data, they refine their theories. Over time, the refined theories become more predictive of subsequent events than their previous embryonic versions. Theories help people understand their world. Without theories, people are merely speculating. Although speculation may be informed by experiences and some facts, it is nevertheless speculation. Apparent in all fields of study, theories explain what people have observed. In addition, they provide definitions, relationships, and boundaries. In other words, theories systematically organize everything people know about a concept. Formally defined, theories are Concepts that are abstract ideas generalized from particular instances ?? Interrelationships that are assumed to exist among these concepts ?? Consequences that are assumed to follow logically from the relationships proposed in the theory (Amatayakul and Shah 1992, 8) ?? Table 20.1. HIM contributions to research teams HIM-Specific Skills Knowledge of health record content Form and view design Expertise in classifications and nomenclatures Research-Specific Skills Ability to conduct literature reviews Knowledge of research protocols Capability to devise case-based algorithms Database query skills Understanding of procedures of institutional review boards Professional collegiality Knowledge of data collection protocols 21_AB103311_ch20.indd Written and oral communication of data, information, and knowledge HIM Values Accuracy Attention to detail Respect for patient rights and confidentiality Commitment to protecting health data privacy and security The best theories simplify the situation, explain the most facts in the broadest range of circumstances, and most accurately predict behavior (Singleton and Straits 2005, 20). Researchers in health information management use several different theories (see figure 20.1). Overall, research theories are practical and efficient because they help researchers explain and predict many events in simple and precise terms. In other words, theories organize knowledge. When knowledge is organized, ordinary people can access and use it. Thus, everyone benefits. A model is a representation of a theory in visual format. Models can portray theories with objects, can be smallerscaled versions, or can be graphic representations. A model includes all of a theory’s known properties. Models aid in comprehension of a theory. EBSCO : eBook Business Collection Trial – printed on 4/8/2018 11:42 AM via LOUISIANA STATE UNIV AT SHREVEPORT AN: 667492 ; LaTour, Kathleen M., American Health Information Management Association, Eichenwald, Shirley, Oachs, Pamela K..; 547 Health Information Management : Concepts, Principles, and Practice Account: s3563253.main.ehost 12/21/12 7:27 PM 548 Chapter 20 Figure 20.1. Theories used in health informatics and HIM research • Adult learning theories • Behavioral theories Copyright @ 2013. AHIMA Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. • Change theories • Diffusion of innovation • Information processing or cognitive learning theories • Information theories (Shannon and Weaver’s Information– Communication Model and Blum’s model) • Learning styles • Learning theories • Systems theory Source: Constructed by author based on content in Englebardt and Nelson 2002. Research Methodology Research methodology is the study and analysis of research methods and theories. Generally, there are two types of research: basic research and applied research. These two types are ends of a continuum, not separate entities. Therefore, the distinction between them is sometimes unclear. In essence, basic research focuses on the development of theories and their refinement (Gay et al. 2012, 16). Because basic research often occurs in laboratories, it is sometimes called “bench science.” Basic research answers the question: Why? On the other hand, applied research focuses on the implementation of theories into practice (Gay et al. 2012, 16). Applied research answers the questions: What? and How? Applied research, particularly clinical applied science, may occur in healthcare settings, such as at the bedside in hospitals. For the past several years, translational research, which specifically spans the continuum, has received attention. Translational research effectively translates “new knowledge, mechanisms, and techniques generated by advances in basic science research into new approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease” (Fontanarosa and DeAngelis 2002, 1728). For example, translational research may take knowledge from basic science, such as a newly discovered property of a chemical, and may convert that knowledge into a practical application, such as a new drug. Therefore, sometimes people describe translational research as “bench-to-bedside” (Woolf 2008, 211). Of interest to health information professionals is the subspecialty translational bioinformatics. Translational bioinformatics is “the development of storage, analytic, and interpretive methods to optimize the transformation of increasingly voluminous biomedical data…into proactive, predictive, preventive, and participatory health” (AMIA 2012). In practice as applied researchers, some HIM professionals study questions they believe will improve health information practices in the continuum of care. For example, HIM professionals explored whether the data in health records are adequate to support coding using the ICD-10-CM classification (Moczygemba and Fenton 2012, 1). This initial exploratory study involving three diagnoses—heart disease, pneumonia, and diabetes—revealed that over 25 percent of the time the documentation’s level of detail was insufficient for ICD-10-CM coding (Moczygemba and Fenton 2012, 3). This type of study is representative of applied research in health informatics and information management. Also, at a general level, researchers in research methodology have described two overarching approaches to research: the quantitative approach and the qualitative approach. The quantitative approach is the explanation of phenomena through scientific inquiry and empiricism. Scientific inquiry involves making predictions, collecting and analyzing evidence, testing alternative theories, and choosing the best theory. Empiricism means “based on observed and validated evidence.” For example, research based on experiments is empirical. Objective knowledge is the desired end result. As the word quantitative implies, the data often can be quantified and result in statistical or numerical results. Another name for the quantitative approach is positivism. Health Information Management Questions Paper. A classic example of quantitative research is the human genome project. Researchers in the qualitative approach interpret nonnumerical observations. These non-numerical observations include words, gestures, activities, time, space, images, and perceptions. These observations are placed in context. Another term for the qualitative approach is naturalism. A classic example of qualitative research is Margaret Mead’s anthropological study of the Polynesian culture of American Samoa in the early 1920s. Examples in medicine involve studies of near-death experiences, dying, and being a patient. Without qualitative research, healthcare personnel would not have learned that elderly, married patients cut their pills in half in order to share their prescriptions when they run out of money. These two approaches to research are frames on a grand scale. Within both approaches, researchers make certain basic assumptions. (See table 20.2.) Some large topics require both approaches with many researchers conducting complementary studies. Table 20.2. Comparison of assumptions in quantitative and qualitative research approaches Quantitative Single truth exists Qualitative Multiple truths exist simultaneously Single truth applies across time Truths are bound to place and and place time (contextual) Researchers can adopt neutral, unbiased stances Neutrality is impossible because researchers choose their topics of investigation Chronological sequence of causes can be identified Influences interact with one another to color researchers’ views of the past, present, and future EBSCO : eBook Business Collection Trial – printed on 4/8/2018 11:42 AM via LOUISIANA STATE UNIV AT SHREVEPORT AN: 667492 ; LaTour, Kathleen M., American Health Information Management Association, Eichenwald, Shirley, Oachs, Pamela K..; 21_AB103311_ch20.indd 548 Health Information Management : Concepts, Principles, and Practice Account: s3563253.main.ehost 12/21/12 7:27 PM Copyright @ 2013. AHIMA Press. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable copyright law. Research Methods An emerging third approach is called mixed methods research (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie 2004, 15). Mixed methods research combines quantitative and qualitative techniques within a single study and across related studies. Health Information Management Questions Paper. Mixed methods research may be suited to investigations into complex phenomena in healthcare (McKibbon and Gadd 2004). An example is a study of current practices, in admitting and registration departments, to reduce the occurrence of medical identify theft (Mancilla and Moczygemba 2009, 2). The researchers used both quantitative and qualitative methods to collect data on the procedures that healthcare staff members follow to establish and confirm patients’ identities. The researchers found that procedures and technology in admitting and registration departments did not support organizational policies and federal regulations designed to protect patients’ identities (Mancilla and Moczygemba 2009, 7). The purpose of the research determines the approach. Research that investigates numerically measurable observations or tests a hypothesis is often quantitative, while research that is exploratory and preliminary often begins with a qualitative investigation. Most advances in medicine have been the result of quantitative research. Quantitative research, with its scientific and evidence-based approach, is also the approach that HIM researchers often select. Within both the quantitative and the qualitative approaches, researchers use inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning, or induction, involves drawing conclusions based on a limited number of observations. For example, during his professional practice experience, a student might observe that all coders in the coding department at XYZ hospital had the RHIT credential. Thus, he might conclude that all coders have the RHIT credential. Deductive reasoning, or deduction, involves drawing conclusions based on generalizations. For example, all coders have the RHIT credential. Jane Doe is a coder. Therefore, Jane Doe must have the RHIT credential. As the examples demonstrate, neither induction nor deduction alone is completely satisfactory. Used together, however, they are very effective and are the basis of the research. Check Your Understanding 20.1 Instructions: Answer the following questions on a separate piece of paper. 21_AB103311_ch20.indd 1. What is research? 2. What are the three characteristics of a theory? 3. How does the phrase “keep it simple” apply to theories? 4. What are the advantages of models? 5. Why is the research conducted by HIM professionals considered applied research? 6. Why is it so important for researchers to know their purpose? 7. How do inductive reasoning and deductive reasoning differ? 549 Research Process Conceptually, researchers participate in the following major activities: Defining the research question (problem) Summarizing prior pertinent knowledge ?? Gathering data ?? Analyzing the data ?? Interpreting and presenting findings ?? ?? However, because these major activities are so broad, most researchers divide them into more manageable components. Thus, the research process becomes orderly problem solving. In the verbal shorthand of researchers, these basic components are Defining the research question (problem) Performing a literature review ?? Determining a research design and method ?? Selecting an instrument ?? Gathering data ?? Analyzing the data ?? Presenting results ?? ?? Defining the Research Question (Problem) Research begins with defining the problem. Defining the proble … Purchase answer to see full attachment Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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