ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay

ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay Write a blog style paper, majority construct of the learner, discussing the following in regards to Communication and Error in Airline Operation. ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay Explain what is meant by “Communication effectiveness and efficiency represent the most important pillars to maintain safety in an airline operation.” Explore the function of communication and why it is important to an organization. Why is it needed to maintain a safety culture within an organization? Explain the butterfly effect in communication and how it can influence aviation safety. Finally, analyze the different types of communication and determine what leaders need to do to integrate efficient, adequate, and effective communication in the workplace. Please refer to the Articles attached to this question. poorcommunicationskillsmeanshighriskforaviationsafety.pdf miscommunication_in_general_aviation__the_influence_of_external_factors_on_communication_errors.pdf measuring_the_effects_of_safety_management_system_practices__morality_leadership_and_self_efficacy_on_pilots____safety_behaviors__safety_motivation_as_a_mediator.pdf culture__communication_and_safety__lessons_from_the_airline_industry.pdf Ana Maria Vieira, Isabel Cristina dos Santos, Paulo Renato de Morais POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS MEANS HIGH RISK FOR AVIATION SAFETY HABILIDADES PRECÁRIAS EM COMUNICAÇÃO GERAM ALTO RISCO PARA A SEGURANÇA NA AVIAÇÃO Ana Maria Vieira Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Submetido em: 11-02-2014 Aceito em: 27-02-2014 Isabel Cristina dos Santos Universidade Municipal de São Caetano do Sul – São Caetano do Sul (SP), Brazil. Paulo Renato de Morais Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica – São Paulo (SP), Brazil. ABSTRACT This article analyzes different types of communication used in the aviation operational environment. This research has a qualitative approach underlined by a documentary analysis based on reports by national aviation agencies. Communication is a complex system consisting of verbal, non-verbal, written, spoken and eletronic comunication. It is a crucial factor in managing critical situations. The results of the study show that lack of communication skills among individuals involved in air operations contributes to the bulk of accidents and incidents in aviation. Conclusions pointed out that avition activities require high skilled people in communication with a solid technical profile. The results also stress the necessity of implementing communication skills training to aviation professionals, to develop abilities to detect threats and communicate clearly the need for support to manage risks. It is imperative to certify that all the actions required by the Safety Management System’s philosophy have been implemented to develop safety behavior. Keywords: civil aviation; complexity; communication skills; safety-oriented culture. RESUMO Este artigo analisa diferentes tipos de comunicação no ambiente de negócios da aviação civil. Para tanto, utilizou-se uma abordagem qualitativa, delineada por análise documental dos relatórios das agencias governamentais. A comunicação é um sistema complexo que consiste em comunicação verbal, não verbal, escrita, falada e eletrônica. Na aviação, ela é um fator crucial ao enfrentamento de situações de alto risco. Os resultados obtidos indicam que lacunas de comunicação entre os indivíduos que atuam nas operações aeronáuticas e aeroviárias contribuem para a maior parte dos acidentes e incidentes ocorridos. As conclusões pontuam que as habilidades de comunicação são tão importantes quanto às habilidades técnicas e enfatizam a emergência do treinamento em habilidades de comunicação aos profissionais da aviação, possibilitando-os detectar ameaças e comunicar claramente a necessidade de apoio para o enfrentamento de riscos. É imperativo adotar as ações requeridas pela filosofia do Sistema de Gestão de Segurança, visando gerar comportamento seguro. Palavras-chave: aviação civil; complexidade; habilidades de comunicação; cultura de segurança. Endereços dos autores: Ana Maria Vieira [email protected] Isabel Cristina dos Santos [email protected] Gestão & Regionalidade – Vol. 30 – Nº 88 – jan-abr/2014 Paulo Renato de Morais [email protected] 123 POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS MEANS HIGH RISK FOR AVIATION SAFETY 1. INTRODUCTION. ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay A system can be defined as a set of interconnected elements that interact with each other to perform a function. Clearly, every organization is basically a system that embraces people, structure, process and technology. Generically called resources, it is recognized that organizations are notably social entities. People are a spiritual force in any kind of business. According to Senge (2006), developing a systemic thinking demands a holistic vision of the organization. It requires abandoning linear thinking and working with different levels of influence. A lack of systemic thinking contributes internally to form ghettos and unbalances the flow among activities, losing quality in the information process and in the communication flow. Integrating all the components of a system successfully is called synergy. It is a phenomenon that determines that changes in any part of the system will produce effects on the whole system. The bigger the synergy is, the higher the achievements of a system will be, thus resulting in better efficiency in reaching the objective. On the other hand, the lack of synergy results in bad performance causing systemic failure, at least. Under a humanistic perspective, the organizational communication works toward mediating employees’ expectations and hopes, mitigating conflicts and balancing behaviors, and stimulating perceptions and attitudes. In high-risk operations such as those seen in airlines, systemic communication must work toward promoting cooperation among all sectors and performing organizational functions safely. Safety is the reason that makes it fundamental to clearly comprehend the communication contents as part of an extremely complex whole. The paradigm of the systemic view on communication is the interactive–communicative understanding that presents continuous steps of input, throughput and output. Thus, the general systems theory offers a conceptual base that justifies communication as an open, interactive and essentially relational system. An open system receives information from its environment, which is used to interact back dynamically. In the 124 interaction process, communication must be seen as an integrated process that establishes a network of information and influences all around. Considering how complex the airline operations are and how much diversified the agents are, communicating and interacting positively into the network is mandatory to manage systemic risks. A systemic understanding of communication in the aviation field is helpful in properly responding to the risky situations and in figuring out compromised behaviors, as well as to controlling risks in the aviation communication process. Also, it is helpful in developing better skills toward an assertive and respectful style of communication, which will significantly reduce the negative effects of miscommunication and enhance aviation safety. In daily working, for better or for worse, issued organizational communications have a great impact on the employees, but just a few of them can change their attitudes due to a normative statement. Some communications may cause confusion because they have not clearly expressed the contents. Others may never reach their readers because the sender was not specific on the subject to be stressed. Considering that in aviation a high-risk situation can easily become a tragedy, communication skill is a key competency for those who work in this sector. In this way, development of communication cannot be taken casually or be seen as an extra option in preparatory courses in aviation, addressed for pilots, crew and ground professionals.ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay Lack of a satisfactory communication skill can easily decay intellectual and technical knowledge and may negatively affect the decision-making process in such a dynamic environment. Risk management in aviation is based on the assessment of danger and possible consequences of the threats and errors caused by miscommunication. To develop communication skill to an appropriate level, many tools can be applied, starting from diagnoses based on the resources developed by Organizational and Social Psychology, complemented by a specific training program addressed to those with particular needs and a general training program for those who work in aviation operations environment. That latter is the focus of this article. Gestão & Regionalidade – Vol. 30 – Nº 88 – jan-abr/2014 Ana Maria Vieira, Isabel Cristina dos Santos, Paulo Renato de Morais There is a consensus that behavioral training program based on communication must meet the need of identifying and changing risky behaviors, preventing and reducing communication errors, and proactively contributing to business performance, and in aviation, it means mostly, to reach safety, among other contents. Developing communication skills is a must to prepare future professionals to prevent risks caused by poor communication, rather than to respond after they become a problem. To achieve a desirable level of aviation safety, we must develop a program that has a powerful safety objective to be shared by all sectors involved in aviation operations. To reach this common objective, individuals have to learn how to integrate and coordinate their duties with other team members. To do so, all relevant information has to be effectively shared as well as performance indicators. Dickinson and McIntyre (1997) define communication as the focal point of the teamwork, i.e., communication is one of the most relevant components to connect other elements of a system. Communication enables people, processes, structure and technology, including systems, to interact simultaneously and cooperatively to achieve safety in all sectors, creating a safe system. Communication skills not only include verbal behavior and evoke usage of the right words, at the right time, in an appropriate tone of voice; they also include non-verbal behaviors, i.e., body expression, the look and the gestures, and written communication (VIEIRA; SANTOS, 2010). 2. COMMUNICATION AND THE SAFETY CULTURE Torquato (2004) highlights two key elements in the process of communication: effectiveness and efficiency. Referring to effectiveness, he suggests that, to be effective, the message has to present characteristics such as credibility, appropriateness, relevance, understanding and synchronicity. Torquato defines efficiency as the ability of the issuer to affect other people’s behaviors, perceptions and feelings, so as to make them follow the issuer’s intentions. In addition, the author stresses the fact that the message issuer can also be affected by the Gestão & Regionalidade – Vol. 30 – Nº 88 – jan-abr/2014 individual’s changed behavior, since the message aims to be advantageous to the issuer and to the organization. Communication effectiveness and efficiency represent the most important pillars to maintain safety in an airline operation.ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay Therefore, aviation professionals have a great responsibility and they ought to be concerned in providing a fully understandable communication process, otherwise the consequences can be catastrophic. Organizations that continuously address resources and make efforts to build up a real safety operation through a reliable and shared communication process will create the so-called safety-oriented culture. The safety-oriented culture is guided by values and reinforcements, not by punishment. Therefore, managers have to be able to encourage and recognize communicative actions. The safety culture is usually defined as a combination of attitudes and open communication. According to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) estimates, human errors are responsible for 60–80% of flight accidents and incidents. These numbers give a real dimension to the relevance of developing effective communication skills and positive attitude. It is universally accepted that human beings will inevitably make mistakes, and that the psychological barrier between error and accident is the ability to recognize, to capture and to correct failures before they spill all over. Thus, so-called ability of learning lessons comes with experience and mainly with experience sharing, which increases critical knowledge on risky or tragic situations without individuals having to experience those situations. However, it is usual that companies highlight more the errors than the lessons learned from a bad experience. This management style, which is focused on error and punishment, gradually strengthens a culture averse to risk situations, a culture in which workers choose to hide their mistakes, exposing them to the same type of error again. The communication process in aviation should be treated professionally. An example of the culture based on risk and error omission, which gained the headlines of an important national newspaper, can be seen in the contents of an e-mail sent to the crew of a Brazilian airline. In 125 POOR COMMUNICATION SKILLS MEANS HIGH RISK FOR AVIATION SAFETY this communication, the leader of flight attendants justifies the action saying that the formula for achieving success in the airline operations was “keeping the mouth shut” (sic). The meaning of the message taken is described in the following quote: “This memorandum aims to inhibit the crew to report technical airlines situations of any kind,” concluded Garcia, Secretary of Cabin Crew Members of the Pilots Union of the state of São Paulo. (O ESTADO DE S. PAULO, 2007) This sort of communication reveals a total lack of social skills and interferes with flight safety because it restricts the reporting of important and hazard information, which is the basis of the aviation Safety Management System (SMS) especially designed to assist air transport to achieve better safety indicators through risk analysis and establishment of preventive measures. The SMS concept is based on a productive operational safety culture, which promotes free flow of information to improve the flight safety system. The workforce must rely on their leaders to carry out prevention reports, without fear of reprisal or embarrassment. Leaders must show that all reports concerning safety procedures and situations are considered valuable, respected, appreciated and rewarded (International Civil Aviation Organization 2009). A correct analysis of a flight accident or incident can show that risk situations work as a source of learning and provide strategies to improve communication within the company, which literally means sharing information. ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay The crew-oriented communication in the airline field, as currently followed, seeks much more to provide control and mastery on situations and to establish a positive flow of information and guidelines to the crew than to simply promote safety. Owing to its operational complexity, an airline’s communication process has certainly more peculiarities in comparison to other organizations in sectors that are considered less complex. And, when it does not work properly, problems can arise and culminate in an unexpected incident or even in a tragic accident. The capacity to keep working safely in an airline is directly associated with how prompt is this company structure 126 to maintain well-sustained flows of communication to ensure the decision-making process. In a context characterized by continuous risks, it is fundamental to make sure that people will make use of a relevant communication at the right time. This particular characteristic has significant implications for what can be defined as one of the most important functions of communication focused on safety: to work as a reminder that helps to access the memory storage of how to deal with emergencies. Following is an example of internal communication without any risk management approach and its impact on safety. The subject was about the maintenance prediction. Dear Managers, We have been informed by the Interior Engineering/ Design that at A and B aircraft start-up operation moment, there were no portable ELT models in stock. Therefore, these aircraft went into operation with the old ELT models already supplied for these aircraft. According to information from Maintenance, this material is easy to handle. Thanks, Training Management (Testimony A 2008) An emergency locator transmitter (ELT) is a device that transmits a signal on a particular frequency to locators, making it possible to identify and carry out rescue operations. It can be observed from the above message that the equipment was changed without any kind of prior notice. The phrase “this material is easy to handle” is worthless because it does not give a clue on how to handle it. The expression “easy to handle” shows a total disregard to the safety of the equipment and the lives of the passengers on board. Even being a typical case of a device that nobody would use in a regular situation, it would be literally vital in a possible rescue operation. According to the testimony of flight attendants and management staff, it was considered unnecessary to keep an on-the-ground crew just to give instruction on a specific and rare-usage equipment. Gestão & Regionalidade – Vol. 30 – Nº 88 – jan-abr/2014 Ana Maria Vieira, Isabel Cristina dos Santos, Paulo Renato de Morais When communication about the interests of the company does not highlight flight safety, some kind of interference that can be misinterpreted commonly arises, permitting the result and not the safe action, as happened in the previous example. Poor communication can lead to tragic consequences. However, it is still true, as shown in the literature review, that efficient and effective communication can lead to positive outcomes including improved information flow, ensuring more safety to the processes. Developing communication skills is possible through a well-structured training program aiming to facilitate team communication, which includes a substantial improvement in quality and prevention of errors. Managers and leaders who show low-level interpretation skill usually have teams with low expectations and incomplete skills due to lack of information-exchange practice, which leads the team to err or not to perceive its previous signs, which are called red flags. ERAU SFTY 320 Human Factors in Aviation Safety Communication & Error Essay Even the caring professionals tend to be underestimated by the culture. Detecting red flags on possible risky situations, and being able to communicate the signs of an imminent accident, can be seen as criticism rather to be seen as a proactive attitude by the low-skilled professionals. The situation expressed below is an example of how a proactive communicative action can be seen as a criticism: rather a concept than a functional body and supports the company’s mission. So, for safety to become a fundamental concept to the business, which may express the customer’s main expectation, and an attitude in daily life, calls for a developmental program for social skills improvement that allows members of the team to reach high standards of performance and walk through the same challenges, which is security of the flight. The main objective of communication skills training (CST) is to train individuals with a high degree of interpersonal relations by encouraging communication skills and improving social competence so that conflicts are resolved without anxiety, fear or other emotional losses (VIEIRA; SANTOS, 2010). 2.1. The butterfly effect in communication Lorenz (1979) found that insignificant factors can amplify as the time passes by. They can also radically change the state of being. So, minor changes or minor errors in a pair of variables can produce tremendously disproportionate effects. Lorenz named his discovery as the Butterfly Effect. People with highly developed communication skills are able to figure out how a message can generate a negative butterfly effect, influencing the operational chain and affecting aviation safety. I reported directly to the Safety Managers a risk situation that could cause an accident (in Aviation Operations). As a result, I received a “harsh” response from my manager warning that I should have first reported the risk situation to the Marketing Managers whose is the responsibility to lead flight attendants. For this reason, I was punished and totally discouraged to report new red flags that I would observe in the future. (Testimony B 2008) It is highly recommended to estimate the impacts of a decision, and its effects on the operational system, as seen in a formal memorandum below whose subject was a clam for more synergy among different working teams — operational, commercial, cabin crew — and the operations coordinator In aviation, every worker should have in mind the same goal, which is the safe … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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