[Get Solution] Discussion Responses

Please provide 2 responses, each 200+ words to the following two discussion posts 1) The nurse can intercept a human trafficking victim with the knowledge of how to identify a potential victim (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). People can become a trafficking victim for sexual exploitation, forced labor, domestic servitude, begging or the removal of their organs (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, n.d.) There is no victim profile; any age, gender, race, or ethnic group can be a victim (United Nation Office on Drugs and Crime, n.d.).  The victim may tend to be quiet, avoid eye contact, have unexplained bruises, scars, burn marks, unusual tattoos (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). A trafficked patient may be accompanied by an over-bearing person not allowing the patient their privacy or allowing the patient to be in control of their identification/passport/driver’s license victims (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). Other indicators can be living with employer, poor living conditions, multiple people in cramped space, answers appear to be scripted and rehearsed, employer is holding identity documents, unpaid or paid very little, of which the nurse may have an opportunity to gain knowledge of (U.S Department of State, 2017).    Trafficked persons may present to any health care provider. The trafficked person may have symptoms of malnutrition, post-traumatic stress disorder, addiction, sexual violence, abdominal pain, and assault (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). Victims of trafficking often do not see themselves as victims (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). The trafficked person has arranged and agreed with the trafficker for any variety of reasons and does not connect with being exploited or a “victim” (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). Since the victim does not identify as being a victim, the nurse needs to identify the victim (Stoklosa, Lyman, Bohnert, & Mittel, 2017). Proposed curriculum for students involves a simulated lab to fill knowledge gaps and training to address a potential trafficked patient and intervene (Stoklosa, et.al., 2017). Nurses are already mandatory reporters and know when a patient situation does not look correct. There are no victim profiles yet there are risk factors for trafficking (Polaris, 2016).  Risk factors for trafficking include recent migration or relocation, substance use, unstable housing, runaway or homeless youth, mental health issues (Polaris, 2016). According to the U.S Department of State questions to ask a potential victim privately and without jeopardizing the victim’s safety because the trafficker is watching: Can you leave your job if you want to? Can you come and go as you please? Have you been hurt or threatened if you tried to leave? Has your family been threatened? Do you live with your employer? Where do you sleep and eat? Are you in debt to your employer? Do you have your passport/identification? Who has it? (U.S. Department of State, 2017). Identification of possible victims and connection to resources is needed to stop human trafficking (Polaris, 2016).  Increasing the awareness, knowing the red flags to look for, and information gathering skills are required of the nurse (Dowling Dols, et. al., 2019). Contact the appropriate resources for the victim. As a nurse, always follow your instinct, it is correct more often than not. References   Dowling Dols, J., Beckmann-Mendez, D., McDow, J., Walker, K., & Moon, M.  (2019). Human trafficking victim identification, assessment, and intervention strategies in south texas emergency departments: JEN JEN. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 45(6), 622-633. doi.org/10.1016/j.jen.2019.07.002 Polaris. (2016). statistics from the National Human Trafficking Hotline; 2016. Available from: http://polarisproject. org/sites/default/files/2016-Statistics.pdf Stoklosa, H., Lyman, M., Bohnert, C., & Mittel, O. (2017). Medical education and human trafficking: Using simulation. Medical Education Online, 22(1) doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2017.1412746 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/human-trafficking/what-is-human-trafficking.html U.S Department of State (2017). Identify and assist a trafficking victim. Retrieved from https://www.state.gov/identify-and-assist-a-trafficking-victim/ 2) Human trafficking is considered the modern-day slavery. It the fastest growing industry in the world with an estimated 800,000 people trafficked in the United States each year (Byrne, M., Parsh, S., & Parsh, B., 2019).  There are currently more than 45 million people in slavery worldwide (Zielinski, T., 2018). The National Center for Missing and Exploited Children estimates that one in six children will be victims of human trafficking (Byrne et al, 2019). The average age children are being forced into prostitution is 12-14 years old (Zielinski, T., 2018). It is said that a pimp will approach a runaway within 48 hours. Social media makes it increasingly difficult to monitor and control. Pedophiles and criminals are hiding behind false identities online. Young girls are setting up meet and greets with whom they think may be a 14-17-year-old boy and a 19-26-year-old shows up. Flattery and coercion are used to instill trust. Most often, these men prey upon girls who appear the most vulnerable. Risk factors for trafficking include low self-esteem, poverty, mental illness, orphan status, abuse, broken homes and runaways (Zielinski, T., 2018). Girls are being snatched in parking lots, malls, etc. They are being sold on a website called Backpage, which is similar to Craigslist (Zielinski, T., 2018). Zielinski, T. (2018) estimates that 87% of rescued trafficking victims had an encounter with a health care provider during captivity but were not recognized. That is an alarming statistic and one that should make us want to be more vigilant and educate ourselves. Nurses are trained in many areas from science, anatomy and assessments. Yet, intuition can not be taught in a classroom. We have to be in tune with our internal feelings and sense when something isn’t right. Byrne et al. (2019) references the Joint Commission recommendations. Nurses should always observe the adult who is with a child. Pay attention to adults whom always answer your questions for the child. Pay special attention to adults who won’t allow you to question the child alone or be alone with the child at any time. Pay attention to mannerisms and eye contact. Does the child always look at the adult while or before answering? Some questions to ask are: Where do you sleep and eat? Is your family there or nearby? Are the doors and windows locked so you can get out? Has your ID or documentation been taken from you? Have you or your family ever been threatened if you try to leave? Are you being forced to do anything you don’t want to do? Nurse should become knowledgeable about community organizations that serve individuals with human trafficking risk factors like mental health agencies, shelters and substance abuse clinics. There is a movie called, I am Jane Doe, that is very educational on human trafficking. If your victims are reluctant to take any resources, encourage them to memorize the National Human Trafficking Hotline number. 1-800-373-7888. (Byrne et al., 2019). Byrne, M., Parsh, S., & Parsh, B. (2019). Human Trafficking: Impact Identification and Intervention. Nursing Management.50(8), 18-24. doi: 10.1097/01.NUMA.0000575304.15432.07 Zielinski, T. (2018). Nursing Intuition: Is my Patient being Trafficked? Journal of Pediatric

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