Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion

Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Unformatted Attachment Preview Obesity Update 2017 Policy insights Did you know? More than one in two adults and nearly one in six children are overweight or obese in OECD countries. Adult obesity rates are highest in the United States, Mexico, New Zealand and Hungary, while they are lowest in Japan and Korea. Obesity rates are projected to increase further by 2030, and Korea and Switzerland are the countries where obesity rates are projected to increase at a faster pace. Social inequalities in overweight and obesity are strong, especially among women. In about half of the eight countries for which data are available, lesseducated women are two to three times more likely to be overweight than those with a higher level of education. In the last few years, some OECD countries have relied on fiscal policies to increase the price of potentially unhealthy products to encourage a healthier diet such as in Belgium, Chile, Finland, France, Hungary and Mexico. This Obesity Update focusses on communication policies designed to empower people to make healthier choices, which are increasingly used in OECD countries. New developments in communication policies include new easy-tounderstand schemes of food labelling, mass media campaigns to increase public awareness, the use of social networks and new technologies for health promotion campaigns, and reinforced regulation of marketing of potentially unhealthy products, especially when directed to children. Comprehensive policy packages, including not only communication but also school-based interventions, interventions in primary care settings, and broader regulatory and fiscal policies, provide an affordable and cost-effective solution to tackle obesity. www.oecd.org/health/obesity-update.htm © OECD 2017 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Obesity Update 2017: introduction Today, more than one in two adults and nearly one in six children are overweight or obese in the OECD area. The obesity epidemic has spread further in the past five years, although at a slower pace than before. Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion. Despite this, new projections show a continuing increase of obesity in all studied countries. Social disparities in obesity persist and have increased in some countries. A nearly tenfold variation in obesity and overweight rates can be seen across OECD countries. In the last few years, new policy strategies devised to fight obesity have emerged. This Obesity Update focusses on a selection of those, specifically at communication policies aimed to tackle obesity, in particular by improving nutrient information displayed on food labels, using social and new media to sensitise the population, or by regulating the marketing of food products. Better communication helps empower people to make healthier choices. However, comprehensive policy packages, including not only communication but also broader regulatory and fiscal policies, are needed to tackle obesity effectively. 1 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 One in five adults is obese in OECD countries In 2015, across the OECD, 19.5% of the adult population was obese (Figure 1). This rate ranges from less than 6% in Korea and Japan to more than 30% in Hungary, New Zealand, Mexico and the United States. More than one in four adults is obese in Australia, Canada, Chile, South Africa and the United Kingdom. Overweight and obesity rates have grown rapidly in England, Mexico and the United States since the 1990s, while the increase has been slower in the other seven OECD countries for which trend data are available (Figure 2). Over the past decade, the prevalence rate of overweight and obesity has increased in Canada, France, Mexico, Switzerland and the United States, while it has stabilised in England, Italy, Korea and Spain. There is, however, no clear sign of retrenchment of the epidemic, in any country. Nearly one in six children is overweight or obese The share of children who are overweight or obese at age 15 ranges from 10% in Denmark to 31% in the United States (Figure 3). Despite policies put in place in OECD countries for a number of years, the number of 15-year-olds who report to be overweight or obese has steadily increased since 2000 in the majority of countries, according to the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey (Inchley et al., 2016). Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion. A more detailed analysis covering children aged 3 to 17 at several points in time shows relatively stable rates in France up to 2012, while trends have been somewhat upward again for both boys and girls in England since 2012, and since 2011 for boys in the United States (Figure 4). 2 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Figure 1: Obesity among adults, 2015 or nearest year Self-reported data Measured data 3.7 5.3 Japan Korea Italy 9.8 10.3 12.0 12.3 12.8 14.7 14.9 15.3 16.3 16.6 16.7 16.7 17 17.8 18 18.6 19 19.2 19.5 21 21.3 22.3 22.6 23 23.6 24.8 25.1 25.8 26.9 27.9 30 30.7 32.4 Women Men Switzerland Norway Sweden Netherlands Austria Denmark France Slovak Rep. Portugal Poland Spain Greece Israel Estonia Belgium Iceland Slovenia OECD Czech Rep. Latvia Turkey Luxembourg Ireland Germany Finland Chile Canada United Kingdom Australia Hungary New Zealand Mexico United States 38.2 5.0 5.7 7.0 India Indonesia China Lithuania Russian Fed. Brazil Colombia Costa Rica South Africa 17.3 19.6 20.8 20.9 24.4 26.5 40 30 20 10 % of population aged 15 years and over 0 0 10 20 30 40 % of population aged 15 years and over Source: OECD (2017), OECD Health Statistics 2017 (Forthcoming in June 2017). www.oecd.org/health/health-data.htm Note: The statistical data for Israel are supplied by and under the responsibility of the relevant Israeli authorities. The use of such data by the OECD is without prejudice to the status of the Golan Heights, East Jerusalem and Israeli settlements in the West Bank under the terms of international law. 3 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Figure 2: Rising overweight (including obesity) rates in adults aged 15-74 years Rates of overweight (including obesity) 80% Mexico United States 70% Hungary England 60% Canada 50% Spain 40% France Italy Switzerland 30% Korea 20% 1972 1976 1980 1984 1988 1992 1996 2000 2004 2008 2012 2016 Year Note: Overweight and obesity rates designate overweight and obesity prevalence rates. Age- and gender-adjusted rates of overweight (including obesity), using the 2005 OECD standard population. Measured height and weight in England, Hungary, Korea, Mexico and the United States; self-reported in other countries. Source: OECD analysis of health survey data. Figure 3: Self-reported overweight (including obesity) in children aged 15 years 2001-02 2013-14 35 31 30 24.5 25 16 10.5 17 17 17 16.5 16.5 16 16 15.5 15.5 15.5 15.5 15 14 14 14 13 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12.5 12 9.5 12 10 12 15 15 % 18 21.5 20 5 0 * Note: * Data for 2009-10. Child overweight is defined with IOTF age- and gender- specific BMI cut-offs. Source: Currie, C. et al. (2004); Inchley et al. (2016). 4 * Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Figure 4: Obesity in children aged 3-17 years 25% Rates of child obesity 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Year Boys, England Boys, France Boys, United States Girls, England Girls, France Girls, United States Note: Age- and gender-adjusted rates of obesity, using the 2005 OECD standard population. Definition of obesity based on the WHO BMIfor-age cut-offs. Measured height and weight in England and the United States; self-reported in France. Source: OECD analysis of national health survey data. 5 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Obesity rates are expected to increase further OECD projections show a steady increase in obesity rates until at least 2030 (Figure 5). Obesity levels are expected to be particularly high in the United States, Mexico and England, where 47%, 39% and 35% of the population respectively are projected to be obese in 2030. On the contrary, the increase is expected to be weaker in Italy and Korea, with obesity rates projected to be 13% and 9% in 2030, respectively. Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion. The level of obesity in France is projected to nearly match that of Spain, at 21% in 2030. Obesity rates are projected to increase at a faster pace in Korea and Switzerland where rates have been historically low. Figure 5: Projected rates of obesity 50% United States 45% Rate of obesity 40% 35% Mexico England 30% Canada 25% Spain France 20% Switzerland 15% Italy 10% Korea 5% 0% 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 2020 2030 Year Note: Obesity defined as Body Mass Index (BMI) ?30kg/m². OECD projections assume that BMI will continue to rise as a linear function of time. Source: OECD analysis of national health survey data. 6 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Inequalities in obesity and overweight are growing In the majority of countries, women are more obese than men – however, in most OECD countries for which data are available, male obesity has been growing more rapidly. Less-educated women are two to three times more likely to be overweight than those with a higher level of education in about half of the eight countries for which data are available (Figure 6). Disparities are smaller for men, although they are growing. Inequalities have grown in Italy, Spain, Korea, and England between 2010 and 2014, for both men and women. They have lessened for both genders in Canada, and for men only in France and Hungary. Obesity has been rising more rapidly in lesseducated men and in average-educated women, in most countries. However, in the United States, rates have been increasing most rapidly among higheducated people. Education and socio-economic background affect obesity. Reciprocally, obesity damages labour market outcomes that, in turn, contribute to reinforcing existing social inequalities (Devaux and Sassi, 2015). Obese people have poorer job prospects compared to normal-weight people, they are less likely to be employed and have more difficulty re-entering the labour market (OECD/EU, 2016). Obese people are less productive at work due to more sick days and fewer worked hours, and they earn about 10% less than non-obese people. Addressing obesity and the associated negative labour market outcomes would help break the vicious circle of social and health inequalities. Figure 6. Education-related inequality in overweight Relative index of inequality for overweight by education level 6.3 2010 (or latest year available) 6 2014 (or latest year available) 5 4 3.8 3.0 3 2 1 1.5 1.4 1.3 2.7 1.7 1.1 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 1.6 1.3 1.1 0 Men Women Note: Overweight defined as BMI?25kg/m². Education level is categorised into three groups (primary, secondary, tertiary education). On the Y-axis, the relative index of inequality measures the inequality of being overweight by education level. Source: OECD analysis of national health survey data. 7 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Communication policies to tackle obesity are advancing A number of new policy initiatives to tackle obesity have emerged in the OECD countries over the last few years. Countries have used a large spectrum of policies, including pricing and fiscal measures, school-based and worksite interventions, interventions in the primary care setting (e.g. prescribing physical activity), reformulation of products, changes in portion sizes, and transport policies (e.g. subsidies for active commuting instead of cars). Regarding fiscal measures in particular, taxation policies have been increasingly implemented in the past few years in a number of OECD countries (e.g. Belgium, Chile, Finland, France, Hungary, and Mexico) in order to increase the price of potentially unhealthy products such as foods high in salt, sugar or fat, or sugary drinks. This edition of the Obesity Update focusses mainly on communication policies that promote healthy diets by improving health literacy and empowering consumers, or by regulating marketing of potentially unhealthy products. Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion. In recent years, most OECD countries have relied on the use of social media and new technologies, or have revised the arrangements for more traditional communication policies such as food labelling or regulation of marketing, in order to tackle the problem of obesity. Food labelling helps people make healthier food choices Food labelling in stores Food labels can be implemented in different forms, for example through nutrient lists and profiles, informative logos, which can convey either positive or negative characteristics of the product, traffic light schemes, on a compulsory or voluntary basis. Nutrient lists on packaged foods are compulsory by law in the vast majority of OECD countries. Both compulsory (e.g. Chile, Korea) and voluntary (e.g., Sweden, Denmark) frontof-pack (FOP) labels have been introduced (see Box 1). Initial evidence of the impact on food choices and diet suggests that easy-to-understand interpretative labelling prompts a higher response rate from consumers than simply listing nutrient profiles (Cecchini and Warin, 2016). There is also evidence that FOP labelling can motivate food manufacturers to reformulate products with lower levels of nutrients that contribute to obesity (Kloss et al., 2015), 8 while evidence on the impact of recent FOP labelling on BMI and obesity would require a longer time period to be detected. For example, evidence suggests that “traffic-light” systems have the potential to increase the number of people selecting a healthier option by about 18% and lead to a 4% decrease in calorie intake (Cecchini and Warin, 2016). According to a ten-week experiment on food labelling run across 60 different supermarkets in France, the fivecolour NutriScore label was found to be the most effective nutritional labelling system among those studied and was selected to be implemented across the country as from April 2017. In December 2016, as part of its Healthy Eating Strategy, Canada launched a public consultation on a new compulsory food labelling logo that will warn about “high in sodium, sugars, and saturated fat” contents. Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Box 1: Food Labelling Compulsory front-of-pack (FOP) warning labels were introduced in Chile in June 2016, and preliminary evaluations show changes in consumers’ food purchases. In Korea, a new rule will soon be implemented requiring manufacturers of snacks, processed food and beverages to list the total amount of monosaccharides and disaccharides in their products, along with the total amount of nutrients per package. In March 2017, six large food and beverage corporations announced plans to launch an easy-to-interpret FOP traffic light system in their European operations, which would be in compliance with the EU regulations. Full details of the plan are yet to emerge. In addition to mandatory schemes, several voluntary initiatives have recently been adopted. In England, FOP “traffic-light” labelling has been introduced based on a colour scheme – green, amber and red – according to the nutrient content of a product in relation to the recommended daily intake. Similarly, the NutriScore label, implemented in France as of April 2017, is a 5-colour scale that summarises the healthiness of a product. The “Health Star Rating” system implemented in Australia and New Zealand in 2014 is a front-of-pack labelling system that rates the overall nutritional profile of packaged food based on energy, saturated fat, sodium, total sugar, and fibre content, assigning a rate from ½ star to 5 stars. It provides a quick, easy, standard way to compare similar packaged foods. The more stars, the healthier the choice. The “Keyhole logo” in place in Denmark, Norway and Sweden since 2009 and more recently in Iceland and Lithuania helps consumers to choose products that are lower in sugar, fats and salt, and higher in whole grains. Food sold in restaurants A few countries have implemented similar schemes for food purchased in restaurants, mostly at the subnational level. For instance, legislation in some countries requires displaying calorie counts on the restaurant menus (e.g., in chain restaurants in the United States as of May 2017, in several Australian states since 2016, and in Ontario, Canada, as of 2017). In the United States, several municipalities (e.g., New York City and Philadelphia) and states (e.g., California and Vermont) have already implemented legislation to show on the menu the nutrient content of dishes. In New York City, chain restaurants are also required to put a warning label for dishes that exceed 2 300 mg of sodium. Food labelling in restaurants helps reduce calorie intake. For example, an Australian case study showed that consumers who were exposed to food labelling information selected meals with about 120 kcal lower energy content (Morley et al., 2013). Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion. In Washington State, United States, there was a drop of about 15 calories and 1.5 grams of fat per entrée sold after the introduction of labelling on the menus in six fullservice restaurants (Pulos and Leng, 2010). On the other hand, the introduction of menu calorie labelling in New York City was shown to have little effect on the amount of calories purchased, although 28% of those who saw calorie labelling reported that this information affected their choices (Elbel et al., 2009). Mass media campaigns increase awareness of healthier food consumption A number of public health mass media campaigns to increase public awareness about healthier nutritional choices have been launched in OECD countries (see Box 2). Mass media campaigns help to reach a broad-targeted audience and increase awareness about the importance of adequate fruit and vegetable consumption. For example, the “2+5 a day” mass campaign in Western Australia contributed to the population-wide increase in the mean number of fruit and vegetable servings by about 0.2 over three years (Pollard et al., 2008). In Australia, the LiveLighter campaign was found to increase population-level awareness, compared to other obesity campaigns (Morley et al., 2016). But these campaigns should be sustained for a longer time period to change behaviours. 9 Obesity update – © OECD 2017 Box 2: Mass media campaigns Nearly every country promotes fruit and vegetable consumption, with not only the well-known “5 a day” target (e.g. Chile, Estonia, Germany, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain) but also “6 a day” (Denmark), “ 2+5 a day” (meaning 2 serves of fruit and 5 serves of vegetables at least per day, Western Australia), or “Fruits & Veggies – More Matters” (United States) (World Cancer Research Fund International, 2017). A variety of media channels are used. In France, since 2001, the “Eat Move” (Manger Bouger) campaign has been spreading messages through mass media, informational videos, home advertising and a dedicated website. In Australia, the LiveLighter campaign – implemented in Western Australia, Victoria and the Australian Capital Territory – has been encouraging healthy eating and physical activity with the help of free resources such as healthy recipes, meal and activity planners since 2012. In Ireland, the “Let’s Take on Childhood Obesity” campaign has been communicating practical solutions (e.g. meal planner, healthy eating tips) that parents can adopt in order to tackle everyday habits associated with excess weight in childhood since 2013. Mexico launched in 2013 a mass media campaign to reduce consumption of high calorie foods using TV, internet, radio, movie theatres, billboards and public transportation advertising. In New York City, messages to discourage consumption of sugary drinks have been broadcast both in English and Spanish. Health promotion campaigns to encourage parents to provide healthier food options to their children were implemented in 2016 in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, and in Los Angeles, United States. Social media and new technologies are tools for public health promotion In recent years, health promotion campaig … Purchase answer to see full attachment Discussion: Regulation of Obesity Discussion Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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