Discussion: Peer literature review

Discussion: Peer literature review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Peer literature review Any comments or suggestions on this literature review. Here are some questions that may help, when reviewing the literature review. Discussion: Peer literature review 5-7 sentences Are the main points of the paper sufficiently developed? Does the paper bring up any interesting points that you would like to see developed further? Do you find any spots where the paper goes off on a tangent or addresses irrelevant material? Are there any spots where the author relies too heavily on generalizations? Does the introduction make you want to keep reading? Why or why not? Is it clear what the research topic is? Why or why not? group_one_literature_review_.docx Studies of at-risk youth residing in high crime areas have shown that variables such as environment, a lower socioeconomic status, mental illness, and prior victimizations have negative effects on the juvenile’s involvement with delinquency (De Hart and Moran, 2015; Rekker et al., 2015; Jaggers et al., 2018; Ryan et al., 2013; Kim, 2019). As a result, many disadvantaged youths will enter the juvenile justice system, setting the tone for the rest of their lives and continuing the cycle of violence, poverty, and unstable households from which they came. However, protective factors such as mentoring and relationship-building through community organizations help mitigate the dangers of living in high crime areas by providing the youth a safe space in which to develop a higher sense of self-esteem and foster community attachment (Hirsch, et al., 2013). And while one can argue the many causes that lead to juvenile delinquency, we can agree that the best way to deal with it is through prevention. Cook County’s Southland Juvenile Justice Council aims to do just that- prevent juvenile delinquency by addressing their root causes, therefore decreasing the number of juveniles in the court system, specifically, Markham Courthouse. But what do the youth they aim to serve think, what insight can they provide to better the SJJC in their efforts of combatting juvenile delinquency? In order to capture what youth feel are risk and protective factors for delinquency in their respective schools and neighborhoods, we conducted semi-structured interviews from (time period goes here) with youth ages (ages will go here) who resided in the south suburbs of both Harvey and Dolton, Illinois. Harvey is comprised of 68.6% African American residents, followed by 24.4% Hispanic and 4.41 white. Harvey’s crime rate is higher than 97.7% the average U.S. city and its average household income is $24,343 (“USA Data,” n.d.). Discussion: Peer literature review Dolton is also primarily African American at 89.5%, followed by 4.34% Hispanic and 4.18% white, with a crime rate 96.8% higher than the average U.S. city and an average household income of $44,075 (“USA Data,” n.d.). This study will begin by discussing contributing factors of juvenile delinquency, followed by data gathered from our time interviewing the youth, and concluding with possible direction for the SJJC to take in continuing their work towards helping a most critical population. Risk factors such as prior victimizations, mental illness, poverty, and the environments in which they live all increased the probability of a juvenile’s involvement in crime. Children from violent homes possess higher levels of aggression, depression, anxiety, cognitive difficulties, lack of empathy, and low selfesteem, among other adverse effects. De Hart and Moran, 2015, noted a direct link between the predictive value of different forms of violence exposure for the onset of delinquent and criminal behavior. They examined type(s) of victimization young women experienced and at what stage of life, if the victimization led to heightened chances of committing certain types of offenses, and if a relationship of victimization to offending was present. Of the many results found, “One quarter of the 100 girls sampled experienced caregiver violence by age four” (De Hart & Moran, 2015), also, “caregiver victimizations and number of witnessing victimizations contributed to the prediction of substance use as a means of coping” (De Hart &Moran, 2015). Discussion: Peer literature review Put simply, if the juvenile witnessed abuse or was the victim of abuse, this usually predicted future substance use as a means of coping. In a separate study focused on male minority youth residing in Chicago, youth who were exposed to violence were “more likely to exhibit aggressive behaviors, anxiety, PTSD symptoms, and a sense of hopelessness among other problems” (Rigg et al., 2019). In relation to violence, children who were victims of child abuse and neglect were at increased risks of involvement with the justice system and increased risks of experiencing psychosocial and emotional disorders, directly correlated to their history of maltreatment. According to Jaggers et al., “when controlling for a diagnosis considered a lifetime psychiatric disorder, ADHD, PTSD, bipolar and panic disorder, drug and nicotine abuse/dependence, GAD (generalized anxiety disorder), and depression were significantly associated with childhood maltreatment” (Jaggers et al., 2018). And because many of the youth in need of mental health services come from disadvantaged backgrounds, the chance of them receiving much needed care was nil to none, or the care received was ineffective. Discussion: Peer literature review Jaggers, et al, randomly sampled 2,110 child welfare cases in a Midwestern state from 2009-2015, using an interdisciplinary approach to examine how demographic differences, involvement with the justice system, types of treatment agencies and child welfare effectiveness impacted mental health. Poorer youth were more likely to be involved with the child welfare system than higher income youth, and in addition to mental health concerns, youth involved with child welfare had higher rates of developmental and physical health issues than those who were not. It was determined nearly half of the cases studied (49.4%) were deemed unsuccessful in their treatment. “Many agencies working with children and youth who have experienced trauma focus on eliminating or reducing the symptomatic behaviors rather than addressing the trauma context” (Jaggers et al., 2018), suggesting the need for a different treatment approach and better judgment of behalf of the professionals rendering the services. A mental health study of youth living in the impoverished Southwark area of London showed similar results. The number of psychosocial problems per child correlated significantly with number of risk factors, the most common “including parental mental health problems, environmental problems in relation to housing and neighbors, social isolation, and trouble with the police” (Davis et al., 2000). Although 85% had at least one risk factor and over 51% had three or more risk factors for child mental health problems, only 22% of the sample had already sought help. While results show the need for mental health services exceeds the resources available, according to Davis et al., “the essential ingredients of effectiveness are not only the range of service options and professional knowledge and judgment, but also the human qualities of the individuals who provide these options” (Davis et al., 2000). Discussion: Peer literature review Another factor in the causation of juvenile delinquency is poverty or having a lower socioeconomic status (SES). In a study conducted by Rekker et al., 2015, results showed juveniles residing in homes with a low SES were about “four times more likely to commit minor delinquency, five and a half times more likely to commit moderate delinquency, and ten times more likely to commit serious delinquency.” Poverty has been directly linked to numerous individual internal and external adverse effects including but not limited to: psychosocial reactions negatively effecting a juvenile’s mental health, aggressive behaviors, anxiety, depression, PTSD, hopelessness, risky sexual behaviors, suicidal thoughts, and drug use (Rigg et al., 2019). Unfortunately, the child poverty rate in the United States is 20%; in addition, more than half of children living in the U.S. spend at least one year in poverty before the age of 18 (Rekker et al., 2015). Many youths, specifically minorities growing up in urban communities such as aforementioned Dolton and Harvey, Illinois, (with poverty rates of 26.6% and 35.6% below the poverty line, respectively) face challenges aside from poverty such as gang violence, lack of educational opportunities, obtaining health and social services, crime, and more. Due to the community violence experienced in low SES neighborhoods, many youths feel unsafe and therefore have a hard time building healthy social bonds and networks, with many becoming involved in gang-activity for protection and to foster the sense of belonging unable to be achieved through productive community ties. To assess the needs of a crime plagued, lower SES community directly from the youth who reside there, Rigg et al., 2019, interviewed sixty-five Black and Latino male youths ages 10-18 from inner-city Chicago. Discussion: Peer literature review Three common themes found throughout their answers in relation to community needs were: “community violence, scarcity of organized recreational activities, and lack of safe parks.” The boys also expressed great interest in organized community recreational activities with a heavy emphasis on sports programming, namely football, basketball, and boxing. In a related study, female inner-city youth club patrons were interviewed to address discrepancies in club programming with the goal of increasing involvement. Hirsch, et al. collected qualitative data through ethnography, survey research, and structured interviews from a sample of 112 at-risk African American and Hispanic youth with a focus on girls aged 10 through 15. Results showed although “the girls had expressed repeatedly a desire for more activities geared to their interests such as volleyball, drama and modeling, the clubs do not always respond positively” (Hirsch et al., 2000) and this was usually attributed to limited staff and/or funding. It was also noted that while boys ’activities drew larger crowds (i.e. competitive sports), the girls did not have any such activity that garnered as much attention. While community recreational organizations were present in under-privileged neighborhoods, they struggled to produce programming of interest for their targeted audience with a larger discrepancy in quality programming for adolescent females. A discussion on factors of juvenile delinquency would be remiss if environment was not included. Numerous bodies of research have studied the effects neighborhoods characterized by poor quality have on its residents. Social disorganization theory posits the nature of the neighborhood-not individuals themselvesregulate involvement in crime. According to Shaw and McKay, three measures determine whether an area is socially organized or disorganized: strengths of local friendships, residents ’ involvement in community organizations, and the degree to which teenagers roam unsupervised. Discussion: Peer literature review Social disorganization theory would stress the need to reform whole communities and not simply the people who live there. According to Kim, 2019, “disadvantageous and disorganized neighborhoods lead to higher rates of delinquency since it is harder for residents of the area to create healthy social bonds when there is less informal social control where teenagers are left unsupervised.” A protective factor that could potentially buffer the onset of juvenile delinquency is a positive, supportive family. “The family is the first means of social control. It is there where the child learns to socialize positively. A failure in this stage leads to the social problems we see today, such as the use of violence to resolve conflicts or the lack of values such as responsibility, solidarity or respect for limits” (Kim, 2019). Having positive family involvement has also shown to decrease high-risk juvenile offenders from chances of recidivism (Ryan et al., 2013). When the home environment lacks in role models or positive support systems, this is where organizations such as the SJJC could provide support for at-risk youth through a series of programs such as mentoring, skill-building, family workshops, and employment opportunities (This will more than likely change after interviews). References Data USA. (n.d.). Dolton, IL. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://datausa.io/profile/geo/dolton-il/ Data USA. (n.d.). Harvey, IL. Retrieved from https://datausa.io.profile/geo/harvey-il/ Davis, H., Day, C., Cox, A., & Cutler, L. (2000). Child and adolescent mental health needs assessment and service implications in an inner-city area. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 5(2), 169–188.Discussion: Peer literature review https://doi.org/10.1177/1359104500005002003. DeHart, D.D., & Moran, R. (2015). Poly-victimization among girls in the justice system: Trajectories of risk and associations to juvenile offending. Violence Against Women, 21 (3), 291-312. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077801214568355. Hirsch, B. J., Roffman, J. G., Deutsch, N. L., Flynn, C. A., Loder, T. L., & Pagano, M. E. (2000). Inner-city youth development organizations: Strengthening programs for adolescent girls. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 20(2), 210– 230. doi: 10.1177/0272431600020002005. Jaggers, J.W., Richardson, E.A. & Hall, J.A. (2018). Effect of mental health treatment, juvenile justice involvement, and child welfare effectiveness on severity of mental health problems. Child Welfare, 96(3), 81-102. Kim, A. D. (2019). Environmental factors contributing to juvenile delinquency. Philosophy, Politics, and Economics, 9, 36-46. Rekker, R., Pardini, D., Keijsers, L., Branje, S., Loeber, R., & Meeus, W. (2015). Moving in and out of poverty: The within-individual association between socioeconomic status and juvenile delinquency. PLoS ONE, 10(11), 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone. 17. 0136461. Rigg, K. K., McNeish, R., Schadrac, D., Gonzalez, A., & Tran, Q. (2019). Community needs of minority male youth living in inner-city Chicago. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S019074 0918309897. Ryan, J. P., Williams, A. B., & Courtney, M. E. (2013). Adolescent neglect, juvenile delinquency and the risk of recidivism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 42(3), 45465. doi:2100/10.1007/s10964-013-9906-8. … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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