Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law

Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law In a minimum of 550 words, predict how present day legal and ethical concerns associated with cybersecurity may apply to possible insurance claims within the foreseeable future. As you do so, please be sure to apply facts, relevant procedures (legal, ethical and/or technical), as well as the concepts that you believe link all of these concepts together. Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law References Car, J., Tan, W. S., Huang, Z., Sloot, P., & Franklin, B. D. (2017, April 5). eHealth in the Future of Medications Management: Personalisation, Monitoring and Aherence. BMC Medicine, 15(73). doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0838-0 CXOTALK (Producer). (2017). AI & Privacy Engineering with Michelle Dennedy (Cisco) and David Bray (FCC) (#229) [Motion Picture]. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from Holstein, T., Dodig-Crnkovic, G., & Pelliccione, P. (2018, February 5). Ethical and Social Aspects of Self-Driving Cars. Computers and Society. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://arxiv.org/abs/1802.04103 Nojeim, G. T. (2010, August 13). Cybersecurity and Freedom on the Internet. Journal of National Security Law & Policy, 4(119), 119-137. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from http://jnslp.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/09_Noj… Solow-Niederman, A. (2018, January 11). Beyond the Privacy Torts: Reinvigorating a Common Law Approach for Data Breaches. The Yale Law Journal, 127, 614-636. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://www.yalelawjournal.org/forum/beyond-the-pr… Spidor, J. C., Ward, B. T., & Volonino, L. (2014, July 1). Privacy Concerns Associated with Smartphone Use. Journal of Internet Commerce, 13, 177-193. doi:10.1080/15332861.2014.947902 Zureich, D., & Graebe, W. (2015, April). Cybersecurity: The Continuing Evolution of Insurance and Ethics. Defense Counsel Journal, 82(2), 192-198. Retrieved April 14, 2019, from https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy1.apus.edu/docv… Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law beyond_the_privacy_torts.pdf ehealth_in_the_future_of_medications_management.pdf cybersecurity_and_freedom_on_the_internet.pdf ethical_and_social_aspects_of_self_driving_cars.pdf privacy_concerns_associated_with_smartphone_use.pdf cybersecurity_and_freedom_on_the_internet.pdf privacy_concerns_associated_with_smartphone_use.pdf cybersecurity_the_continuing_evolution_of_insurance_and_ethics.pdf beyond_the_privacy_torts.pdf ehealth_in_the_future_of THE YALE LAW JOURNAL FORUM JANUARY 11, 2018 Beyond the Privacy Torts: Reinvigorating a Common Law Approach for Data Breaches* Alicia Solow-Niederman abstract. Data breaches continue to roil the headlines, yet regulation and legislation are unlikely to provide a timely solution to protect consumers. Meanwhile, individuals are le?, at best, in a state of data insecurity and, at worst, in a compromised economic situation. State common law provides a path forward. Rather than rely on statutory claims or the privacy torts to protect consumer data, this Essay suggests that courts should recognize how contemporary transactions implicate ?duciary-like relationships of trust. By designating what this Essay terms data con?dants as a limited form of information ?duciary, courts can reinvigorate the tort of breach of con?dence as a remedy for aggrieved consumers. We have a data breach problem. The recent breach of the credit-monitoring agency Equifax implicated the social security numbers, birth dates, and personal information of more than 140 million Americans.1 Given the richness and sensitivity of this intensely personal data, this breach may be “among [the] * 1. 614 This Essay re?ects developments through December 2017, when it was substantively ?nalized for publication. Tara Siegel Bernard et al., Equifax Says Cyberattack May Have A?ected 143 Million in the U.S., N.Y. TIMES (Sept. 7, 2017), http://www.nytimes.com/2017/09/07/business/equifax -cyberattack.html [http://perma.cc/3U5J-8FMX]; Tara Siegel Bernard & Stacey Cowley, Equifax Breach Caused by Lone Employee’s Error, Former C.E.O. Says, N.Y. TIMES (Oct. 3, 2017), http://www.nytimes.com/2017/10/03/business/equifax-congress-data-breach.html [http://perma.cc/FG89-LWAX] (estimating that 146 million Americans were a?ected and reporting that the ex-CEO of Equifax attributed the breach to a lone employee’s failure to implement necessary so?ware updates). beyond the privacy torts: reinvigorating a common law approach for data breaches wors[t] ever.”2 The incidence of breaches and number of people a?ected continues to climb. The ?rst half of 2017 witnessed a twenty-nine percent increase in breaches as compared to the same period the year before.3 And in October 2017, the media reported that three billion users of Yahoo! email accounts were a?ected by a 2013 breach.4 This state of a?airs should concern policymakers and consumers alike. Congress has failed to enact legislative reform for years.5 Proposals generally 2. 3. 4. 5. Seth Berman, Richness of Exposed Data Makes Equifax Breach Among Worse Ever, INFO. MGMT. (Sept. 12, 2017, 6:30 AM), http://www.information-management.com/opinion /richness-of-exposed-data-makes-equifax-breach-among-worse-ever [http://perma.cc /BL8Z-7JA7]. At Mid-Year, U.S. Data Breaches Increase at Record Pace, IDENTITY THEFT RESOURCE CTR. (July 18, 2017), http://www.idthe?center.org/Press-Releases/2017-mid-year-data-breach -report-press-release [http://perma.cc/V7VG-B3AC]. See Brian Fung, Actually, Every Single Yahoo Account Got Hacked in 2013, WASH. POST (Oct. 3, 2017), http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/the-switch/wp/2017/10/03/yahoos-2013 -data-breach-a?ected-all-3-billion-accounts-tripling-its-previous-estimate [http://perma.cc /8CRS-9V34].Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law Nor are these breaches the only notable incidents in late 2017. In November 2017, the ride-sharing service Uber revealed that, for nearly a year, it had concealed the the? of sensitive data a?ecting 57 million riders and drivers. See Selena Larson, Uber’s Massive Hack: What We Know, CNN (Nov. 23, 2017, 4:47 AM), http://money.cnn.com/2017 /11/22/technology/uber-hack-consequences-cover-up/index.html [http://perma.cc/NU88 -ZJCN]. Uber not only failed to disclose the the? to users and regulators, but also paid the hackers a $100,000 ransom to delete the information—though there is no guarantee that the information was in fact secured. See, e.g., Christin McMeley, Federal Data Breach Legislation Introduced, But Will It Go Anywhere?, PRIVACY & SECURITY L. BLOG (June 23, 2013) http://www.privsecblog.com/2013/06 /articles/dataprotection/federal-data-breach-legislation-introduced-but-will-it-go -anywhere [http://perma.cc/7Y2B-D49Z] (expressing skepticism that a 2013 bill would be enacted, in part due to the “partisan split and inability to move legislation generally”); Brian Thompson & Sean B. Hoar, 2015 Data Breach Legislation Six Month Review: Many Proposals, Few Changes, PRIVACY & SECURITY L. BLOG (July 8, 2015), http://www.privsecblog.com/2015 /07/articles/policy-regulatory-positioning/2015-data-breach-legislation-six-month-review -many-proposals-few-changes [http://perma.cc/YC88-BET8] (documenting the “stall in Congress” regarding data breach-related legislation, despite “what appeared to be ample bipartisan support”); Martha Wrangham et al., Calls for Federal Breach Noti?cation Law Continue A?er Yahoo Data Breach, GLOBAL IP & TECH. L. BLOG (Oct. 6, 2016) (discussing “stalled” past e?orts at federal data breach legislation), http://www.iptechblog.com/2016/10 /calls-for-federal-breach-noti?cation-law-continue-a?er-yahoo-data-breach [http://perma .cc/FVT5-L33V]; Shawn Zeller, Despite Massive OPM Hack, Congress Continues To Stall on Data Breach Bill, ROLL CALL (July 22, 2015, 6:30 AM), http://www.rollcall.com/news /despite_massive_opm_hack_congress_continues_to_stall_on_data_breach_bill-242949 -1.html [http://perma.cc/8UEJ-KQ75] (describing Congress’s failure to move forward on a 2015 bill despite “years of preparation” by members of Congress and seeming agreement that action was in order); Press Release, Blumenthal Introduces Data Breach and Security 615 the yale law journal forum January 11, 2018 rise, then stall, within a familiar cycle of (1) major breach; (2) introduction of one or more data security bills; and (3) legislative inaction. Following the 2015 Target and Home Depot breaches, for instance, there were three bills proposed by Senate Democrats in the ?rst four months of 2015 alone.6 And once the 2016 Yahoo! breach became public knowledge, at least three dra? proposals were introduced in the Senate, each backed by di?erent partisan combinations and interest group blocs.7 Since the 2017 Equifax breach, there has been renewed legislative attention in the form of congressional hearings,8 and bills have again been introduced.9 But the history of inaction seems unlikely to change given 6. 7. 8. 9. 616 Legislation To Protect Consumers (Sept. 12, 2011), http://www.blumenthal.senate.gov /newsroom/press/release/blumenthal-introduces-data-breach-and-security-legislation-to -protect-consumers [http://perma.cc/3GKC-SNQM] (introducing data breach legislation during the 2011–2012 congressional term). See Cory Bennett, Dem Preps Senate’s Third Data Breach Bill, HILL (Apr. 27, 2015, 11:45 AM), http://thehill.com/policy/cybersecurity/240160-dem-preps-senates-third-data-breach-bill [http://perma.cc/4QT5-PU68]. See Claude Bar?eld, The Ongoing Saga of Yahoo’s Stolen Data, NAT’L REV. (Oct. 6, 2016, 11:16 AM),Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law http://www.nationalreview.com/article/440796/yahoos-hacked-accounts-no-answers -no-solutions-yet [http://perma.cc/KQ3P-4ZQ3] (noting, in the Senate alone, at least three dra? proposals backed by di?erent partisan combinations and interest group blocs). See, e.g., An Examination of the Equifax Breach: Hearing Before the S. Comm. on Banking, Hous., & Urban A?airs, 115th Cong. (2017), http://www.banking.senate.gov/public/index .cfm/hearings?ID=B61BB78D-CF34-4D54-B7F2-F7F982D77D6F#RelatedFiles [http:// perma.cc/68AW-QD7Z] (statement of Richard F. Smith, Adviser to the Interim CEO and Former Chairman and CEO, Equifax); Examining the Equifax Data Breach: Hearing Before the H. Comm. on Fin. Servs., 115th Cong. (2017), http://?nancialservices.house.gov/calendar /eventsingle.aspx?EventID=402360 [http://perma.cc/8XL3-8DHL] (same); Oversight of the Equifax Data Breach: Answers for Consumers: Hearing Before the Subcomm. on Dig. Commerce & Consumer Prot. of the H. Comm. on Energy & Com., 115th Cong. (2017), http:// energycommerce.house.gov/hearings/oversight-equifax-data-breach-answers-consumers [http://perma.cc/CNL6-D23D] (same). See, e.g., Derek B. Johnson, House Dem Revives Data Breach Bill A?er Equifax Hack, FCW (Sept. 18, 2017), http://fcw.com/articles/2017/09/18/langevin-equifax-breach-bill.aspx [http://perma.cc/S3SQ-QLPN] (recounting House Democrats’ e?orts to revive a data breach bill that was originally introduced in 2015); Marianne Kolbasuk McGee, Congress Grills Equifax Ex-CEO on Breach, DATA BREACH TODAY (Oct. 3, 2017), http://www .databreachtoday.com/congress-grills-equifax-ex-ceo-on-breach-a-10354 [http://perma.cc /Y2KL-P396] (listing seven di?erent emerging bills introduced or reintroduced a?er the Equifax breach); Press Release, In Wake of Equifax Data Breach, Blumenthal, Colleagues Introduce Legislation To Hold Data Broker Industry Accountable (Sept. 14, 2017), http:// www.blumenthal.senate.gov/newsroom/press/release/in-wake-of-equifax-data-breach -blumenthal-colleagues-introduce-legislation-to-hold-data-broker-industry-accountable [http://perma.cc/V3KP-MPV8]. beyond the privacy torts: reinvigorating a common law approach for data breaches the current political climate.10 More likely, once the uproar fades, the status quo will return until the next big data breach spurs renewed calls for change.11 Timely statutory reform also seems unlikely because it is not clear what the ambitions of such a statute should be.12 Should reform focus, for instance, on improving consumer noti?cations a?er a breach, specifying security standards to try to prevent a breach in the ?rst instance, or some hybrid of the two? Further, these proposals have their own challenges. First, the ex post strategy of noti?cation alone might fail to meaningfully empower consumers because it would not necessarily alter overall security standards or a?ect corporate incentives to invest in security. Yet if notice alone is not enough and the objective is to promulgate some form of overarching security standard ex ante (either alone or in a hybrid model), then determining what technical requirements to apply across di?erent industries is no easy matter. There are also policy obstacles insofar as the American sector-by-sector approach to the treatment of private information largely rejects holistic regulation with regard to the collection, use, and disclosure of information.13 Prospects for quick, overarching, top-down legislative reform are thus slim.Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law 14 10. Today’s Congress is extremely polarized. See Parties Overall, VOTE VIEW, http://voteview .com/parties/all [http://perma.cc/GBF9-XDH2] (depicting the ideological gap between liberal and conservative members of Congress); see also Philip Bump, Farewell to the Most Polarized Congress in More Than 100 Years!, WASH. POST (Dec. 21, 2016), http://www .washingtonpost.com/news/the-?x/wp/2016/12/21/farewell-to-the-most-polarized -congress-in-over-100-years [http://perma.cc/FWG9-VVGF] (discussing the data on historic levels of polarization in the 114th Congress). To make what may be obvious explicit, this degree of polarization challenges the ability to move legislation through Congress, leading scholars to suggest that the 114th Congress, which was the last completed session for which data was available as of this writing, was the “worst ever” in terms of productivity. Norm Ornstein, Is This the Worst Congress Ever?, ATLANTIC, (May 17, 2016), http://www .theatlantic.com/politics/archive/2016/05/is-this-the-worst-congress-ever/483075 [http:// perma.cc/CG3G-NNEQ]. 11. Many participants in the political system share this view. See Cory Bennett & Martin Matishak, Equifax Breach: Turning Point or More of the Same?, POLITICO (Sept. 12, 2017, 6:13 PM), http://www.politico.com/story/2017/09/12/equifax-security-breach-hackers-242623 [http://perma.cc/74KF-L547]. 12. Di?erent policy proposals o?er a range of solutions, along with distinctions within each category. See, e.g., Alissa M. Dolan, CONG. RES. SERV., R44326, Data Security and Breach Noti?cation Legislation: Selected Legal Issues 2-3 (2015) (discussing eight bills in the 114th Congress alone and noting disparate approaches to both data security and noti?cation, and concluding that “[t]he details of each bill di?er and close inspection of each provision and de?nition is required to determine its speci?c e?ect”); Bar?eld, supra note 7 (detailing divergence in recent congressional proposals). 13. With the exception of the Freedom of Information Act of 1966 (FOIA), 5 U.S.C. § 552(a)(3)(A) (2012), and regulation of government actors via the Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. § 552a (2012), sectoral regulation of sensitive information is the norm. The core ele- 617 the yale law journal forum January 11, 2018 Yet the issue of data breaches will not simply resolve itself. A world without breaches is improbable,15 and consumers are limited in how they can address the issue on their own.16 The status quo can thus result in signi?cant individual economic and emotional harm.17 This Essay moves past this impasse by arguing that common law courts can and should provide a legal remedy by recognizing the tort of breach of con?dentiality as a cause of action available to individuals a?ected by data breaches. Part I assesses why the leading common law solution, the privacy torts, represents an unsatisfying response to the harms caused by data breaches. Part II situates the tort of breach of con?dentiality as a superior alternative. Part III sketches the components of the tort and suggests how a court can update the common law and apply this cause of action in the digital economy. 14. 15. 16. 17. 618 ments are regulation of personal health information (controlled by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA), Pub. L. No. 104-191, 110 Stat. 1936 (codi?ed as amended in scattered sections of 18, 26, 29, and 42 U.S.C.), and associated privacy rules, 45 C.F.R. § 164.508(a) (2007)),Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law credit reporting and ?nancial data (addressed by the Fair Credit Reporting Act of 1970 (FCRA), 15 U.S.C. § 1681 (2012), and Title V of Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA), Pub. L. No. 106-102, 113 Stat. 1338 (codi?ed at 15 U.S.C. §§ 6801-09 (2012))), and educational data (covered by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA), Pub. L. No. 93-380, 88 Stat. 484 (codi?ed at 20 U.S.C. § 1232g (2012)). Cf. Danielle D’Onfro, The Best Way to Hold Equifax Accountable, WASH. POST (Sept. 14, 2017), http://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/equifax-doesnt-owe-anyone -anything-but-it-doesnt-have-to-be-this-way/2017/09/14/517c2ef6-98c7-11e7-b569 -3360011663b4_story.html [http://perma.cc/A4E9-M5ER] (arguing that courts, not regulators, should tackle the modern data breach problem). Eliminating all breaches is neither technologically feasible nor socially desirable. Technological limitations mean that breach-proof security measures are impractical. See, e.g., Tsion Gonen, Data Breach Prevention is Dead, HILL (Feb. 9, 2015, 2:00 PM), http://thehill.com /blogs/congress-blog/technology/232041-data-breach-prevention-is-dead [http://perma.cc /UA7M-DAER] (discussing technological limitations). Moreover, economic and policy realities mean that companies are unlikely to invest in unlimited security measures. From the corporate perspective, it may be more economically e?cient to bear the cost of a breach ex post than to invest in the security required to prevent the breach ex ante. See Rahul Telang, Policy Framework for Data Breaches, 13 IEEE SECURITY & PRIVACY 77, 79 (2015) (explaining corporate economic incentives). Companies unwilling to bear such risk may also choose not to engage in the activity at all, which would be an unfortunate outcome both for business development and for consumers le? unable to enjoy such products and services. See infra text accompanying notes 38-42. The New York Times’ recent interviews with data breach victims viscerally captured the “terror” and years of di?culty that many experience a?er their data is stolen. Ti?any Hsu, Data Breach Victims Talk of Initial Terror, Then Vigilance, N.Y. TIMES (Sept. 9, 2017), http://www .nytimes.com/2017/09/09/business/equifax-data-breach-identity-the?-victims.html [http://perma.cc/76QH-FLXX]; see also infra Part I (discussing the nature of the harm caused by data breaches in greater depth). beyond the privacy torts: reinvigorating a common law approach for data breaches i. the limitations of the privacy torts Given legislative inertia and uncertainty regarding how legislative and regulatory action should address data breaches, a return to common law roots in state court18 can provide an alternative remedy for aggrieved individuals. Since a breach results in the disclosure of private data, a privacy tort, such as intrusion upon seclusion,19 public disclosure of embarrassing private facts,20 false light,21 or appropriation,22 would appear the most obvious remedy. Yet, however obvious it may seem, the limitations of the privacy torts counsel in favor of a new model. First, the privacy torts raise constitutional concerns. There has been a growing sense in recent decades that a robust instantiation of the privacy torts risks infringing on the First Amendment right to freedom of speech and press.23 Consider, for example, the tort of disclosure of private data: since this 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Discussion: Legal And Ethical Issues Of Cybersecurity And Civil Law This analysis focuses on state courts both because a common law approach is an intrinsic ?t with data breaches and for instrumental reasons. Even assuming that a statute provides a federal right of action for a data breach victim, a robust literature has documented the uphill battle to achieve standing in cases involving informational injuries in general and data breach suits in particular. See Arthur R. Vorbrodt, Note, Clapper Dethroned: Imminent Injury and Standing for Data Breach Lawsuits in Light of Ashley Madison, 73 WASH. & LEE L. REV. ONLINE 61, 87-91 (2016), http://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article =1046&context=wlulr-online [http://perma.cc/R4LZ-EQM6] (summarizing district courts’ tendency, post ACLU v. Clapper, 785 F.3d 787 (2015), to ?nd injury-in-fact too speculative to confer standing in data breach suits); see also Courtney M. Cox, Comment, Risky Standing: Deciding on Injury, 8 NE. U. L.J. 75, 85-92 (2016) (discussing standing challenges in data breach suits); Seth F. Kreimer, “Spooky Action at a Distance”: Intangible Injury in the Information Age, 18 U. PA. J. CONST. L. 745, 756-83 (2015) (providing a general overview of challenges surrounding alleged informational injuries, both in national security and consumer contexts); Angelo A. Stio III et al., Standing and the Emerging Law of Data Breach Class Actions, 2015 N.J. LAWYER 49 (discussing “the standing hurdle”). For a recent overview of how courts tend to ?nd inadequate injury-in-fact to support standing in federal data breach claims, see Daniel J. Solove & Danielle Keats Citron, Risk and Anxiety: A Theory of Data Breach Harms, 96 TEX. L. REV. (forthcoming 2018), http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract_id =2885638 [http://perma.cc/H8NY-GVYJ]. See RESTATEMENT (SECOND) OF TORTS § 652B (AM. LAW INST. 1977). See id. at § 652D. See id. at § 652E. See id. at § 652C. See generally William L. Prosser, Privacy, 48 CALIF. L. REV. 383 (1960) (taxonomizing the privacy torts). Since the late twentieth century, many scholars have recognized this growing tension between privacy tort law and the First Amendment, and breach of con?dence has been suggested as an alternative solution. See Susan M. Gilles, Promises Betrayed: Breach of Con?dence as a Remedy for Invasions of Privacy, 43 BUFF. L. REV. 1, 6-9 & 9 n.41 (1995) (discussing … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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