Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law

Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law Evaluate the degree and quality of care established within the 18th Century U.S. hospitals, as compared to the level of care seen in today’s hospitals [Chapter 1, Pages 2-18]. Analyze the basic sources of law: common law, statutory law, and administrative law and identify which one is most prevalent in health care. Provide support for your rationale. [Chapter 2, Pages 20-25]. Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law Chapter 1 and 2 document will be attached please let me know if they are not or cannot be opened chapter_1_hsa_515.pdf chapter_2_hsa_515.pdf Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Hein Nouwers/Shutterstock, Inc. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION CHAPTER 1 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Hospitals Through the Ages © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION I was created at the end of the Renaissance, watched pirates rule the oceans as Ivan the Terrible ruled Russia, and witnessed the arrest of Galileo for believing the Earth revolved around the Sun. —I Am History ?? © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION LEARNING OBJECTIVES © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION The reader, upon completion of this chapter, will be able to: Explain & how societal Learning, conflicts due LLC to politics, religion, and warfare have both impeded the growth of LLC hospitals © Jones Bartlett © Jones & Bartlett Learning, and contributed to their progress. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION ?? ?? ?? Describe how advances in medicine led to the rise of the modern-day hospital and improved the quality of patient care. Describe how the knowledge gained from best practices (e.g., infection control) can lead to progress while at the same time result in patient harm if not consistently followed over time. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 1 © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 2 Chapter 1 Hospitals Through the Ages We can learn from history how past generations thought repeat them. This chapter takes the reader on a jour- & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCto the demands of their © Jones and acted, how they responded ney from the past to the present, from which to spring FORonSALE DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR time and howDISTRIBUTION they solved their problems. We can learn NOT forward a betterOR road that returns the people’s trust by analogy, not by example, for our circumstances will always in the safety net of the nation’s hospital systems. Here, be different than theirs were. The main thing history can teach we go “back into the future” to bring forth the fruits of us is that human actions have consequences and that certain healthier hospitals and healthier lives. Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law Let the reader choices, once made, cannot be undone. They foreclose the posnow travel that road. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC sibility of making other choices and thus they determine future NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION events. —Gerda Lerner 1 ?? EARLY HINDU AND EGYPTIAN HOSPITALS © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC This chapter provides the reader with notable histor© Jones & Bartlett Learning, ical events, from ancient civilizations to theLLC present Two ancient civilizations, the Hindu what is now NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR(inDISTRIBUTION time, which continue to revolutionize the delivery India) and the Egyptian, had crude hospitals. Hindu of patient care. It provides a review of the advance of literature reveals that in the 6th century BC, Buddha civilization as disclosed in the history of hospitals and appointed a physician for every 10 villages and built medical achievements through the ages. A study of hospitals for the crippled and the poor. His son, Upaoften reveals errors LLC that then can be avoided, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jonesthe&past Bartlett Learning, tiso, built shelters for the diseased and for pregnant customs that persist only because of tradition, and NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION women. These examples probably moved Buddha’s practices that have been superseded by others that devotees to erect similar hospitals. Despite a lack of are more effective. The past may also bring to light records, historians agree that hospitals existed in long-abandoned practices, which may be revived to ­Ceylon as early as 437 BC. some advantage. The story of the birth and evolution During his reign from © 273 to 232& BC, King Learning, LLC © the Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Jones Bartlett of the hospital portrays triumph of civilization Asoka built 18 hospitals thatNOT hold FOR historical signifSALE OR DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION over barbarism and the NOT progress of civilization toward icance because of their similarities to the modern an ideal characterized by an interest in the welfare of hospital. Attendants gave gentle care to the sick, the community. provided patients with fresh fruits and vegetables, This chapter reviews some of the most amazing prepared their medicines, gave massages, and mainmedical achievements in the history ©discoveries Jones & and Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jonescleanliness. & Bartlett Learning, LLC tained their personal Hindu physicians, of medicine. It alsoSALE describes of the failures NOT FOR OR some DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION adept at surgery, were required to take daily baths, that continue to plague the healthcare industry. The keep their hair and nails short, wear white clothes, importance of the study of history is undeniable. The and promise that they would respect the confidence Spanish philosopher George Santayana (1863–1952) of their patients. Although bedside care was outrecognized this all too well when he said, “Those who standing for those times, medicine was only begin© Jonesdo¬ Bartlett Learning, LLC remember the past are condemned to repeat © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC ning to find its way. Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law NOT FOR DISTRIBUTION it.” SALE GeorgeOR Bernard Shaw (1856–1950), an Irish NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Egyptian physicians were probably the first to dramatist and socialist, recognized the tragedies of use drugs such as alum, peppermint, castor oil, and the history of civilization when he said, “If history opium. In surgery, anesthesia consisted of hitting the repeats itself, and the unexpected always happens, patient on the head with a wooden mallet to render how incapable must man of learning from experi© be Jones & Bartlett Learning,theLLC © Jones Bartlett patient unconscious. Surgery was & largely lim- Learning, LLC ence.” Yes, Santayana and Shaw are right: If we do not NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION ited to fractures, and medical treatment was usulearn from the mistakes of the past, we are doomed ally given in the home. Therapy away from home to repeat them. Progress in health care will only prewas often available in temples, which functioned as vail so long as advances in medicine are practiced hospitals. by each new generation. Although the struggle to © is Jones Bartlett Learning, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC progress a road& filled with many pitfalls, LLC hope still NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION looms. ? ? Martin Makary wrote in the Wall Street Journal that “Medical errors kill enough people to fill four jumbo jets a week . . . To do no harm going forward, The term&hospital derives from theLLC Latin word hospibe able to learn LLC from the harm we have © Jones © Joneswe&must Bartlett Learning, Bartlett Learning, talis, which relates to guests and their treatment. The already done.”2 If we do not learn from historical NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION word reflects the early use of these institutions not events to those of the present days, we are bound to GREEK AND ROMAN HOSPITALS © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. ISLAMIC HOSPITALS merely as places of healing, but also as havens for the HOSPITALS OF THE EARLY CHRISTIAN ERA © Jones & Bartlett LLCHospitals first appeared©inJones??& Bartlett Learning, LLC poor andLearning, weary travelers. NOT FOR SALE GreeceOR as DISTRIBUTION aesculapia, named after the Greek godNOT of FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION 3 medicine, Aesculapius. For many centuries, hospitals Christianity and the doctrines preached by Jesus developed in association with religious institutions, stressing the emotions of love and pity gave impetus such as the Hindu hospitals opened in Sri Lanka in the with the ­European LLCto the establishment of 5th century BC and the monastery-based © Jones & Bartlett Learning, © hospitals, Jones &which, Bartlett Learning, LLC advance of Christianity, became integral parts of the hospitals of the NOT MiddleFOR AgesSALE (5th century to 15th NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION OR DISTRIBUTION church institution. These Christian hospitals, which ­century AD). The Hotel-Dieu in Paris, a monastic replaced those of Greece and Rome, were devoted hospital founded in 660 AD, is still in operation today. entirely to care of the sick, and accommodated In early Greek and Roman civilization, when patients in buildings outside the church proper. medical practices were rife with mysticism and super© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & BartlettinLearning, LLC the A decree of Constantine 335 AD closed stitions, temples also were used as hospitals. Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law Every NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION ­aesculapia and stimulated the building of Christian sanctuary had a sacred altar before which the patient, hospitals, which, during the 4th and 5th centuries, dressed in white, was required to present gifts and offer reached the peak of their development. Many were prayers. If a patient was healed, the cure was crederected by the rulers of the period or by wealthy ited to miracles and divine visitations. If the patient Romans who had convertedLLC to Christianity. By the remainedLearning, ill or died, he or she was considered to©beJones © Jones & Bartlett LLC & Bartlett Learning, year 500, most large towns in the Roman Empire lacking in DISTRIBUTION purity and unworthy to live. NOT FOR SALE OR NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION had hospitals. Nursing, inspired by religion, was genGreek temples provided refuge for the sick. One tle and considerate, but soon began to discard the of these sanctuaries, dedicated to Aesculapius, is said medical precepts of Hippocrates, Antyllus, and other to have existed as early as 1134 BC at Titanus. Ruins early Greek physicians because of their pagan origins. attest to the existence of another, more famous Greek © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett LLC Instead, health care turned toward mysticismLearning, and temple built several centuries later in the Hieron, or NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION theurgy (the working of a divine agency in human sacred grove, at Epidaurus. Here, physicians minisaffairs) as sources of healing. tered to the sick holistically in body and soul. They Hospitals rarely succeeded during the centuries prescribed medications such as salt, honey, and water leading to the Middle Ages; only a few existed outfrom a sacred spring. They gave patients hot and cold side Italian cities. & Occasional Europe baths to promote speedyLearning, cures and encouraged long © Jones & Bartlett LLC © Jones Bartlett almshouses Learning,inLLC sheltered some of the sick, whereas inns along the hours sunshine andOR sea air, combined with pleasant NOTofFOR SALE DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Roman roads housed others. No provision appears to vistas, as an important part of treatment. The temple have been made for care of the thousands of helpless hospitals housed libraries and rooms for visitors, attenpaupers who had been slaves and were later set free dants, priests, and physicians. The temple at Epidaurus when Christianity was introduced into the Roman even boasted what might be described as the site of the Empire. © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC first clinical records. The columns of the temple were NOT FOR SALE OR with DISTRIBUTION inscribed the names of patients, brief historiesNOT of FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION their cases, and comments as to whether or not they were cured. ??Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law The aesculapia spread rapidly throughout the were almost as dedicated Roman Empire, as as through the Greek world. LLCThe followers of Mohammed © well Jones & Bartlett Learning, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC as the Christians in caring for the sick. In Baghdad, Although some hospitals were simply spas, others NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION Cairo, Damascus, Cordova, and many other cities under followed the therapy outlined by the leading physitheir control, luxurious hospital accommodations were cians of the day. Hippocrates, for example, a physifrequently provided. Harun al-Rashid, the glamorous cian born about 460 BC, advocated medical theories caliph (a title for a religious or civil ruler claiming sucthat have startling similarity to those of the pres© Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLCAD), cession©from Mohammad) of Baghdad (786–809 ent day. He employed the principles of percussion NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION built a system of hospitals and paid the physicians himand auscultation, wrote intelligently on fractures, self. Medical care in these hospitals was free. Approxperformed numerous surgical operations, and imately four centuries later, in 1160, a Jewish traveler described such conditions as epilepsy, tuberculosis, reported that he had found as many as 60 dispensaries malaria, and ulcers. He also kept detailed clinical and in Baghdad LLC alone. The Persian physirecords of many of hisLLC patients. Physicians like Hip© Jones & Bartlett Learning, © Jones & infirmaries Bartlett Learning, cian Rhazes, who lived from approximately 850 to 923 pocrates not only cared for patients in the temples, NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION AD, was skilled in surgery. He is believed to be the but also gave instruction to young medical students. ISLAMIC HOSPITALS © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION. 4 Chapter 1 Hospitals Through the Ages first to use the intestines of sheep for suturing and to and medical advancements might have been lost due © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett cleanse patient Learning, wounds with LLC alcohol. He also gave the to the failure of mankind to sit at the table of peace and NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION first rational accounts of smallpox and measles. compromise on differences based on logic and reason? Islamic physicians like Rhazes received much of their medical knowledge from the persecuted ­Christian sect known as the Nestorians. Nestorius ?Discussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law ? (Archbishop of Constantinople April 428 to © Jonesfrom & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC Religion continued to be the most important factor August 431) was drivenNOT into FOR the desert withOR hisDISTRIBUTION folNOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION SALE in the establishment of hospitals during the Middle lowers after having been appointed patriarch of Ages. A number of religious orders created hospitia, Constantinople and took up the study of medicine. or travelers’ rests, and infirmaries adjacent to monasThe school at Edessa, in Mesopotamia, with its two teries provided food and temporary shelter for weary large hospitals, eventually came under the control of © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & of Bartlett Learning, LLC travelers and pilgrims. One these, the famous alpine the Nestorians, where they established a remarkable hospice of St. Bernard, founded in 962, gave comfort NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION teaching institution. Eventually driven out of Mesoto the weary and sent its renowned dogs to the rescue potamia by the orthodox bishop Cyrus, they fled to of lost mountain climbers. Persia, where they established the famous school at The hospital movement grew rapidly during Gundishapur, which is considered to be the true startthe Crusades, which began in 1096. Military hospiof Islamic medicine. Gundishapur was home © Jones © Jonesing&point Bartlett Learning, LLC & Bartlett Learning, LLC tal orders sprang up, and accommodations for sick to the world’s oldest known teaching hospital and also NOT NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION and exhausted crusaders were provided along well-­ comprised a library and a university. It was located in traveled roads. One body of crusaders organized the the present-day province of Khuzestan, in southwestHospitallers of the Order of St. John, which in 1099 ern Iran, not far from the Karun River. established in the Holy Land a hospital capable of carIslamic medicine flourished up to about the © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC & Bartlett ing for 2,000 patients. Knights©ofJones this order took per- Learning, LLC 15th century. Physicians were acquainted with the possonal charge of service to patients and often denied NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION sibilities of inhalation anesthesia. They instituted prethemselves so that the sick might have food and medcautions against adulteration of drugs and developed a ical care. For years, these institutions were the best vast number of new drugs. Islamic countries also built examples of hospitals of that period. asylums for the mentally ill 1,000 years before such Although physicians cared for physical ailments institutions appeared in EuropeDiscussion: Health Care in Hospitals Based on the Foundation of US Law . The peopleLLC of Islam © Jones & Bartlett Learning, © Jones & Bartlett Learning, LLC to afford relief, they rarely attempted to cure the sick. made aNOT brilliant start in medicine, but never fulfilled FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE Dissection of NOT a human body wouldOR haveDISTRIBUTION been sacrilege the great promise that glowed in their early work in because the body was created in the image of God. medical arts and hospitalization was never fulfilled. Finally, an active period of hospital growth came Wars, politics, superstitions, and a nonprogressive during the late 12th and early 13th centuries. In 1198, philosophy stunted the growth of a system that had Pope Innocent III urged hospitalsLLC of the Holy Spirit © Jonesinfluenced & Bartlett Learning, LLC © Jones & Bartlett Learning, the development of hospitals. to be subscribed for by the citizenry of many towns. NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION NOT FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION He set an example by founding a model hospital in Rome, known as Santo Spirito, in Sassia. Built in 1204, ?? it survived until 1922, when it was destroyed by fire. In Engraved on a limestone pillar dating back to the SumeRome, nine other hospitals were founded shortly after © Jones & Bartlett LLC © itJones & Bartlett rians (2920 BC) are pictures that depict, among Learning, other completion of the one in Sassia; is estimated that in Learning, LLC NOT FORofSALE OR DISTRIBUTION FOR SALE OR DISTRIBUTION military procedures, theNOT assemblage of the wounded. Germany alone, 155 towns had hospitals the Holy The Book of Deuteronomy records that Moses estabSpirit during early medieval times. lished outstanding rules for military hygiene. Out of Although most hospitals constructed during the the urgency of care for the wounded in battle came Middle Ages were associated with monasteries or much of impetus medicalLearning, progress. Hippoc … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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