Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion

Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion FYI, my major is Information System Operation Management (ISOM). I did send you the info about the major last time. Some parts of the writing has to be related to my field of study. Just a friendly reminder ;-). Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion Here is the assignment: Please read the ppt file about Grants/Fellowships then answer those question from the professor. Those questions would relate to next couple writing assignments, which I would post later. Part A: 1. What is the purpose of the statement of the problem? 2. What is the purpose of the background/ review of literature section? 3. What is the purpose of the methodology? 4. What is the purpose of the results/ dissemination section? 5. What do you think a committee is looking for in a proposal? Part B: Please post and describe two grants/fellowships you found related to your field (ISOM) (100-200 words each). Use some of the links on the advanced research website: . Part C: Then, Please read over two student samples in the attached doc file. Please critique them and respond to the following questions: Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion 1. Is the introduction clear? Do you know what the person is going to do with the grant? 2. Is the background research thorough? Does the researcher demonstrate good knowledge of the field? Does the background lead into the researcher’s project, i.e. the unique take on the topic? 3. is the methodology clear and detailed? Does the author mention courses s/he will take? Museums/archives etc? Does the author have an adviser to work with? grants_ppt.pdf sample_proposals.docx Grants/Fellowships: Folder #2 What are grants? What Are Grants and Fellowships? Governmental or nongovernmental organizations that promote research by funding it in a variety of fields: humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, and business (to name but a few). What is the purpose of a research proposal? What is the purpose of a research proposal? To convince the committee that you are qualified, and that your project is meaningful and feasible. What should a research proposal contain? What should a research proposal contain? ? Statement of the problem – what is at stake in this research? ? Review of the literature or background information that leads to your contribution. ? Methodology ? Dissemination of the results Part I: Statement of the Problem Part I: Statement of the Problem • Introduce the topic with a general overview of the issue at hand and how you propose to tackle it. Part II: Review of Literature: Background Information Where to find information? Part II: Review of Literature: • Present studies of previously conducted research; • Funnel to your contribution; • To find information use: Library catalogs, Library databases- JSTOR, Academic Search Complete, Proquest – and Google scholar Part III: Methodology Ways to carry out research? Part III: Methodology Ways to carry out research? • The methodology lets the committee know how you will carry out your research. You may want to consider the following: • Taking University courses, • Conducting research at specialized centers, • Working through archives, • Consulting with an advisor/expert, • Performing field work, • Using Community centers. Part IV: Dissemination of the Results of the Research Part IV: Dissemination of the Research ? There are many possible results that may come from a grant. The committee wants to know what you will produce at the end of the grant. Here are some possibilities: ? A publication in a reputable journal in the field, ? A presentation at a conference, ? A website on the topic, ? An updated manual, ? A practical application of the research. The end • Questions? 1 Sample Proposal #1: Political Science National Fellowships: Study Proposals: Sample Fulbright Proposed Statement of Study or Research The Women’s Alliance of Iceland: Politics, Feminism and Change I propose to research the Women’s Alliance (WA), a political phenomenon unique to Iceland, at the University of Reykjavik in fall of 2002. I will focus on the historic events leading up the creation of the Women’s Alliance, and the events that led them to join a coalition after declining support. I propose to do this through coursework at the University, independent research, and interviews with former members of the Women’s Alliance. Beginning with the Icelandic women’s slates of the 1920s, to the protests of the Redstockings in the 1970s, Icelandic women have had a rich history of political involvement. Many Icelandic women believe they have a unique culture distinct from men, and this distinction led them to create their own political party–the Women’s Alliance. Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion The WA began as a feminist organization in 1983; one of their initial actions was to form a list of female candidates in order to get more women elected into parliament. By the late 1980s, the WA had formed a successful full-platform political party with a non-hierarchical, rotational system and enjoyed a wide range of support from the community and in parliament. As a result of changes in international women’s issues and in Iceland’s political climate during the early 1980s, Icelanders elected the first woman president and the first woman mayor of the capital city, Reykjavik. Despite these advances, the WA began to lose popular support as other parties, namely the Independence and Progressive Parties, also included women on their slates. In 1999, the WA formed a coalition with two other small leftist parties, abandoning their stated policy of excluding men from their lists. The Women’s Alliance continues to work within this coalition. The manifesto of the WA and their actions are a curious blend of international, Scandinavian, and Icelandic feminist movements, a heterogeneity that many feminist and political scientists have ignored. The Women’s Alliance was active from 1983-1999 as an independent political party, and aside from the national “Women’s Day Off” strike of the 1975, and election of Vigdis Finnbogadottir in 1980, American scholars have all but ignored the actions of Icelandic feminists. Few articles about the WA were published in English in the mid 1980s, whereas there is almost a complete absence of materials published in English past the mid 1990s. I will focus on why the group separated, and what the future holds for the WA and women’s political involvement in Iceland. The WA existed for less than two decades, but has left an indelible mark on the landscape of Icelandic politics. 2 Although I am well grounded in Icelandic politics and feminist history and possess a working knowledge of the Icelandic language, I will build on my understanding through course work, research, and interviews. Two principal leaders of the former WA, Sigrithur Duna Kristmundsdottir and Holmfridur Gardarsdottir, now teach at the University of Reykjavik. During my first semester I will take “Small States in the International System,” and brush up on my Icelandic language skills. Second semester I will take women studies courses taught in Icelandic by former members of the Alliance (textbooks are in English). The University and National Library in Reykjavik house The Women’s History Archive, where numerous documents, records, minutes, speeches, and essays donated by the Women’s Alliance reside. I have already compiled a list of primary sources from my preliminary research. However, with such limited published information, there will be no substitute for interviews. I have already contacted members of the former Women’s Alliance and a member of the new coalition, the Social Democratic Alliance, and these women have offered their enthusiastic assistance in researching the relatively undocumented political phenomenon that was the Women’s Alliance. I propose to leave the US on approximately the 31st of August 2002, and arrive in Reykjavik to begin language training and political science and women’s studies course work for one academic year. Upon completing my research, I intend to publish an article on women in Icelandic political parties. This project will provide insight into Western and International feminist and political influence on Iceland, and the impact that women in Icelandic parties have on present and future Iceland. Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion This research project will assist me in my goal of attaining a Ph.D. in International politics, with a focus on women’s role in politics. 3 Sample Proposal #2: Nursing Outline for Fellowship/Grant Proposal Introduction – Statement of the problem: Nosocomial infections are a huge problem worldwide. A. I am qualified through studies and clinical experience in nursing and working in multiple hospitals. B. Problem of nosocomial infections will be researched through taking classes relative to the subject and performing field research in hospitals. II. Background A. Explanation of the infections; National statistics of infection B. Hu’s research conducted on maximum sterility barriers in catheters C. Uniqueness – Nobody else has done research based upon geographical location III. Methodology A. Procedure 1. Summer semester: Columbia-N9260; G4010 2. Fall semester: Columbia- N359; BIO 447 1. Pediatric intensive care unit- New York Presbyterian Hospital 3. Spring: work in suburban Kingston Hospital 4. Attend the annual conference on antimicrobial resistance 5. Discussions/study with an expert Patricia Stone Associate Professor of Nursing at Columbia B. Columbia is ranked one of the best universities for pediatrics, also in association with teaching hospital in the inner city (needed for geographical comparative research) . IV. Results – what happens as a result of your research A. Publications: New York Journal of Medicine B. Medical school preparation C. Decrease incidence of nosocomial infection I. Introduction Nosocomial infections are a major problem in hospitals worldwide. As a nursing student I have seen the difficult problems caused by these infections first hand every day. I have done clinical in a number of hospitals and performed rounds on every unit. During this time I came to realize the severity of the occurrence of nosocomial infections and their enormous burden on hospitals, medical professionals, and most importantly; patients. I also noticed certain trends in these infections. Pediatrics seemed to have a higher prevalence of infection. Also, hospitals I worked in that were located closer to the city had a positive correlation with higher prevalence. I wish to conduct extensive research on these infections in pediatrics and the correlation to geographical location. Background A nosocomial infection is a new infection that develops in a patient identified forty-eight to seventy-two hours following admission. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that roughly 1.7 million hospital-associated infections, from all types of bacteria combined, cause or contribute to 99,000 deaths each year. The incidence of nosocomial infections has been on the rise since the introduction and increased use of invasive procedures. The most common hospital-acquired infections are urinary-tract infections, surgical-wound infections, pneumonia and bloodstream infections. And at least 80 percent of urinary-tract 4 infections can be attributed to the use of invasive devices such as the catheter. [7] The high incidence of nosocomial infections places a huge burden on both the patients and the healthcare system. For patients with these infections, wound healing and rehabilitation is delayed significantly with possible prolonged hospitalization and an increased risk of morbidity. The average prolongation of stay is 3.8 days for urinary infection, 7.4 days for surgical-site infection, 5.9 days for pneumonia, and 7 to 24 days for primary bloodstream infection. [4] Some infections, such as infection occurring in a hip or knee replacement, result in prolonged or even permanent disability and require repeated rehospitalization and reoperation. Nosocomial infections also cause mortality. The case-fatality rate for patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia is 42 percent, with an attributable mortality of 15 to 30 percent. For nosocomial bloodstream infection, the case fatality rate is 14 percent, with an estimated attributable mortality of 19 percent. [7] The burden on the healthcare system is also very heavy. Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion The financial cost of nosocomial infections is huge. In the United States the direct cost of nosocomial infections is estimated by the National Institute of Health to be about 4.5 billion dollars per year. These infections cause prolonged hospitalization in patients, which limits access of other patients and contribute to overcrowding and increased risk of spread of infection. Nosocomial infections are also a leading cause in the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms. An antimicrobial substance is used to kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms. Antimicrobial substances such as disinfectants and antiseptics are used for the treatment or prevention of infections, which facilitates the emergence of resistant organisms. Because this is such a pressing issue, there has been extensive research conducted in the field of nosocomial infection. A cost-effectiveness analysis was done at University of Michigan by Kent K. Hu to determine the effect of maximal sterile barriers (MSBs) on reducing central venous catheter-related nosocomial infections [8]. They created an analytic model in which a patient could either have a central venous catheter without the extra sterility or a maximal sterile barrier, then calculated the total direct medical costs and incidences of catheter-related infections and the costs that they would ensue. The study found that because the huge cost pinned with the resulting infections, the maximal sterile barrier catheters were found to be more cost effective than the cheaper central venous catheters. The Use of MSBs lowered costs from $621 to $369 per catheter insertion and decreased the incidences of catheter-related bloodstream infections from 5.3% to 2.8%. [4] Other, more simplistic measures of prevention have also been researched and incorporated to fix the problem of nosocomial infections. One of the first researchers in the field of hospital-acquired infections is Dr.Ignaz Semmelweis worked in a maternity ward in Vienna in the 1840s. He made the observation that medical students were coming straight from lessons in the autopsy room to the delivery room and proposed that they were transferring harmful bacteria from the cadavers to the birthing mothers. Semmelweis ordered that everyone who enters the maternity ward must first wash their hands, the mortality rate in his ward dropped all the way down to less than one percent. Still today however according to the United States Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “Hand washing is the single most important means of preventing the spread of infection.”. What has not been done however is extensive research on geographical, hospital size and socioeconomic factors that play in to the prevalence of nosocomial infections. What makes my research different from what has already been done is that it applies statistical analysis of hospitals to the implementation of specialized programs. In this way prevention programs can be 5 tailored to hospitals according to their needs, for example, a certain hospital may have an increased susceptibility to certain bacteria or strains. Methodology To complete my research in nosocomial infections, I will to split my studies into a preparatory summer study and fall and spring semesters. The first summer courses will be concentrated on preliminary research and introduction to field experience. The following fall semester I will continue my studies at Columbia University, a world renowned research institute. US News Report ranked Columbia #8 in best overall national universities. Columbia School of Medicine has also done a great deal of research in the area of nosocomial infections. The grant would provide education and field work in association with Columbia’s Center for Interdisciplinary Research to Reduce Antimicrobial Resistance. Patricia W. Stone, RN PhD, Associate Professor of Nursing at Columbia University School of Nursing has agreed to be a mentor to guide both my university based education and independent study. Patricia Stone would be an excellent mentor for my research and studies because she has worked on a similar grant herself. Developing Research Methodologies for Grant Application Discussion This grant was done on the Prevention of Nosocomial Infections and Cost-effectiveness Analysis which was funded by the National Institute of Nursing Research, National Institute of Health. Because of her experience and knowledge in the area of nosocomial infections, Stone would provide optimal guidance for me. During the summer at Columbia University, I will to take two courses to assist me in my research. Building Interdisciplinary Research Models (Nursing 9260) is a three credit course taught by Elaine Larson, PhD, RN, designed to advance research methodologies in acquiring scientific knowledge through a combination of readings and lectures in each necessary aspect essential to successful interdisciplinary research. In addition to this course, I also will to take Responsible Conduct of Research and Related Policy Issues (G4010) , a one credit course taught by Richard Kessin and Co-Instructor Jamie Rubin which will provide additional training in proper research conduct. Supervised field experience in interdisciplinary research on antimicrobial resistance is also provided and encouraged while studying at Columbia University. Melissa Marx, an epidemiologist at New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene has agreed to be a mentor in supervised field work in association with Columbia’s School of Medicine. In addition to the summer courses I will to attend the annual Conference on Antimicrobial Resistance. This annual conference is sponsored by the National Foundation for Infectious Disease. The NFID is a non-profit organization active in education the public and healthcare professionals about the causes, treatment and prevention of infectious disease. The conference will be held in Bethesda, Maryland from June 23rd to the 25th. The conference topics will be focused on potential solutions to the problem of antimicrobial resistance. This conference will increase my scientific knowledge of origin, prevention and control of problematic microbes. Attending will also serve to expand my network of important contacts and acquaintances that are also active in the field of research and could assist me in my endeavor. During the fall semester at Columbia University with the help of my mentors I will to begin active field work and research in New York Presbyterian Hospital, the university hospital of Columbia. This portion of my research is to gather data about a large city hospital in order make a comparative analysis of a suburban hospital and the incidence of nosocomial infections. Columbia is ranked nationally by US News Weekly in 14 different specialties, including pediatrics. I will to take NURS 359 Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Pediatrics, and 6 BIO 447 Microbial infectious disease. I will work as a nurse on the pediatric intensive care unit at the New York Presbyterian Hospital and study the incidence of nosocomial infections that occur. I will keep detailed notes of the variation of types of nosocomial infections and the duration and debilitation level of each case, in accordance with the patient confidentiality restriction laws. I will also distribute surveys to healthcare professionals that work at the hospital to determine the measures of prevention taken by the staff at the hospital. The survey will include the estimated number of times for employee hand washing, patient bed change and use of catheters. During the spring semester I will to leave Columbia’s teaching hospital for a much smaller suburban hospital upstate New York. Kingston Hospital is a very small, 150 bed hospital specializing in acute surgical care. Because most nosocomial infections occur after surgery, this hospital is an excellent place to continue in comparative research of nosocomial infections. Here I will continue documenting incidence of disease for the same amount of time while working as a nurse on the pediatric intensive care unit and continue gathering staff information on prevention methods through surveys. In this way by the end of the year I will have obtained enough information to make an accurate comparative analysis of the treatment, cause and control of nosocomial infections in the pediatric intensive care unit of small hospitals verse the incidence in large hospitals. Results Through conducting this research I hope to find useful correlations that may be used to create hospital-specific infection control programs. This will work to decrease the incidence and spread of nosocomial infections. I will publish my findings in the New York Journal of Medicine, where the majority of my research will be conducted. I will greatly advance my knowledge through both academics and conducting field work. I tend to apply to medical school in 2014 to study to become a Pediatrician, completion of this research will make me a better current nurse and a better prepared future doctor. Most importantly, I will make a significant contribution to the ongoing research … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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