Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles

Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles I have attached an article and worksheet with questions. Questions are in the worksheet that answer need to be found. article_full.pdf lee_et_al_rac2_worksheet.doc.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS CLINICAL SCHOLARSHIP Illness Representations of Injury: A Comparison of Patients and Their Caregivers Bih-O Lee, PhD, RN1 , Jun-Yu Fan, PhD, RN2 , Chang-Chiao Hung, PhD, RN3 , Hsiang-Chu Pai, PhD, RN4 , & Pi-Ling Chou, PhD, RN5 1 Associate Professor & Associate Research Fellow, Department of Nursing & Nursing Department, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology & Chia-Yi Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan 2 Associate Professor & Associate Research Fellow, Department of Nursing & Nursing Department, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Linkou Campus & Linkou Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan 3 Assistant Professor, Department of Nursing, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Chia-Yi Campus, Taiwan 4 Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Chung Shan Medical University, Taiwan 5 Assistant Professor & Nursing Supervisor, College of Nursing & Department of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University & Kaohsiung Medical University Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Key words Caregivers, comparative survey, illness representations, injury Correspondence Dr. Pi-Ling Chou, Assistant Professor, School of Nursing, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100, Shi-Chuan 1st Rd., Kaohsiung City 807, Taiwan, R.O.C. E-mail: [email protected] Accepted: February 22, 2016 doi: 10.1111/jnu.12205 Abstract Purpose: This study examined the differences between illness representations of injured patients and those of their caregivers. Design: A comparative descriptive survey was used. Methods: The study setting was the surgical wards of a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Data were collected at 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Participants were 127 pairs of injured patients and their caregivers. The participants completed sociodemographic data and completed the Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised-Trauma, which is composed of eight subscales. Clinical data of the injured patients was obtained from medical records. Results: Injured patients and their caregivers were pessimistic about the injury. Patients perceived significantly more physical symptoms than caregivers did. Caregivers for patients who were severely injured or admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) had more negative perceptions than did those who were providing care for moderately injured patients or those not admitted to an ICU. Caregivers who did not share their caring responsibilities had more negative perceptions than did those who shared their caring responsibilities with others. Conclusions: This study found that patients and caregivers had negative illness representations several months after injury. Caregivers who provided care for severely injured patients or who did not share caring responsibilities perceived different extents of illness perceptions about the injury. The interventions should highlight the need to assist patients and caregivers after injury. Clinical Relevance: Exploring the discrepancies in illness perceptions between injured patients and their caregivers can help clinicians to provide individualized care, and to design interventions that meet patients’ and caregivers’ needs. Injury is a significant cause of mortality and morbidity. The complicated consequences of injury have received increasing attention, as injuries are predicted to be the world’s fourth leading cause of disability by 2030 (Mathers, Boerma, & Ma Fat, 2009). The medical costs 254 for people with injuries are increasing; these costs may not include the substantial costs associated with family or community care. Patients who suffer from an injury experience short-term and long-term disabilities, and those disabilities have been identified systematically (Holtslag, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2016; 48:3, 254–264. C 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International Lee et al. Post, Lindeman, & Van der Werken, 2007; Lee, Chaboyer, & Wallis, 2010). However, the totality of problems experienced by an injured individual may result in expanded responsibilities for the patient’s whole family. Background Clinicians have become increasingly aware that injury has a long-term adverse impact on family members because they have a critical supporting role in the recovery process (Kreutzer, Marwitz, Godwin, & ArangoLasprilla, 2010). NURS 4435 TUTA Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles To enable better outcomes for injured patients and their caregivers, it is necessary to understand the problems faced by patients in healing from an injury, and also to understand the related needs of their caregivers (Griffin, Friedemann-Sanchez, Hall, Phelan, & van Ryn, 2009; Kreutzer et al., 2010). The Common Sense Model of Illness Representation (CSMIR) provides a structure for understanding how an individual perceives the threats of illness and how those perceptions influence the individual’s health behaviors (Leventhal, Leventhal, & Cameron, 2001). Illness representation is the central stage of the CSMIR. Five organized components of cognitive beliefs are included in illness representations (Leventhal et al., 2001). The first component, identity of the illness, is used to identify the physical symptoms of an illness. The second component, timeline belief, reflects the perceived progress and duration of an illness (acute, chronic, or cyclic). The third component, consequences, is the experienced consequences of the illness affecting the individual’s work, family, lifestyle, and finances. The fourth dimension is control or cure, which is associated with perceptions of how the illness is susceptible to personal control, and whether the illness can be cured or treated. Causal beliefs, the last component, relates to the perceived causes of the illness (Leventhal et al., 2001) Illness representation is described as the internal processes by which individuals create the definitions or the representations of a health threat. An individual’s illness representations may influence his or her responses to illness-related problems via parallel cognitive and emotional representations (Leventhal, Brissete, & Leventhal, 2002). The emotional pathway interacts with the cognitive pathway when an individual is forming reactions to the health-threatening experience (Leventhal et al., 2002). Moreover, illness representations consist of perceptions of the given threat to the individual’s health based on bodily sensations or symptoms. These symptoms are produced using information from the environment, such as information provided by significant others or the individual’s own past experiences with illness (Leventhal et al., 2001). Hence, both internal and external stimuli Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2016; 48:3, 254–264. C 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International Illness Perceptions in Patients and Caregivers invoke illness representations from specific health-related situations. Once these representations are formed, coping and appraisal occur. In summary, illness representations assist an individual with the process of self-regulation, which is defined as the regulation of cognitive and emotional perceptions, including the development of coping behaviors used when adapting to an illness (Leventhal et al., 2002). Researchers have sought to understand the factors that influence the development of illness representations. For example, positive illness representations have been found to be associated with better self-regulation in patients with injury (Lee et al., 2010), and with better self-care in patients with heart failure (MacInnes, 2013). Studies have also linked illness representations to different health-related outcomes such as self-efficacy (Lau-Walker, 2004) and quality of life (Lee, Chaboyer, & Marianne, 2008). Illness representations have been shown to be related to certain characteristics such as age (Gump et al., 2001), gender (Lau-Walker, 2004), and length of hospital stay (Lee et al., 2008). Previous studies have indicated that injured patients do hold illness representations related to their injury (Chaboyer, Lee, Wallis, & Chien, 2012; Lee et al., 2010). A cohort study conducted follow-ups with 114 injured patients after their injuries, and the responses of these patients indicated that some components of their illness perceptions had changed at either 3 months or 6 months after hospital discharge. First, the patients experienced many injury-related physical symptoms before hospital discharge, but then the patients reported only two to three symptoms at 3 to 6 months after injury. Second, the patients did not have strong perceptions about the reasons for the injury. The majority of the patients were injured by a car accident or a fall, but they could not identify a cause, such as “bad luck” or “personal behavior” that may have led to the injury. Third, the patients had moderate to higher degrees of emotional reactions toward an injury. Fourth, the patients did not have strong ideas about the timeline to recover from an injury. NURS 4435 TUTA Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles Last, the patients perceived several consequences brought on by the injury at 3 to 6 months after injury, but they believed their injury could be controlled or cured and they had the ability to comprehend the conditions for their injury (Lee et al., 2010). Another study has shown that the predictors of quality of life in injured patients are their physical symptoms, their timelines to recovery, and their emotional representations at 6 months after injury (Chaboyer, Lee, Wallis, Gillespie, & Jones, 2010). Researchers have shown interest in discrepancies in illness representations between patients and their caregivers. For example, caregivers for recurrent psychosis patients believed that psychosis was chronic in nature. 255 Illness Perceptions in Patients and Caregivers Their perceptions of psychosis differed from those of the patients themselves in that they saw psychosis as having more consequences and being less controllable. Having more negative perceptions in the control or cure dimension caused these caregivers to experience substantial distress and anxiety, as well as lower self-esteem (Kuipers et al., 2007). Those caring for patients with adolescent diabetes, meanwhile, saw diabetes as being more chronic and less controllable than did the patients themselves. Also, they had more negative emotional reactions than the patients (Olsen, Berg, & Wiebe, 2008). Moreover, caregivers were more pessimistic than stroke patients about the post-stroke symptoms, the timeline for recovery, and the consequences related to stroke (Twiddy, House, & Jones, 2012). Research has demonstrated that caregivers’ illness representations of negative consequences, emotional reactions, and controllability of an illness are correlated with their perceived care burden (Rexhaj, Python, Morin, Bonsack, & Favrod, 2013). In another study, three types of negative illness perceptions, namely, emotional representations, cyclical timelines, and consequences, were found to be significant determinants of quality of life among caregivers for injured patients. The findings indicated that when caregivers perceive many physical symptoms, many consequences, negative emotions, and that recovery would take a long time, it may reduce their quality of life. In contrast, enhancing the positive perceptions of caregivers, including the belief that the injury is well controlled or can be cured, may improve their quality of life (Wu, Lee, Hsu, Huang, & Bai, 2014). Illness representations have been found to influence health-related outcomes in injured patients (Lee et al., 2010) and in caregivers for injured patients (Wu et al., 2014). Previous studies have concluded that discrepancies between the illness perceptions of patients and their caregivers may have negative impacts on caregivers in noninjury patient groups (Kuipers et al., 2007, Olsen et al., 2008). Draper and Ponsford (2009) have reported that caregivers for patients with a head injury could effectively reflect the patient’s daily functioning and the consequences of the injury. Thus, caregiver’s health outcomes may be associated with patient’s postinjury conditions, and potentially could be used to improve the patient’s outcomes. Exploring the discrepancies between the illness perceptions of injured patients and their caregivers may provide a way of resolving the impacts caused by an injury. This study tested the following hypotheses: (a) Injured patients and their caregivers would have different illness representations related to an injury; (b) injured patients’ demographic and clinical characteristics would be related to caregivers’ illness 256 Lee et al. representations; and (c) caregivers’ own demographic characteristics would be related to their own illness representations. Methods This comparative descriptive survey compared illness perceptions between injured patients and caregivers at 3 to 6 months after hospital discharge. Participants The participants in this study consisted of patients with injury and their caregivers. The participants were enrolled using convenience sampling, and were recruited from a teaching hospital in Taiwan. Injury type and severity will likely influence patient outcomes (Halcomb, Daly, Davidson, Elliott, Griffiths, 2005); thus, recovery among some patient subgroups, such as patients with burns or brain injuries, may be unique to that subgroup. Thus, this study focused on general injury patients. The inclusion criteria were: 20 years of age or over, injury caused by unintentional reasons, and an Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 9 or greater. NURS 4435 TUTA Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles An ISS of 9 to 15 indicates that a patient has a moderate injury, while an ISS of 16 to 24 or greater indicates a severe injury (Baker & O’Neill, 1976). Participants were excluded if they were discharged from hospital within 24 hr, were unable to provide informal consents due to cognitive impairment, had severe brain injuries or stroke, had burn injuries, or were victims of hangings, poisonings, or any other injuries not caused by force, and had hired a foreign worker after discharge. In this study, the caregivers consisted of immediate family members or other relatives of the injured patients. It is fairly common practice among Taiwanese families to hire a foreign worker from Southeast Asia to take care of a sick family member, so a point was made of excluding such foreign workers from this study. Selection criteria consisted of caregivers 20 years of age or older, nonemployed caregivers such as foreign workers, and those who cared for a patient who had been injured. As patients appear to have more psychological or cognitive problems at 3 months after an injury (Lee et al., 2008), it was determined that this time point was appropriate to capture illness representations for patients and their caregivers in order to obtain more evidence for application in trauma care. Data Collection Data were collected from February 2012 to January 2013. Participants were screened through the injury Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2016; 48:3, 254–264. C 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International Lee et al. database of the hospital’s computer system. A senior nurse screened outpatient department (OPD) appointments for potential participants. Caregivers were identified from the patients’ nursing records to select those who were patients’ immediate family members or other relatives. Participants who met the inclusion criterion were invited to join the study during their OPD visits. Clinical data of the injured patients were obtained from medical records. Sociodemographic data and the items of illness representations of patients and caregivers were collected at OPD visits by the same nurse. Patient and caregivers provided written informed consent before completing the questionnaires. Data were collected either before or after OPD consultations in a separate room to avoid cross-contamination of responses. Ethical approval was granted from the institutional research board of the study hospital. No previous literature has reported on the correlation between illness perceptions in injured patients and their caregivers. Thus, there is no ideal method for calculating the necessary sample size. The data collection period was estimated as 6 months. The recruitment period was ultimately extended for an additional 6 months, however, after the sample size gathered during the initial 6 months of data collection was considered insufficient. Measures Demographic data of patients and caregivers (Lee et al., 2008, 2010), and clinical data of patients were selected based on previous studies (Lee et al., 2010). The Chinese Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised-Trauma (the Chinese IPQ-R-Trauma), which is based on the CSMIR, was used to assess the illness perceptions of injured patients and their caregivers. This instrument was derived from the original Illness Perception Questionnaire Revised (IPQ-R), and it can be used to explain healthrelated behaviors in various patient groups (Moss-Morris et al., 2002). The original scale was developed to provide a quantitative assessment of the five components of illness representations in the CSMIR. The developers of the IPQ-R recommend modification of certain items can be adapted for a specific condition such as the injury group (Moss-Morris et al., 2002). A multiple-step instrument translation and validation method was undertaken for the Chinese IPQ-R-Trauma. Forward translation and back-translation, content validity, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), Cronbach’s alphas, and split-half reliability were used for the scale. Items related to identity and causes can be adapted for the injury group (Chaboyer et al., 2012). NURS 4435 TUTA Critically Read and Critique Nursing Research Articles The Chinese IPQ-R-Trauma consists of 50 items that are divided into eight subscales: (a) Ten items regarding Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 2016; 48:3, 254–264. C 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International Illness Perceptions in Patients and Caregivers physical symptoms (score range 1–10, with higher scores indicating more symptoms related to an injury). The experienced symptoms were indicated by ticking yes or no to understand the identity of the injury; (b) Ten items to measure the perceived causes of an injury (score range 5–50, with each item scored from 1 to 5 with one reason such as “my emotional state” or “stress or worry”). Higher scores on the subscale indicate higher levels of agreement with the idea that the reasons listed had caused the injury. And finally, (c) six other subscales scored from 1 to 5 to measure the patient’s perceptions about the injury (Chaboyer et al., 2012). The other six subscales are as follows: the “emotional representations” subscale (range 7–35), which refers to the participant’s emotional reactions to an injury; the “timeline-acute/chronic” subscale (range 6–30), which represents how long the injury-related effects lasted and whether the effects are acute or chronic; the “timeline cyclical” subscale (range 4–20), which identifies whether the effects of an injury are episodic or not; the “consequences” subscale (range 4–20), which refers to the expected outcomes (i.e., in terms of work, lifestyle, and finances) of the injury; the “control/cure” subscale (range 5–25), which refers to the participant’s beliefs about the personal control or cure of an injury; and the “illness coherence” subscale (range 4–20), which refers to how the participant comprehends an injury. The assessment of both positive and negative representations can be conducted through these six subscales. High scores on the “timeline-acute/chronic,” “timeline cyclical,” “consequences,” and “emotional representations” subscales demonstrate that the participant has more negative perceptions toward to an injury. The four subscales are scored from 1 best to 5 worst. In contrast, high scores on the “control/cure” and “illness coherence” subscales indicate that the participant perceives more positive feelings about an injury. The two subscales are scored from 1 worst to … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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