Complexity Biology Discussion

Complexity Biology Discussion Complexity Biology Discussion Biology exam Biology exam Biology exam two hours (limited time) 17th 3.pm Sydney time I will provide sample quiz__sample_e 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Sample exam Started: Nov 15 at 19:25 Quiz Instructions BIOL10011 Sample exam 2020 short answers.pdf This sample exam represents the styles of questions and instructions to expect in the actual exam only. You may find this link about on-line exams helpful: https://students.unimelb.edu.au/academicskills/explore-our-resources/exam-prep/open-book-exams (https://students.unimelb.edu.au/academic-skills/explore-our-resources/exam-prep/open-bookexams) This sample exam should take 15 mins reading time 80 minutes writing time, the actual exam will be 15 mins reading time 120 minutes.Complexity Biology Discussion. Actual exam: Weighting: 50% semester grade Time: 15 minutes reading time. 120 minutes writing time. Marks: 120 Some questions are multiple choice with one correct alternative, some questions may require you to choose all the correct alternatives from a list or a drop down menu, some questions require you to type answers in a text box. Sample exam: Weighting: 0% semester grade Time: 15 minutes reading time. 80 minutes writing time. Marks: 80 Some questions are multiple choice with one correct alternative, some questions may require you to choose all the correct alternatives from a list or a drop down menu, some questions require you to type answers in a text box. Academic Integrity Declaration By commencing and/or submitting this assessment I agree that I have read and understood the University’s policy on academic integrity. (https://academicintegrity.unimelb.edu.au/#online-exams) I also agree that: 1. Unless paragraph 2 applies, the work I submit will be original and solely my own work (cheating); https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 1/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam 2. I will not seek or receive any assistance from any other person (collusion) except where the work is for a designated collaborative task, in which case the individual contributions will be indicated; and, 3. I will not use any sources without proper acknowledgment or referencing (plagiarism). 4. Where the work I submit is a computer program or code, I will ensure that: 1. any code I have copied is clearly noted by identifying the source of that code at the start of the program or in a header file or, that comments inline identify the start and end of the copied code; and 2. any modifications to code sourced from elsewhere will be commented upon to show the nature of the modification. Need help during your exam? Biology related issues email: [email protected] (mailto:[email protected]) .BIOL 1001 University of Manchester Life Complexity Biology Exam Discussion. Complexity Biology Discussion ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL NURSING PAPERS Technical issues call: Inside Australia: 13 6352 (once you call, select option 1 in the first menu for current students and then select option 1 again in the second menu for exam enquiries) Outside Australia: +61 3 9035 5511 (once you call, select option 1 in the first menu for current students and then select option 1 again in the second menu for exam enquiries) Section A: Question 1-5 Question 1 2 pts The appearance of jaws in fish was a major milestone in vertebrate evolution. Suggest a reason why jaws in fish were a selective advantage. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 2/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 2 1 pts Teeth evolved after jaws in fish. Suggest why teeth appeared very shortly in evolutionary time after jaws. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Question 3 1 pts Give an example of how vertebrate limbs are an advantage for the movement onto land. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 3/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 4 2 pts Insects moved onto the land relatively early in the evolution of animals, before the vertebrates. Early insects had mouth parts suited to biting and chewing. A much wider variety of insect mouth parts are seen today. What does this tell us about this evolution of insects? Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p Question 5 https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 0 words 2 pts 4/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Fish and insects are both ectotherms. What would have been the challenges for thermoregulation in these organisms on land compared to in water? Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Section B: Question 6-10 Question 6 1 pts Which statement about excretion is TRUE? Protonephridia are found in terrestrial invertebrates. Many marine animals excrete waste through Malpighian tubes. Fish excrete waste primarily through kidneys. Fungi excrete waste through specialised cells called flame cells. https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 5/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Question 7 1 pts The endosymbiotic theory explains how chloroplasts evolved from aerobic bacteria. mitochondria evolved from archaea. mitochondria evolved from aerobic bacteria. mitochondria evolved from cyanobacteria. Question 8 1 pts Movement of mammals on land was improved by the evolution of an angled femur (upper leg bone) which allowed the position of the legs to be underneath the body. a bony skull with forward-pointing eyes. long legs spreading widely on both sides of the body. a pelvis which caused legs to be positioned widely on either side of the body. Question 9 2 pts A study estimated the allele frequency for red hair in the population. Data were collected and are shown in Table 1. Red hair behaves as if recessive. Table 1. Number in Non red hair Non red hair Red hair population sample (RR) (Rr) (rr) 421 300 99 22 Which of the following is correct? https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 6/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam f(r) = 0.05, expected f(rr) at Hardy Weinberg = 0.03 f(R) = 0.71, expected f(RR) at Hardy Weinberg = 0.50 f(R) = 0.83, expected f(Rr) at Hardy Weinberg = 0.24 f(r) = 0.17, expected f(Rr) at Hardy Weinberg = 0.28 Question 10 1 pts The graph above presents the average (mean) beak size over time of a species of finch. Which of the following statements about the graph is true? Mean beak size in ground finches fluctuated dramatically from 1990 to 2000. https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 7/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam The drought of 1977 was followed by an increase in the number of finches in the population. The graph shows a population crash following the drought of 1977. By the early 2000s, mean beak sizes were close to pre-drought sizes. Section C: Question 11-15 The following information is relevant for Question 11 – 15 Twelve (12) fossils of the feathered dinosaur Archaeopteryx have been found in Germany over the last century. BIOL 1001 University of Manchester Life Complexity Biology Exam Discussion. Many scientists consider this genus as a transitional fossil between dinosaurs and modern birds. Archaeopteryx had broad wings with tapered feathers characteristic of birds that fly, jaws with rows of sharp pointed teeth and a long claw on the middle ‘toe’. Question 11 1 pts The best conditions for fossilisation of the Archaeopteryx would most likely include the animal dying on the ground and starting to rot immediately. being covered with fine mud. being covered with fine mud in a low oxygen environment. falling into a lake. Question 12 1 pts What method could be used to determine the age of an Archaeopteryx fossil? Edit View Insert Format Tools Table https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 8/32 11/15/2020 dt 12pt e se t o at oo s ab e Quiz: Sample exam Paragraph p 0 words Question 13 1 pts Archaeopteryx is best described as a photoautotroph. a chemoautotroph. a detritovore. a heterotroph. Question 14 2 pts Suggest two possible functions for the feathers of the Archaeopteryx. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 9/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 15 2 pts Metabolic waste was likely excreted from Archaeopteryx in what chemical form? Justify your answer. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Section D: Question 16-21 .Complexity Biology Discussionhttps://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 10/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam The following information is relevant for Question 16 – 21. Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer affecting Tasmanian Devils which is spreading through devil populations across Tasmania. The disease is eventually fatal. Studies of a gene with a role in immunity were carried out in a population of Tasmanian devils at Freycinet Peninsula in Eastern Tasmania. It was found that an allele at this locus, called allele 73, increased in frequency over a short period of time. Devil Facial Tumour Disease (DFTD) was first noted in this area in 2004. The table below shows the frequencies of this allele 73 on Chromosome 3 between 1999 and 2013. Frequency of allele 73 – on Year Chromosome 3 Before 1999 0.29 2004-2008 0.30 2012-2013 0.58 Question 16 1 pts A student reviewing these data made the statement that the Devil Facial Tumour Disease caused a mutation to produce the new allele. Is this a valid statement? Explain. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 11/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 17 2 pts Use the data in the table to state if allele 73 is increasing or decreasing the fitness of the Tasmanian devil population? How did you reach this conclusion? Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Question 18 2 pts Would you expect the Tasmanian devil population at Freycinet Peninsula in 2012-2013 to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium? Explain. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 12/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 19 1 pts Tasmanian devils were once found across all of the Australian continent. After the last iceage, the rising waters of Bass Strait separated Tasmania from the mainland. What effect would this have on the gene pool of the Tasmanian devils? Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p Question 20 https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 0 words 3 pts 13/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam The fatal DFTD has reduced the Tasmanian devil population in some areas by 80-90%. Explain the reasons why this could lead to extinction of the Tasmanian devil. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Question 21 1 pts Choose which of the following conservation interventions would be most appropriate to restore the population of the Tasmanian devils. BIOL 1001 University of Manchester Life Complexity Biology Exam Discussion There may be more than one correct answer. Captive breeding Reducing exploitation levels Habitat restoration Genetic rescue Removal of invasive species Section E: Question 22-28 .Complexity Biology Discussionhttps://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 14/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Question 22 1 pts Choose the most likely reproductive barrier from the dropdown list for African Elephants and Asian Elephants. [ Select ] Question 23 1 pts Imagine two closely related species of moths. The females of each species release a sex pheromone at night to attract male mates. Which of the following is the most likely? The sex pheromones of the two species will be very different if females of both species are found in the same habitat and release pheromones at roughly the same time. The two species, because they are closely related, will have very similar traits, including the chemistry of their pheromones, irrespective of their patterns of behaviour or where they are found. Predictions of similarity or difference are meaningless because male moths, of any species, can detect a wide range of pheromones in order to maximise the likelihood of detecting a female The sex pheromones of the two species will be very similar, even if the females of both species are found in the same habitat and release pheromones at roughly the same time. Question 24 1 pts Choose the best pairing for cue and signal: time of sunrise is a cue, birds singing at sunrise is a signal full moon is a cue, coral spawning is a signal geo-magnetic fields are a cue, birds migrating is a signal daylength is a signal, flowering of blossom trees is a cue https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 15/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Question 25 1 pts Parental care of juvenile blue tits (a bird, Cyanistes caeruleus) involves food provision as well as protecting the juveniles in their nests from predators. In response to the visual cue of a nearby predator, a woodpecker, which of the following would be the most evolutionarily adaptive response? Parents spend a greater amount of time doing activities that keep them close to the nest, e.g. cleaning the nest, Parents spend the same time searching for food and defending the nest in the absence of the woodpecker. Parents spend a greater amount of time away from the nest to maximise food provision for chicks. Parents spend less time away from the nest searching for food and more time protecting the chicks at the nest. Question 26 1 pts The parental care provided by females is under strong selection to balance the care provided to the current offspring with the care she can provide future offspring. Which of the following best characterises that conflict of interest? In most mammals, weaning (the transition from feeding on mother’s milk to other foods) is associated with some antagonistic behaviour between mother and offspring. Female Diaea spiders, which produce a single clutch of eggs, are eventually consumed by their offspring. All of these answers are correct. Female mud-dauber wasps provision each larva with a similar mass of spider food. Question 27 1 pts Individuals are a special level in biology because they show no goal-directedness. they are easy to study. Complexity Biology Discussionhttps://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 16/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam they exploit energy and disorder. they show complex integration of processes. Question 28 1 pts Which of the following lists are examples of an organism controlling its metabolism? excreting nitrogenous wastes, eating, giving birth taking in water, sweating, mating excreting nitrogenous wastes, sweating, eating taking in water, reproducing, eating Section F: Question 29 – 34 Question 29 1 pts The Northern Pacific Seastar is an invasive pest in Port Phillip Bay that preys on a variety of animals like mussels, crabs and sea urchins. BIOL 1001 University of Manchester Life Complexity Biology Exam Discussion. Complexity Biology Discussion However, their numbers can be controlled by the native Eleven-Armed Seastar that predates on these Northern Pacific Seastars. Which of the following best defines a population? Eleven-Armed Seastars living in Port Phillip Bay. The abundance and distribution of the Northern Pacific Seastar. Urchins and mussels of a specific sex living in Port Phillip Bay. All marine organisms living in Port Phillip Bay. Question 30 https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 1 pts 17/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Logistic and exponential growth models differ because: logistic growth is moderately affected by environmental factors and resources, whereas exponential growth is largely driven by these factors. exponential growth slows as it reaches the carrying capacity of the environment. births and deaths are density-dependent for exponential growth. logistic growth decreases linearly as a function of population size. Question 31 1 pts The disease malaria is caused by the protozoan Plasmodium which infects healthy red blood cells in humans. The immature form of this protozoan is found in female mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles. Interestingly, people who have sickle cell anemia or are carriers for this hereditary blood disease have a higher fitness than people who do not carry any HbS alleles in terms of being affected by malaria. Which of the following relationships is the most correct match? Female Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors, humans without the HbS allele are hosts. All female mosquitoes are vectors, people with sickle cell anemia are hosts. Carriers of HbS allele are hosts, and the Plasmodium is a vector. Humans without the HbS allele are vectors of Plasmodium, and the Plasmodium is a macroparasite. Question 32 1 pts According to the virulence-transmission trade-off hypothesis, the relationship between virulence and transmission is best described as: highest transmission occurs at lowest virulence. transmission increases proportionally to virulence. highest transmission occurs at intermediate virulence. Complexity Biology Discussionhttps://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 18/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam optimal pathogen fitness occurs at highest virulence. Question 33 1 pts A population is at risk of extinction due to the Allee effect if: individuals do not encounter suitable mates within the range of their habitat. the population is large and individuals interact. the population grows quickly and is close to carrying capacity. another species immigrates to the same habitat and uses a different food source. Question 34 1 pts Which conservation effort is most likely to revive threatened species populations? Remove the key threat. Population boosting and removal of key threats. Introduce new species that compete for the same resources. Genetic rescue using inbreeding depression. Section G: Question 35 – 43 The following information is relevant for Question 35 – 38 Hendra virus is thought to be endemic in populations of bats (Flying Foxes) in Northern Australia. In Brisbane in 1994, the sudden death of a number of horses was attributed to Hendra virus. Since then, seven people working with sick horses have suffered flu-like symptoms and encephalitis attributed to infection with the virus and 4 of these have died. Complexity Biology Discussionhttps://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 19/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Question 35 2 pts Use the information above and your knowledge of the virulence-transmission tradeoff between parasites and hosts, to suggest why Hendra virus is not commonly found in horses or people. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p 0 words Question 36 2 pts Is there a benefit to the virus of remaining endemic in the bat population? Explain your answer. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 20/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam p 0 words Question 37 2 pts What effect do you predict that the Hendra virus would have on the fitness of bats? Explain your answer. Edit 12pt View Insert Format Tools Table Paragraph p Question 38 https://canvas.lms.unimelb.edu.au/courses/86122/quizzes/91378/take 0 words 1 pts 21/32 11/15/2020 Quiz: Sample exam Which of the positions on the graph above best represent the relationship between Hendra virus and humans? B D C A The following information is relevant for Question 39 – 42 Flying foxes are a keystone species in forests, they travel large distances in search of fruit, nectar and pollen to eat. Urban development and fragmentation of forests may have altered the availability of habitat for Pteropus (Flying Fox) species. Question 39 2 pts Select the correct option(s) from the list below. There may be more than one correct answer. Keystone species are: have very little influence other species in the community frequently replaced by other species in the community always the most abundant species important to the whole commu … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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