Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer

Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer TOPIC: Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer RESEARCH QUESTION: Why are AYAs such an under-served patient population I’ve attached some things I have submitted for this class previously that may help with this assignment. You have studied the importance of various Human Services theories, types of research methodologies, ethics related to conducting research, and how theories and research studies impact the Human Services field as a whole. For this project, you are asked to identify a topic of interest related to the human services field. You can select a client demographic population of interest, a theory of practice, an intervention, or a problem commonly treated. Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Identify the research question that you have related to the topic of interest. Locate at minimum of 8 peer-reviewed research articles published in the last 5 years. For each article, provide the following: research question(s), participants, research methodology and data gathering technique, analysis of findings, critique of the research, and implications for the human service profession. Provide an overall summary for the research you reviewed. How does it answer your research question? In what ways does it not answer your research question? What new questions are you left with after reviewing the literature? Next steps. As a Human Service researcher, what would you want to do with this new knowledge obtained? Your paper should be 6-8 pages in length, organized with headings and subheadings, include APA in text citations and a reference list and conform with APA Requirements brock_ctassignment_option2_final.pdf brock_module_1_ct_assignment_option_1.pdf fridgen2017_article_contraceptiontheneedforexpansi.pdf module_4__discussionpost.docx ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS Running head: QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FACT SHEET Module 3 Critical Thinking Assignment Option 2 Quantitative Research Fact Sheet Natalie M. Brock Colorado State University – Global Campus Dr. Suzie Johnson October 6, 2019 1 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FACT SHEET 2 Quantitative Research Fact Sheet Article: Fridgen, O., Sehovic, I., Bowman, M. L., Reed, D., Tamargo, C., Vadaparampil, S., & Quinn, G. P. (2017). Contraception: the need for expansion of counsel in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer care. ?Journal of Cancer Education?, ?32?(4), 924-932. Questions Description What is the research question being asked in the study? ? The research question in this article is whether there is a need to expand provider guidelines for discussions with AYA patients in order to provide comprehensive, consistent and quality cancer care in the AYA population (Fridgen et al., 2017). Who is the target population? ? The target population includes adolescents and young adult cancer patients, as well as healthcare professionals. What theory is being used to guide this study, if any? ? The researchers did not base their study on any theory. What did the results show or not show? ? The research involved a review of three articles. A review of the first article showed that sexually active cancer patients are at a high risk of unwanted pregnancies when matched to the U.S population. For this reason, it is important to offer contraceptive counselling to the vulnerable population, especially in the post treatment period. ? In the second article reviewed, results indicated that it is important to address reproductive issues among adolescents and young adults with cancer (Fridgen et al., 2017). This should be integrated into the comprehensive pediatric cancer care. ? Further, a review of the third article revealed that contraceptive issues among adolescents and young adults with cancer need to be given special QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FACT SHEET 3 attention. This can be affected by creating awareness and offering education to oncology staff in collaboration with family planning team (Fridgen et al., 2017). How is this applicable to something within the Human Services field? ? The human service field is classified under the interdisciplinary area of study, whose main objective is to meet human needs through application of knowledge, emphasizing on prevention as well as remediation of issues. This field also focuses on improving the general quality of life of populations. ? This research is helpful especially for young adults and adolescents as it highlights the benefits of using contraceptives especially when still under cancer treatment. Using contraceptives does not only reduce unwanted pregnancies, but also minimizes the likelihood of developing reproductive cancers due to their high vulnerability. ? Since the human services field is majorly concerned with ensuring quality of life of populations. This article augments this objective of recommending expanded provider guidelines for discussions about contraceptives among adolescents and young adults (Fridgen et al., 2017). ? There is also a need to deliberate on the risk of infertility issues that might affect these groups during diagnosis.Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Providing better guidelines on this area will ensure that such risks are minimized leading to improved quality of life. ? Another major contribution of this research to human service field is that it gives recommendations for future steps to be taken in order to educate adolescents and young adults about contraceptives. For instance, the study recommends for the expansion of QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FACT SHEET 4 existing oncology guidelines by the national organization. Expansion of these guidelines would ensure attainment of the best standards of cancer care while relying on the findings of evidence-based research. ? The article also highlights the need to initiate discussions about contraceptive methods during various stages of provision of cancer care including during and post treatment. QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH FACT SHEET 5 Reference Fridgen, O., Sehovic, I., Bowman, M. L., Reed, D., Tamargo, C., Vadaparampil, S., & Quinn, G. P. (2017). Contraception: the need for expansion of counsel in adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer care. ?Journal of Cancer Education,? ?32(? 4), 924-932. Running head: RESEARCH PROPOSAL Module 1- Critical Thinking Assignment Option 1 Research Proposal-Young Adults with Cancer Natalie M. Brock HSM470 Evaluation of Research and Theory in Human Services September 21, 2019 Suzie Johnson, PhD 1 RESEARCH PROPOSAL 2 Introduction There has been a growing concern in the country about the young people that are living with cancer. With the increasing number of adolescents and young people with cancer, there has been a concern about them receiving counseling and psychiatry support services because of their age. Most adolescents and young adults (AYA) who have cancer are underserved partially because of their age. Several other reasons have contributed to the state of affairs concerning this population. The purpose of this paper is to give research-based answers to the question as to why the AYA is underserved. It will also seek to explain why their condition is vital to this research and why attending the conference will be of benefit to the attendees. In the US, AYAs with cancer has been neglected, and more attention and focus were given to older patients. According to Park and Rosenstein (2015), a large number of AYAs suffer from depression because their development trajectory has been disrupted. Not many psychiatrists attend to this population because of their age which increases their susceptibility to depression and early death. The burden on this population and the reality of a short and disrupted future takes away a lot from them, leaving them with very little in life. As a result of that, the number of AYAs dying from cancer has been increasing every year. WHO estimates that over 170 million years get lost all over the world because of the menace of cancer in young people (Sawyer, McNeil, McCarthy, Orme, Thompson, Drew, & Dunt, 2017). The number is higher and is expected to grow because of a lack of care and support. AYAs have unique needs that need to be attended to by specialists. However, because of the little number of specialists that can handle their cases, they remain underserved (Sender & RESEARCH PROPOSAL 3 Zabokrtsky, 2015). In some cases, when there were specialists, their cost was higher and that the AYAs could not sustain or afford the treatment. The research question is, why are young adults (AYAs) with cancer the most underserved patient population? It will be seeking to answer health, social, economic, and cultural factors that are related to the topic. Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Importance of Answering Research Questions By answering the research question, it will be easy for those that attend the conference to understand the issue in-depth and probably make room for funding. The donors and the people that will be asked to fund the research will require answers to the questions. Therefore it will be important that each question is answered conclusively to give them an idea of what they are funding and reasons for funding. It also helps to connect with the needs that have been identified in previous studies. Researchers often rely on the findings and obligations of the previous studies. If the last study made room for more research or left questions that needed to be answered, research questions come through to help address such needs. Well answered research questions are the easiest way of attracting resources for the study. When the research question is answered correctly, it makes way for the reader to get the introduction of the research topic and what to expect at the end of the study. Finally, it will help direct the research by focusing on the objectives of the research on the question and the answers. The people that will benefit from the session at the conference include medical practitioners, social workers, and government agencies. Biography I currently work for Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center in Buffalo, New York. I have an AAS in Medical Assisting and am pursuing my Bachelors of Science degree in Human RESEARCH PROPOSAL 4 Services. ?The Cancer Center I work for has patient advocacy program, young adults with cancer program, and child cancer outreach programs. I would like to pursue my desire to help children by working with them in one of those settings. I’ve worked in the healthcare field for the past 20 years in an administrative role and I am striving to do something more personally fulfilling. RESEARCH PROPOSAL 5 References Park, E. M., & Rosenstein, D. L. (2015). Depression in adolescents and young adults with cancer. ?Dialogues in clinical neuroscience?, ?17?(2), 171–180. Sawyer, S. M., McNeil, R., McCarthy, M., Orme, L., Thompson, K., Drew, S., & Dunt, D. (2017). Unmet need for healthcare services in adolescents and young adults with cancer and their parent carers. ?Supportive Care in Cancer?, ?25?(7), 2229-2239. Sender, L., & Zabokrtsky, K. B. (2015). Adolescent and young adult patients with cancer: a milieu of unique features. ?Nature reviews Clinical oncology,? ?12(? 8), 465. J Canc Educ (2017) 32:924–932 DOI 10.1007/s13187-016-1003-8 Contraception: the Need for Expansion of Counsel in Adolescent and Young Adult (AYA) Cancer Care Olivia Fridgen 1 & Ivana Sehovic 2 & Meghan L Bowman 2 & Damon Reed 3 & Christina Tamargo 2 & Susan Vadaparampil 3,4 & Gwendolyn P Quinn 3,4 Published online: 15 February 2016 # American Association for Cancer Education 2016 Abstract Little is known about oncology provider recommendations regarding best practices in contraception use during cancer treatment and through survivorship for adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients. This review examined the literature to identify related studies on contraception recommendations, counseling discussions, and methods of contraception in the AYA oncology population. A literature review was conducted using PubMed, including all peerreviewed journals with no publication date exclusions. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using combinations of the following phrases or keywords: Boncology OR cancer^ AND Bcontraception, family planning, contraceptive devices, contraceptive agents, intrauterine devices OR IUD, vaccines, spermatocidal agents, postcoital, immunologic, family planning, vasectomy, tubal ligation, sterilization^ AND Byoung adult OR adolescent^ AND Byoung adult AND adolescent^. Reviewers assessed articles using the BQuality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies^ which considers: (1) selection bias; (2) study design; (3) confounders; (4) blinding; (5) data collection methods; and (6) withdrawals and dropouts. A total of five articles were included and all studies were quantitative. Results showed no consistent recommendations among providers, references to guidelines, or methods of contraceptive types. Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Provider guidelines for discussions with AYA patients should be expanded to provide comprehensive, consistent, and quality cancer care in the AYA population. Keywords Adolescent and young adult . Contraception . Cancer . Oncology . Quality of life . Quality of care Introduction * Gwendolyn P Quinn [email protected] 1 Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr, FOB1, Tampa, FL 33612, USA 2 Health Outcomes and Behavior Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr, MRC CANCONT, Tampa, FL 33612, USA 3 Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology Program, Sarcoma Oncology Program, H Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Dr, FOB1, Tampa, FL 33612, USA 4 University of South Florida, Morsani College of Medicine University of South Florida, 12901 Bruce B Downs Blvd, Tampa, FL 33612, USA The National Cancer Institute and the LIVESTRONG Foundation define adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer as those aged 15–39 years [1, 2]. However, other researchers and organizations examine contraception within the context of reproductive age, thus contraception studies may include patients up to the age of 45. AYAs with cancer experience many unique challenges and quality of life (QoL) issues throughout their cancer diagnosis, treatment, and into survivorship including issues with infertility [3, 4], body image dissatisfaction [5], difficulty establishing relationships [5, 6], and other aspects of physical and social functioning [7–9]. Cancer treatments can impact fertility in the AYA population by causing temporary or permanent damage to reproductive organs, sperm, or egg functioning. The likelihood of damage depends on cancer site, treatment, and age of the patient, J Canc Educ (2017) 32:924–932 with younger patients less likely to have permanent damage. Leading US health and professional organizations such as the National Comprehensive Cancer Network [10] (NCCN) and the American Society for Clinical Oncology [11, 12] (ASCO) have established guidelines on fertility and preservation for the AYA population. These recommendations include: discussing the potential impact of treatment on fertility, fertility preservation options, and referrals to reproductive endocrinologists. It is recommended that patients receive this information as early as possible upon diagnosis to allow optimal time for decision-making. These guidelines, as well as education and training on discussing fertility and reproductive health and cancer for AYA, are available for health care professionals. However, there is little information or guidance specific to contraception during active cancer treatment and through survivorship. The World Health Organization’s definition of reproductive health includes Bthe right of men and women to be informed of and to have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of fertility regulation of their choice [13].^ With this definition in mind, there is a clear need for provider recommendations and guidelines regarding contraception for AYA cancer patients and survivors. There are several barriers to the discussion of contraception with AYAs. First, the message of infertility due to cancer treatment may be oversold and patients may assume they are infertile. Second, there is a misperception among providers that cancer patients are too ill to engage in or be interested in sex. AYAs are not asexual simply because of their diagnosis, nor are they unanimously infertile during or after treatment. AYAs with cancer are found to engage in sexual behaviors at similar rates as their cancer-free peers [14]. Further, the AYA population may engage in sexual risk-taking behavior more often than their older, cancer-free peers and may be at a greater risk to use unreliable methods of contraception such as withdrawal, or may not use any form of contraception [15]. Colorado State University Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Pregnancy risks are substantial for female patients on active treatment, and patients with compromised immune systems are at a higher risk for sexually transmitted infections (STI) and other diseases [14, 16]. Several studies suggest AYA survivors are at a higher risk for unintended pregnancy than the general population since they are often unaware of their fertility status or assume they are infertile [17–21]. AYA patients need counseling not only on the proper and consistent use of contraceptives, but also on the risks and benefits associated with each contraceptive method to make personal and informed decisions [22]. Many cancer treatments pose teratogenic risks to a fetus, and females who conceive during active treatment may be faced with the decision of pregnancy termination. QoL is impacted by a cancer diagnosis but can be exacerbated by unplanned pregnancies, pregnancy termination, or a child born with special needs. One way to prevent these unnecessary stressors is to provide directed contraceptive counseling to AYAs with cancer. 925 A few studies have identified that sexual health and sexuality were desired discussion and education topics by AYA cancer patients and survivors, yet limited information exists on best practices for these discussions [14, 15, 23]. A recent study identified that women who received directed counseling on reproductive issues had a higher QoL and less regret than those who did not receive counseling prior to initiating cancer treatment [24]. Contraception conversations may be unlikely to happen in a clinic room as providers are focused on cancer treatment plans and outcomes and patients may be uncomfortable initiating questions or unaware of the need to discuss concerns with providers [25, 26]. The discomfort surrounding contraception is exacerbated if family members are present, the provider is of the opposite gender, or the patient is sexually inactive [27, 28]. The objectives of this review were to examine the available literature on contraception in the AYA oncology population and to identify studies related to contraceptive methods and contraception counseling. Methods Search Strategy and Study Selection A review of available literature was conducted through the PubMed database using PRISMA guidelines. The search included all peer-reviewed journals and publications dates. The MeSH terms used included: Boncology OR cancer^ AND Bcontraception, family planning, contraceptive devices, contraceptive agents, intrauterine devices OR IUD, vaccines, spermatocidal agenda, postcoital, immunologic, family planning, vasectomy, tubal ligation, sterilization^ AND Byoung adult OR adolescent^ AND Byoung adult AND adolescent.^ Selection criteria then excluded: oral contraceptive use for reasons other than disease and pregnancy prevention, contraception with any populations other than AYA cancer patients or survivors, studies in any language other than English, and unoriginal research (reviews, commentaries, and abstracts). A total of 289 articles were identified in PubMed (Fig. 1). Articles were originally filtered by title and type of article, which removed articles exclusively focused on advance care planning (n = 10), prevention and educational studies on contraception (n = 19), HPV (n = 30), surgery cancellations (n = 1), sun exposure (n = 2), hypertension (n = 2), tobacco (n = 2), tattoo risks (n = 1) and the psychosocial impact of cancer on patients and families (n = 6) as well as unoriginal research including abstracts (n = 2), commentaries (n = 4), and reviews (n = 5). Remaining articles were then filtered by abstract and full text to determine subsequent elimination, including articles that spoke only to gynecologic issues within the AYA population (n = 58), sexual behaviors and family 926 Fig. 1 Flow diagram illustrating the search strategy for articles included in the review J Canc Educ (2017) 32:924–932 289 articles identified through database search (Pubmed) 84 articles excluded based on titles and type of article 10 Advanced Care Planning 19 Prevention and Educational Studies on Contraception 30 HPV 1 Surgery Cancellations 2 Sun Exposure 2 Hypertension 2 Tobacco 1 Tattoo Risks 6 Psychosocial Impact of Cancer on Patients and Families 2 Abstract 4 Commentary 5 Review 205 articles screened for further evaluation 200 articles excluded based on abstracts and full text review 58 Gynaecologic Issues within the AYA population 21 Sexual Behaviors and Family Planning in AYAs w/out Cancer 3 Oral Contraception for use other than Pregnancy Prevention 38 Cancer in AYAs with no mention of Contraceptive Use 20 Contraception Use in Populations without Cancer 60 Health Risks Associated with the use of Contraception 5 articles included in the review planning in young people without cancer (n = 21), oral contraception for use other than pregnancy prevention (n = 3), cancer in AYAs … Purchase answer to see full attachment Student has agreed that all tutoring, explanations, and answers provided by the tutor will be used to help in the learning process and in accordance with Studypool’s honor code & terms of service . 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