Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay

Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Child abuse and maltreatment is not limited to a particular age—it can occur in the infant, toddler, preschool, and school-age years. Choose one of the four age groups and outline the types of abuse most commonly seen among children of that age. Describe warning signs and physical and emotional assessment findings the nurse may see that could indicate child abuse. Discuss cultural variations of health practices that can be misidentified as child abuse. Describe the reporting mechanism in your state and nurse responsibilities related to the reporting of suspected child abuse.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Permalink: https://nursingpaperessays.com/ child-abuse-and-maltreatment-essay / Child maltreatment is a widespread issue that affects thousands of children every year. There are four common types of child maltreatment; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. All of these types of abuse are very serious and can have many consequences for the children and families. The most common consequence of severe child maltreatment is the removal of that child from their home (Benbenishty, Segev, Surkis, and Elias, 2002). Most social workers trying to determine the likelihood of removal evaluate the type and severity of abuse, as well as the child’s relationship with their parents (Benbenishty et al., 2002). Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Many children are forced to live with domestic violence because one of their parents refuses to leave the relationship. In cases of women being victims of domestic violence and failing to leave the male offender, the women are also identified as offenders and are charged with failing to protect their children from avoidable harm, regardless of the limited choices they have (Friend et al., 2008). Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31 couples were investigated for exposing a child to domestic violence or not protecting their children from the violence (Coohey, 2007). In Minnesota the parent is said to endanger the child’s mental or physical health when the child is exposed to domestic violence. When police are contacted about a domestic violence incident the investigators need to consider all types of failure to protect the child, as well as the likelihood of a domestic violence incident occurring again (Coohey, 2007). In order to determine if the children will be exposed to domestic violence in the future, the investigator needs to consider many variables. Such variables include a history of domestic violence and other types of child maltreatment, a willingness by the perpetrator to change his or her behavior, and if the perpetrator has the ability to change. Domestic Child maltreatment is a widespread issue that affects thousands of children every year. There are four common types of child maltreatment; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. All of these types of abuse are very serious and can have many consequences for the children and families. The most common consequence of severe child maltreatment is the removal of that child from their home (Benbenishty, Segev, Surkis, and Elias, 2002). Most social workers trying to determine the likelihood of removal evaluate the type and severity of abuse, as well as the child’s relationship with their parents (Benbenishty et al., 2002). When children are removed from their homes there are many options of alternative housing. The places they are allowed to live are a relative’s home, foster home, or a group home. In a study of children removed from their homes, 68% went to a foster home rather than a relative or another form of alternative housing (Faller, 1991). Reunification with a parent is the most common goal that is set forth by Child Protective Services even though recurrent abuse is likely to happen based upon the prior type of abuse and the age of the child (Connell et al., 2009). Child maltreatment is becoming a prevalent problem that has numerous consequences for both the child and family.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay The Center of Disease Control and prevention defines child abuse as any act or series of events that results in harm, potential harm or threatens the child’s safety (Webb, 2007). While many people believe that child maltreatment is simply physical many other forms of maltreatment occur; sexual abuse, neglect and abandonment are also common forms of abuse. Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature, art and science in many parts of the world. Reports of infanticide, mutilation, abandonment and other forms of violence against children date back to ancient civilizations (1). The historical record is also filled with reports of unkempt, weak and malnourished children cast out by families to fend for themselves and of children who have been sexually abused. For a long time also there have existed charitable groups and others concerned with children’s wellbeing who have advocated the protection of children. Nevertheless, the issue did not receive widespread attention by the medical profession or the general public until 1962, with the publication of a seminal work, The battered child syndrome, by Kempe et al. (2).Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay The term ‘‘battered child syndrome’’ was coined to characterize the clinical manifestations of serious physical abuse in young children (2). Now, four decades later, there is clear evidence that child abuse is a global problem. It occurs in a variety of forms and is deeply rooted in cultural, economic and social practices. Solving this global problem, however, requires a much better understanding of its occurrence in a range of settings, as well as of its causes and consequences in these settings. How are child abuse and neglect defined? Cultural issues Any global approach to child abuse must take into account the differing standards and expectations for parenting behaviour in the range of cultures around the world. Culture is a society’s common fund of beliefs and behaviours, and its concepts of how people should conduct themselves. Included in these concepts are ideas about what acts of omission or commission might constitute abuse and neglect (3, 4). In other words, culture helps define the generally accepted principles of child-rearing and care of children. Different cultures have different rules about what are acceptable parenting practices. Some researchers have suggested that views on child-rearing across cultures might diverge to such an extent that agreement on what practices are abusive or neglectful may be extremely difficult to reach (5, 6). Nonetheless, differences in how cultures define what is abusive have more to do with emphasizing particular aspects of parental behaviour. It appears that there is general agreement across many cultures that child abuse should not be allowed, and virtual unanimity in this respect where very harsh disciplinary practices and sexual abuse are concerned (7). Types of abuse The International Society for the Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect recently compared definitions of abuse from 58 countries and found some commonality in what was considered abusive (7). In 1999,Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay the WHO Consultation on Child Abuse Prevention drafted the following definition (8): ‘‘Child abuse or maltreatment constitutes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect or negligent treatment or commercial or other exploitation, resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power.’’ Some definitions focus on the behaviours or actions of adults while others consider abuse to take place if there is harm or the threat of harm to the child (8–13). The distinction between behaviour – regardless of the outcome – and impact or harm is a potentially confusing one if parental intent forms part of the definition. Some experts consider as abused those children who have been inadvertently harmed through the actions of a parent, while others require that harm to the child be intended for the act to be defined as abusive. Some of the literature on child abuse explicitly includes violence against children in institutional or school settings (14–17). The definition given above (8) covers a broad spectrum of abuse. This chapter focuses primarily on acts of commission and omission by parents or caregivers that result in harm to the child. In particular, it explores the prevalence, causes and consequences of four types of child maltreatment by caregivers, namely: CHAPTER 3. CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT BY PARENTS AND OTHER CAREGIVERS . 59 — physical abuse; — sexual abuse; — emotional abuse; — neglect. Physical abuse of a child is defined as those acts of commission by a caregiver that cause actual physical harm or have the potential for harm. Sexual abuse is defined as those acts where a caregiver uses a child for sexual gratification.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Emotional abuse includes the failure of a caregiver to provide an appropriate and supportive environment, and includes acts that have an adverse effect on the emotional health and development of a child. Such acts include restricting a child’s movements, denigration, ridicule, threats and intimidation, discrimination, rejection and other nonphysical forms of hostile treatment. Neglect refers to the failure of a parent to provide for the development of the child – where the parent is in a position to do so – in one or more of the following areas: health, education, emotional development, nutrition, shelter and safe living conditions. Neglect is thus distinguished from circumstances of poverty in that neglect can occur only in cases where reasonable resources are available to the family or caregiver. The manifestations of these types of abuse are further described in Box 3.1. The extent of the problem Fatal abuse Information on the numbers of children who die each year as a result of abuse comes primarily from death registries or mortality data. According to the World Health Organization, there were an estimated 57 000 deaths attributed to homicide among children under 15 years of age in 2000. Global estimates of child homicide suggest that infants and very young children are at greatest risk, with rates for the 0–4-year-old age group more than double those of 5–14-year-olds (see Statistical annex). The risk offatal abuse for children varies according to the income level of a country and region of the world. For children under 5 years of age living in high-income countries, the rate of homicide is 2.2 per 100 000 for boys and 1.8 per 100 000 for girls. In low- to middle-income countries the rates are 2–3 times higher – 6.1 per 100 000 for boys and 5.1 per 100 000 for girls. The highest homicide rates for children under 5 years of age are found in the WHO African Region – 17.9 per 100 000 for boys and 12.7 per 100 000 for girls. The lowest rates are seen in high-income countries in the WHO European, Eastern Mediterranean and Western Pacific Regions (see Statistical annex).Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Many child deaths, however, are not routinely investigated and postmortem examinations are not carried out, which makes it difficult to establish the precise number of fatalities from child abuse in any given country. Even in wealthy countries there are problems in properly recognizing cases of infanticide and measuring their incidence. Significant levels of misclassification in the cause of death as reported on death certificates have been found, for example, in several states of the United States of America. Deaths attributed to other causes – for instance, sudden infant death syndrome or accidents – have often been shown on reinvestigation to be homicides (18, 19). Despite the apparent widespread misclassification, there is general agreement that fatalities from child abuse are far more frequent than official records suggest in every country where studies of infant deaths have been undertaken (20–22). Among the fatalities attributed to child abuse, the most common cause of death is injury to the head, followed by injury to the abdomen (18, 23, 24). Intentional suffocation has also been extensively reported as a cause of death (19, 22).Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Non-fatal abuse Data on non-fatal child abuse and neglect come from a variety of sources, including official statistics, case reports and population-based surveys. These sources, however, differ as regards their usefulness in describing the full extent of the problem. According to statistical data, more than 7 million children in 2001 were reported to CPS (Child Protective Service) agencies and other official organizations to be the victims of child neglect or abuse, and more than a million of such cases were confirmed and investigated. (Potts & Mandleco, 2007). Additionally, it was found out that in most cases the abusive actions were registered from parents or their friends, or other family members. In this essay paper on child abuse effects and causes, I will examine types of child abuse and examples and consequences of child abuse. Child abuse cases can be subdivided into four forms: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse and emotional abuse. According to the latest researches, the most common abuse type is neglect. Neglect means that caregivers or parents fail to provide sufficient attention and care to their children. Usually ignoring is noticed when a child is dressed in dirty or old clothes, lacks of hygiene, frequently absent at school, ill with no medical assistance and isolated from others. Neglect is usually reported by the people who are close to the child: teachers, doctors, nurses or neighbors. There are three forms of negligence: physical, emotional and educational.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Physical neglect is the most widely noticed among children. Physical neglect is represented by careless actions of parents, including not providing adequate food, clothes, the place to live, medical care or treatment. Emotional neglect lies in inattention to child’s emotional needs, like support, communication, love, refusal to provide a psychological or medical assistance when a child with mental problems needs it, expect from the child more than he can in his age or development level. Educational neglect connected with parents’ refusal to provide essentially for the child learning: frequent absence at school or failure to enroll a child in school. Physical abuse is the second type of abuse. It is connected with a noticeable physical effect on the child. Usually, it is related to children punishment when they are doing something wrong, but there are a lot of registered cases of physical abuse without any apparent reason. Physical abuse is often reported by doctors and teachers, on rare occasions by neighbors who notice different signs of severe physical injuries on the child body. Emotional abuse is the third type of child abuse, and it is very hard to identify this sort of ill-treatment. It occurs when parents are ignoring their child, isolating it from others, assaulting child, rejected his/her value or request, expect from child more than she/he can provide. As a result of emotional abuse, a child can have speech problems, physical development lags, disruptive or hyperactive behavior.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Sexual abuse is the fourth type of child abuse, and the least frequency reported type. It is connected with forcing the child to different sexual activities, including different kind of sexual contacts and manipulations with genitals, either adults’ or child.’ A child who is experiencing this type of abuse will show different physical disorders and signs, not normal for his or her age. It is important to understand causes of child abuse to prevent it. According to the specialists in this area, there are three causes of child abuse: environmental causes, child problems, and parental causes. Familial causes are usually connected with young parents, who more likely will neglect child’s needs either then take care of him/her. In this group, we can also include parents who suffered from abuse and violence in their childhood and can reproduce only such behavior. Also, some parents are not differentiating discipline from physical abuse and trying to use violent methods to teach children right things. And the last subgroup parents with different psychological disorders, which are not able to make right decisions themselves.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Ecological causes are connected with alcohol and drug usage by parents or relatives. Drunk parents are not able to think about their children’s needs. Another environmental cause is poverty. People who are poor and don’t have much money are not able to provide their children with needed care, things, education. Parents with marriage problems or divorced couples can hate their children because they changed the life of the couple, this usually leads to emotional abuse. Abusive mothers don’t care about their kids and annoy them. In the majority of cases, abusive parents expect their children to make them happy. And if a child is not able to meet such demands, parents start physically abuse their children.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay The last cause of child abuse is child problems. They are usually connected with child psychological or physical disorder. It is very difficult to take care of such child, and some parents are ignoring this child needs which results in an abuse of child’s rights. It doesn’t matter what causes child abuse; each case affects a child in some way. The end effect of child abuse depends on its type: some of them have physical signs, and all of them have psychological results. According to the studies, the most harmful effect on the child has sexual and emotional abuse. The effects of child abuse depend on its type and can be divided to long term effects and short term. Short term effects of abuse can be registered quickly and can include signs of injuries, aggressiveness, fear of going home, fear of parents, isolation in class, difficulty in speech and communication and many others effects of child maltreatment. As for long-term effects of child abuse, it is almost not possible to register them. Usually, they appear in adult age if the individual has not got medical and psychological help. Such effects can include difficulties in relationships, unexplained fear, depression, and anxiety. These effects can result in alcohol and drug addiction, in rare cases suicide.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay In the end, I can say for sure that child abuse is a worldwide problem. There are four different types of abuse which include sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical abuse and neglect. The leading causes of child abuse can be divided into three groups: parent, environment, and child problems. Based on causes and type of abuse child can be affected physically and emotionally, additionally, there will be issues with social development and adaptation. It is critical to detect the signs of child abuse on early stages and save the child from after-effects.Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

Struggling to find relevant content? Order a custom essay on
Child Abuse And Maltreatment Essay
Let our experts save you the hassle
Order Now
Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
$0.00
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
Sign up, place your order, and leave the rest to our professional paper writers in less than 2 minutes.
step 1
Upload assignment instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
s
Get personalized services with GPA Fix
One writer for all your papers
You can select one writer for all your papers. This option enhances the consistency in the quality of your assignments. Select your preferred writer from the list of writers who have handledf your previous assignments
Same paper from different writers
Are you ordering the same assignment for a friend? You can get the same paper from different writers. The goal is to produce 100% unique and original papers
Copy of sources used
Our homework writers will provide you with copies of sources used on your request. Just add the option when plaing your order
What our partners say about us
We appreciate every review and are always looking for ways to grow. See what other students think about our do my paper service.
Social Work and Human Services
Thank you
Customer 452559, July 2nd, 2021
IT, Web
Paper was great and accomplished everything I needed.
Customer 452885, October 27th, 2022
Nursing
Great work! Thank you so much.
Customer 452707, July 15th, 2022
Wellness
The skilled writer did a great job on assignment!! Thank you!!
Customer 452547, June 16th, 2021
Nursing
Great! Thanks again!
Customer 452707, July 4th, 2022
Nursing
excellent service! Not a beat missed!
Customer 452453, October 17th, 2021
Classic English Literature
Nicely done. Ty. Worth every penny.
Customer 452455, June 6th, 2021
Other
Great work! Thank so much!
Customer 452707, March 1st, 2022
Social Work and Human Services
Excellent Work!
Customer 452587, July 28th, 2021
Criminal Justice
Looks good! Thank you Jason
Customer 452711, January 25th, 2022
Marketing
Thank you great job
Customer 452813, July 10th, 2022
Nursing
Writer did an excellent job! Thank you.
Customer 452693, January 14th, 2022
OUR GIFT TO YOU
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat
error: Content is protected !!

Save More. Score Better. Use coupon code SPECIAL for a 15%discount