Canadian Health Care

Read the following article:Kim, D. D. et al. (2020). Perspective and Costing in Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, 1974-2018. PharmacoEconomics, 38, 1135-1145. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s40273-020-00942-21.aa. Write a 3-2-1 report in the usual fashion. (12 marks)1.bb. Read the following (extremely short) article:Primeau, C. A., Marsh, J. D., Birmingham, T. B. & Giffin, J. R. (2019). The importance of costing perspective: an example evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a locking versus non-locking plate in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 62(1), E14-E16. Retrieved from http://canjsurg.ca/62-1-e14/Note that you’ll need to click the ‘PDF’ link at the top to read the full article. If you’d like an HTML version, see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351264/The authors claim that in addition to the usual “health care payer perspective,” they take a “societal perspective”. In the Appendix[1] to their paper, they clarify what this means. Briefly, in their “societal” perspective they included:· Direct costs to the provincial single payer, using a case costing approach· All additional related costs to the provincial single payer over the year after the surgery, using a case costing approach.· “[E]mployment time lost, and homemaking or volunteer time lost” during the study period (surgery + 12 months later). This was obtained either via patient interviews, or analysis of reports of follow-up visits.· “The 2015 average Canadian wage reported by Statistics Canada was used to value time off employment. We assigned the current value of minimum wage in Ontario to account for time off for patients who were retried, or who lost time from home making or volunteer activities.”i. (3 marks) The Kim et al. paper has very specific ideas about what a Societal (or Limited Societal) perspective is. Do you think that Kim et al. would agree that the Primeau et al. paper included an analysis from a Societal (or Limited Societal) perspective? Why or why not?Is the (Primeau, 2019) ‘Societal’ perspective a (Kim et al., 2020) ‘Societal’ or ‘Limited Societal’ perspective? (Yes/No/Maybe)Why or why not?ii. (3 marks) Using what you have learned in ECON 317, in your economics degree so far, and from the Kim et al. paper, make a suggestion for how to improve the ‘Societal perspective’ in the (Primeau, 2019) paper. Briefly explain why your suggestion would be helpful.Suggestion:Why it’s h

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Average Canadian Wage

1.aa. Write a 3-2-1 report in the usual fashion. (12 marks)1.bb. Read the following (extremely short) article:Primeau, C. A., Marsh, J. D., Birmingham, T. B. & Giffin, J. R. (2019). The importance of costing perspective: an example evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a locking versus non-locking plate in medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Canadian Journal of Surgery, 62(1), E14-E16. Retrieved from http://canjsurg.ca/62-1-e14/Note that you’ll need to click the ‘PDF’ link at the top to read the full article. If you’d like an HTML version, see https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6351264/The authors claim that in addition to the usual “health care payer perspective,” they take a “societal perspective”. In the Appendix[1] to their paper, they clarify what this means. Briefly, in their “societal” perspective they included: Direct costs to the provincial single payer, using a case costing approachAll additional related costs to the provincial single payer over the year after the surgery, using a case costing approach.“[E]mployment time lost, and homemaking or volunteer time lost” during the study period (surgery + 12 months later). This was obtained either via patient interviews, or analysis of reports of follow-up visits.“The 2015 average Canadian wage reported by Statistics Canada was used to value time off employment. We assigned the current value of minimum wage in Ontario to account for time off for patients who were retried, or who lost time from home making or volunteer activities.”i. (3 marks) The Kim et al. paper has very specific ideas about what a Societal (or Limited Societal) perspective is. Do you think that Kim et al. would agree that the Primeau et al. paper included an analysis from a Societal (or Limited Societal) perspective? Why or why not?Is the (Primeau, 2019) ‘Societal’ perspective a (Kim et al., 2020) ‘Societal’ or ‘Limited Societal’ perspective? (Yes/No/Maybe)Why or why not?ii. (3 marks) Using what you have learned in ECON 317, in your economics degree so far, and from the Kim et al. paper, make a suggestion for how to improve the ‘Societal perspective’ in the (Primeau, 2019) paper. Briefly explain why your suggestion would be helpful.Suggestion:Why it’s helpful:

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Moral Actions

According to your textbook readings, critically evaluate the claim that “in ethical theory an action itself may not be the only factor in our assessment of that action” (Wilkens, 2011, p. 18), expressing what other factors may be involved in a person’s moral actions.

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Morality Culminating

Choose a situation you consider to be an ethical dilemma, either in your personal life or in public discourse. For example, a personal dilemma could be “should I go to this party during covid?” or a public dilemma could look like “should vaccines be required?” Pick a topic you find interesting so that you enjoy writing this paper! The topic is up to you. Set up your “dilemma” clearly and concisely so that the bulk of your paper can be about the philosopher’s response and your response.Once you have decided on your topic, pick ONE ethical approach (Kant, Caso, or Care ethics) and tell us what they would do in your chosen situation.Next, tell us how you would personally respond. Do you agree with the philosopher you chose? What will you do in this situation? Is it easy to follow the ethical approach you chose?Here are the sections in your paper:Ethical Dilemma. You pick the topic.One philosopher’s response.Your response to the ethical dilemma and to the philosopher.If you use an outside source, please cite it and include it at the end of your paper. It does not have to be MLA, but consistent citing, like MLA or Chicago, is good practic

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The Human Nature

Different views concerning human nature influence ethical thinking, morality, and justice. Based on your readings, what are the particular beliefs about human nature that differentiate the ethical theories of Thomas Hobbes, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant? How might you illustrate each perspective?

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A Clinician’s Mental Health

A description of your personal safety plan for your field education experienceApproximately 85 percent of social workers experience aggression during their career and 30 percent experience assault (National Association of Social Workers Massachusetts Chapter, n.d.). Often times these individuals engage on the negative thoughts or beliefs regarding their social worker (Regehr & Glancy, 2010). For example, some clients may stalk social workers due to the relationship they developed inside their mind. While most cases the client does not wish to cause harm, it is still important for social workers to develop a safety plan. In this case the first step would be to set boundaries with clients to reduce these negative tendencies. This may consist of making sure clients do not have any personal information. However, setting boundaries may not always be a barrier to these behaviors. Therefore, social workers should also be aware of their surroundings. This would consist of being aware when leaving work to make sure no one is following. In addition, to prevent this from happening social workers should never walk alone after dark when leaving work. This is important as many mental health professionals are at a higher risk for stalking (Regehr & Glancy, 2010). Thus, social workers should have a set safety plan when working in the field. In my field agency, my plan is to set boundaries with clients to keep the relationship professional. Another plan is to make sure that I do not leave the agency alone or without telling someone that I am leaving. I will also be keeping an eye on my surrounding area rather than looking down at my phone.

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Social Roles and Identities

The purpose of this assessment exercise is twofold: firstly, it aims to get you to thinkcritically about several key issues raised in your readings and the accompanying lectures;secondly, it aims to get you to begin using the critical terminology you will haveencountered in your readings and the accompanying lectures. Thinking critically meansthinking in a way that demands and seeks clarity of ideas, precision with definitions, and anunderstanding of key presuppositions.Presuppositions are in many ways the most important focus of what critical thinking entailsbecause it essentially demands that we interrogate what we take for granted, i.e. that whichwe don’t think about but nonetheless think with. Critiques of ‘white privilege’, ‘gender bias’,‘homophobia’ and so on are all critiques of presuppositions, assumptions that are madeabout the world that aren’t factored into thought. When we think or say, ‘that’s no job for awoman’ (as people have said in the past about a range of professions) we are presupposinga set intrinsic limits and restrictions relating to our understanding of what being a womanentails. Overturning those assumptions has been a century long labour of critical thinkingand activism.Taking that same critical mindset of refusing to accept assumptions at face value, your taskwith the following questions is to write short critical responses (250 words per question)that address the critical issues they raise. I have added a brief outline of the issues that Ithink these questions raise, but you should feel free to add your own, and to respondselectively (ie I don’t expect you to respond to all the issues).Please note the word limit: 250 words per topic (max of 1000 words in total for all 4 topicscombined).Week 2 Australia Day What social and cultural purpose does Australia Day serve?Issues to consider:• According to Stuart Hall culture is a binding agent.• What does Hobsbawm say about the purpose of invented traditions?• According to Anderson, what is required to sustain imagined communities?• Can Australia be considered cosmopolitan?Week 3 The BeachThe beach is a space where Australian identity is performed?Issues to consider:• According to Goffman, all social roles and identities are performed.• Moreton-Robinson argues that Australian culture celebrates the beach as a ‘white’space, thus ignoring and obscuring Indigenous Peoples’ use of the beach.• The beach is a gendered space.• The beach is both a cultural and natural space.Week 4 AquariumsDoes the aquarium commodify nature?Issues to consider:• The aquarium is a business.• Even that which appears nature, such as the clarity of the water, isn’t.• Aquariums offer edutainment.• The species on display reflect cultural choices (e.g., Nemo)Week 5 MobilityThe various ‘lockdowns’ put in place in response to Covid-19 reveal the degree to whichmobility is a central fact of contemporary life.• In the intimate sphere, mobility challenges our understanding of what it means to bein a relationship.• We depend on the movement of objects for our lifestyle.• We enjoy the mobility of tastes – we enjoy Japanese food, for example, without everhaving to go to Japan.• Mobility is an issue of justice.

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A Pluralist Society

What is the strongest argument in favor of using the categorical imperative (CI) for ethical decision-making in today’s pluralist society? What is the greatest weakness of CI in this regard? Cite your responses from the textbooks and other course materials

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Cost Effectivess Analysis

Cost Effectivess Analysis] In this question, you will be checking the math of a published paper:Mittman, N. et al. (2018). Cost-effectiveness of mammography from a publicly funded health care system perspective. CMAJ Open, 6(1), E77 – E86. Retrieved from http://cmajopen.ca/content/6/1/E77.fullI find this to be an excellent paper, and some of you may find it a very interesting and worthwhile read, but it’s not necessary to read the paper for this question. We’ll only be looking at Table 4 on p. E82:Table Description automatically generatedI’ve rewritten the table in a more convenient format for calculations, and provided it as an Excel spreadsheet for those of you who’d prefer to perform the necessary calculations right in Excel.You’ll be doing three things: checking for dominance and extended/weak dominance, using those results to determine which of these mutually-exclusive scenarios are on the cost-effectiveness frontier, and then using incremental cost-effectiveness analysis to select the preferred treatment under two possible cost-effectiveness thresholds.The rewritten table is below. You may use the shorter ‘Treatment’ (A,B, etc.) names instead of my longer scenario labels (No Screening, TRI5069, etc.).2.aa. In the table below, write whether each treatment is dominated or extended/weakly dominated. In the case of extended/weak dominance, list the pair of treatments by which the treatment is dominated. (e.g. ‘F and H’ for Treatment G, if it is weakly dominated by F and H.)If a treatment is NOT dominated or weakly dominated, leave the relevant cells blank. In the extreme case where no treatments are either dominated or weakly/extended dominated, this means the correct answer would be leaving all the cells blank.

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The Musical Practices

Requirements: From the many topics we will cover in class, choose two (one per paper) that were especially meaningful to you. Write profusely about your personal experience with the musical practices you chose, explaining why you chose them, why and how you feel connected to them, and what do you think they mean to the people who practice them. Enrich your narrative with relevant quotes, sources, and information, but really focus on describing and analyzing your personal experience, striving to make a convincing, strong argument. If you consider it relevant, compare the practices you chose with other musical practices you know and/or participate in. Discuss how and why those practices are important to you and how do you think they compare to the ones we studied in class. The final paper is expected to be about a topic from Weeks 6 to 10. The essays should be at least 7 pages long, doubled spaced, but longer texts are encouraged.

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