This chapter outlines the basic theoretical approaches that are the foundations of international relations and are critical to understanding the field. As a start- ing point, we will begin with realist/power politics, as articulated by Hans J. Morgenthau. This has been one of the founding tenets of international relations since the end of World War II. (His seminal text, Politics Among Nations, was initially published in 1948.) Since then, the international political landscape has changed; new organizations tied to the notion of collective security assumed idealistically that security could best be assured not by having nations increase their power but by working cooperatively toward common goals and ends that would benefit all. Thus, a competing or (perhaps more appropriately) alterna- tive theory of international relations was born, which challenged the basic prin- ciples of realism. This new approach focused more on cooperation between and among nations rather than competition for power, and it embodied many of the ideals earlier espoused by Woodrow Wilson. Referred to as liberal theory, it incorporates economic ideas as well as political ones, and it has grown in prominence and importance since the end of the Cold War. Hence, the changes in the international system have contributed to a proliferation of other theories, all of which were designed to explain on a macro level, or more often on a micro level, some aspect of international relations.
Kaizer Consulting is an international management consulting firm that specializes in business strategy and serves as a key advisor to the worlds leading companies. It provides its clients with a unique insight to drive critical decision-making and solve their most pressing problems. Every year, the majority of Kaizers business comes from clients with whom they have worked in the previous year an indicator of Kaizers ability to achieve lasting results for its clients. Kaizers client relationships are enduring as many clients have remained customers for more than a decade and have become project partners. The Client has a Problem The manager of a product category at a Fortune 50 technology company (The Client) approached Kaizer to analyze the complete range of supply chain challenges his company would face when they entered Vietnam — a new market in South-East Asia that was presently dominated by a large single competitor. Initially, it was agreed that The Client would benefit most from a set of detailed analyses of the market which would focus on providing a deep understanding of the markets culture and business practices and manufacturing, distribution, and retail operations required to execute their market development plans. The Client was aware of some cultural differences in the new market but was under the impression that it would be able to proceed as it normally did when entering a new market. Further, The Client believed that the competitors primary advantage was based on optimized management of the distribution network and aggressive retailing. The Client thought it could proceed on that basis with its usual market entry strategy, but wanted to obtain Kaizers opinions on this before proceeding. Kaizers Approach Based on extensive research about the market generally, but specifically with individuals, focus groups, cultural experts, CSR and legal experts, suppliers, industry experts, vendors, and employees of companies in similar situations, Kaizer realized that: The Clients competitor had committed a number of culturally-based mistakes, primarily with respect to age and gender issues and local social taboos. Although these were not disastrous, the mistakes were covered in the media and had created the general impression that the competitor didnt really care about the target markets traditional cultural values, beliefs, customs, and norms. The Clients competitor had selected the target market in part because of lax enforcement of environmental protection laws and government corruption. Social media and the mass media soon discovered how the competitor was conducting business in the target market. Subsequently, the competitor had to perform substantial damage control to protect its international reputation of being socially responsible. The competitor is currently facing legal action in Canada and the US for its alleged corrupt business practices. The Clients competitors key business advantage was actually based on long-term production contracts; in effect, the competitor had become partners with its suppliers. By doing so, the competitor had leveraged its foreign investment in a number of ways: it had created a supply chain that achieved a number of cost savings on commodities, equipment, machines, and technologies; helped improve the local economy by providing relatively high-paying jobs to local people; and contributed to social and political stability in the country. Kaizers Findings With the new knowledge provided by Kaizer, The Client: Refocused its market entry and distribution strategies from enhancing warehousing and retail systems to more innovative production plans that incorporated local benefits and added a plan to use Vietnam as a base for expansion into other countries in the region particularly India, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Challenged its managers and employees to develop highly ethical Codes of Conduct and CSR strategies that supported its long-term operations in the target market. Most importantly, was able to develop an overall approach that was culturally sensitive and appropriate, even humorous. This approach was reflected in all the clients negotiation and partnership development activities and clearly demonstrated its respect for the target markets culture. Next Steps Kaizer has recognized that this work could become a model for future work with this client and others in similar situations. Theyve asked you to provide comments and a framework to analyze these situations more efficiently. Questions Cultural understanding is a key element of this situation. Comment on the importance of this aspect of market entry and development, being sure to discuss the key elements of understanding and working effectively in Vietnam. Using the Hofstede Framework, analyze the Vietnamese culture with reference to concepts covered in the course materials. CSR and business practices are another set of critical issues in this case. Describe four CSR issues and explain how these issues can impact a company’s international business activities. The Client, in order to develop its Market Entry Strategy fully, will be required to make an investment in Vietnam. Explain each of the four means of incorporating risk into market entry strategies if The Client wanted to use an Adaptation Strategy. The Client will benefit from trading with other countries in the region. Briefly describe the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and discuss the benefits and drawbacks of regional integration.
Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a policy of your choice. In contrast to the policy briefing, where you are looking forward to evaluating what may happen if different options are selected now, this essay asks you to evaluate a policy that has already been implemented. Answer with reference to the impact of the policy on the livelihoods of various rural stakeholders (i.e. policy outcomes). Consider that rural stakeholders are likely to be affected by policy and respond to policy in different ways. In other words, it is important that you discuss the impact of the policy on several stakeholders, considering their particular livelihood strategies and the different sets of assets available to them. You need to select a particular policy area that is relevant to rural development, such as forestry, agriculture, environment, health, industry, education. You might select an international policy (such as a trade agreement) or a national policy (such as a forestry policy). In addition, you need to identify a particular policy or a distinct policy element that you want to analyze. In other words, dont propose, for example, to analyze the whole environmental policy of a country! Instead, focus on a particular policy, such as the devolution of protected areas to local governments, or policy element, such as the creation of financial incentives for local governments to set up protected areas. You must then evaluate the particular policy/policy element in relation to a particular country (or a region within a country). In making your selection, be sure that you have access to sufficient materials, including evidence on policy implementation and outcomes. There is little point trying to evaluate a policy aimed at boosting income from non-traditional crops by providing subsidized seeds for example, if you cant find any data on how many seeds were provided or on what rural people earned from crop sales! Also, it is always a nice idea to include evidence that strengthens your claim that it was the policy (and not something else) that caused the observed changes in livelihoods. For example, compare livelihoods before and after policy implementation, or between an area where the policy was implemented, and another area where it was not. Or include references to research that indicates that the observed changes in livelihoods were (or could have been) due to other influences. Such evidence serves to deepen the analysis. Limit the essay to a maximum of 2500 words.
Answer the following questions: Outline the major concepts and propositions of feminism. Describe the international situation in which a feminist interpretation of IR emerged. Evaluate/critique the validity of the claims made by feminist IR scholars. Provide examples. What is groupthink? Provide an example. Do you think this concept is relevant to today’s American politics? If so, how? What is the democratic peace theory? What theories explain this phenomenon? How do you evaluate the theory? Do you think it is valid? Your answers to each question should not exceed 2 pages using standard font size such as 12 Times New Roman. Your essay should be double-spaced.
1-References Svensson, I. (2013). One God, Many Wars: Religious Dimensions of Armed Conflict in the Middle East and North Africa. Civil Wars, 15(4), 411430. https://doi.org/10.1080/13698249.2013.853409. 2-References Lai, B. (2006). Empirical Examination of Religion and Conflict in the Middle East, 19501992. Foreign Policy Analysis, 2(1), 2136. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-8594.2005.00018.x. 3-References Velloso, A. (1998). Peace and Human Rights Education in the Middle East: Comparing Jewish and Palestinian Experiences. International Review of Education / Internationale Zeitschrift Für Erziehungswissenschaft, 44(4), 357378. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1003269824115. state the hypothesis formulated in each of the three articles. Also, be sure to identify the measure for the dependent variable and at least one measure for each independent variable.
Address BOTH of the following questions (approximately 2000 words in total):a) What is the cultural turn in development and why has it come about? Evaluate some of its effects in policy and practice, with reference to examples.b) Take the following international legal instrument: “the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples”. Discuss the key aims and objectives of the instrument, and evaluate the contribution that it makes to the recognition of indigenous rights. Focus on aspects such as the legal, political, and/or policy contributions that the instrument makes.Some sources that are useful for question (b), other than the primary document of the UN Declaration on the Rights ofIndigenousPeoples:https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/IPeoples/SRIndigenousPeoples/Pages/UNDRIPTenYears.aspxhttps://www.un.org/development/desa/indigenouspeoples/https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2014/aug/14/indigenous-people-sustainable-development-goalsPlease add and use more scholarly and academic sources, 7 total should be enough.
PLEASE VIEW DOCUMENT, IT WILL COMPLETELY GUIDE THE PAPERResearch question: Why has the US-Israeli alliance been beneficial to AmericaArgument/Thesis: The relationship is founded on: -shared values – security interests -economic interests (these will be three sections in Argument section)INTRO: Give brief context as to how US recognition of Israel shook things up in the region and its immediate ramificationsThis paper will expand on why the US recognition of Israel and subsequent alliance has, and will continue to be beneficial to the United States.THE PUZZLE: Provide a sense of the initial debates regarding the recognition of a Jewish state, and the current debate regarding that and the US alliance with Israel
I need help to write my paper. original writing no copying from the internet please.CRITERIA FOR FINAL ESSAYWhat should be included in the essay (report)I. HeadingSubject: Title of Report/Briefing on Current (include title of topic) NegotiationsDate: Current DateII. Summary (1-2 paragraphs)Summarize what is in the report on these negotiationsWhy is this an important negotiation?What key info is contained in the report?What course of action is recommended (to be discussed in detail at the end of report)III. Content (explain in detail in 3-4 pages)Background tothese negotiations (history)Who (key figures/individuals)Where is this issue located (if geographical)?What: Current situation > What are the issues?Where are we now? How did negotiations arrive here?What are the positions of each party over the issues?Is there an agreement in place? If so, has it been successful? If not, why not??No agreement? Why? Stalemate? Why the stalemate? What are the obstacles to the impasse?Identify key strategies that may have been used based upon ‘breakthrough principles’IV. OptionPlausible courses of action if there is a stalematPros and cons of each option > Risks/potential opposition that may come from choosing each optionIf an agreement is in place, what are the (regional or otherwise) repercussions if held in place? (Good orbad?) Why?V. Recommendation (or Conclusion)What do you want the policymaker to do? Why?How can your recommendation be properly implemented?
“Examine some aspect of international human rights. What are the challenges facing efforts to address the issue? What can be done to improve policies and practices to better address the problem?” The first 150 words (or so) of the paper should introduce the subject matter of the proposed paper (what is the issue you are writing about and why it is important?), and provide a thesis statement that clearly indicates the core argument of your paper. After reading the first 150 words of your paper, a reader should know the subject matter of the paper, why the subject matter is important, and your argument. The next 300 words (or so) of the paper should provide a descriptive overview of the issue you are analyzing. This section should be supported by information, evidence and examples. The next 300 words (or so) of the paper should provide an analysis of the subject matter that supports your argument. This is where you convince the reader of the strength of your claims. This section should be supported by information, evidence, and examples. The next 200 words (or so) of the paper should present and support your recommendations for positive change or improvements to current practices and policies. This section should be consistent with your analysis and argument and convince the reader of the strength of your proposals. A one-paragraph conclusion of 50 words (or so) should be provided.