Describe the steps in investigating an infectious disease outbreak. Why do investigators collect information about clinical symptoms, attack rates, and the incubation period? In your opinion, why are there so many world-wide deaths caused by vaccine-preventable diseases? Apply the epidemiologic triangle to the transmission of communicable diseases. Compare microbial agents associated with infectious diseases. Response Parameters Must be written in APA style and be at least 300 words, excluding heading, titles, and references. The source material used in all assignments, including the class text, must be properly cited and referenced in accordance with APA style!! No Plagiarism !! For more information read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infection
topic: Flu Pandemic (1918) What damage was done besides just the number of deaths? What public health measures were put into place, or maybe what measures were not taken that should or could have been taken? We live in interesting times and are going through an episode that seems unique to us. But it is not unique; civilizations have met this kind of challenge before. The United States faced a horrible scenario with the Spanish Flu in the years 1918-1919. This project will let you explore the role disease has had in upending normal life, how people coped with a horrible disease impacting their lives and society in general. You will also learn how disease actually changed societies. his paper needs to be:?Between 4-5 pages in length (approximately 1,200 1,500 words)?Times New Roman or Arial type in 12-point font?One-inch margins all around?Line spacing at 1.5?If you need a reference page because you cite a source, the references page will not count toward the 4-5 pages that make up the body of the paper.? Your name should be in a header or footer of the paper.?APA style is probably best to follow, but I will not be strict about this. Pick a style that works for you and stick with it.
SCREENING FOR DISEASESPlease answer the questions Knowing the pathogen and its characteristics (including modes of transmission) where do you think was the most likely point of contamination in the production of the sprouts? In inspecting the alfalfa fields and harvesting process, what possible points of contamination should be considered? What interventions/control measures would you suggest? Why?In preparing a report of this investigation, what possible strengths and limitations should be discussed? Length: Should be at least 4 pages (1000 words) in length, APA format***For the SLP****While the assignment may be based on a real case, the questions can refer to any outbreak that involved sprouts and E. coli 0157:H7. Knowing the specific pathogen (its characteristics, transmission) and the specific food, how could the contamination have occurred? You are asked to think about a possible point of contamination and about measures of control. Here is another potentially useful reference:World Health Organization (2011). Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC). Retrieved May 22, 2012, from http://www.who.int/mediacenter/factsheets/fs125/en/Required ReadingBrown, L. G., Hoover, E. R., Selman, C. A., Coleman, E. W., & Schurz Rogers, H. (2017). Outbreak characteristics associated with identification of contributing factors to foodborne illness outbreaks. Epidemiology and Infection, 145(11), 2254-2262. doi:10.1017/S0950268817001406Castro, V. S., Carvalho, R. C. T., Conte?Junior, C. A., & Figuiredo, E. E. S. (2017). Shiga?toxin producing Escherichia coli: Pathogenicity, super shedding, diagnostic methods, occurrence, and foodborne outbreaks. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16(6), 1269-1280. doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12302Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). Steps in a Foodborne Outbreak Investigation. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/outbreaks/investigating-outbreaks/investigations/index.htmlUnited States Food and Drug Administration. (2016). FDA Investigated Multistate Outbreak of E. coli O157 Infections Linked to Alfalfa Sprouts From Jack and the Green Sprouts. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/food/outbreaks-foodborne-illness/fda-investigated-multistate-outbreak-e-coli-o157-infections-linked-alfalfa-sprouts-jack-and-greenZeng, D., Chen, Z., Jiang, Y., Xue, F., & Li, B. (2016). Advances and challenges in viability detection of foodborne pathogens. Frontiers in Microbiology, 7, 1833. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.01833
Discussion Question 1 For these questions, please read the following case study and then respond to the questions noted below. Mr. EBR is a 74-year-old retired Hispanic gentleman with known coronary artery disease (CAD), who presents to your clinic with substernal chest pain for the past 3 months. It is not positional; it reliably occurs with exertion, approximately one to two times daily, and is relieved with rest, or one or two sublingual nitroglycerin (NTG) tabs. It is similar in quality, but is much less severe, than the chest pain that occurred with his previous inferior myocardial infarction (MI) 3 years ago. Until the past 3 months, he has felt well. The chest pain is accompanied by diaphoresis and nausea, but no shortness of breath (SOB) or palpitations. He does not vomit. He denies orthopnea, paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PND), syncope, presyncope, dizziness, lightheadedness, and symptoms of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA).An echocardiogram done after his MI demonstrated a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Other medical problems include well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), well-controlled hypertension (HTN), and hyperlipidemia, with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) at goal. He also has stage 3 chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetic neuropathy. He no longer smokes and does not use alcohol or recreational drugs. His daily medications include: Atenolol 25 mg PO bid, Lisinopril 20 mg PO bid, aspirin 81 mg PO daily, Simvastatin 80 mg PO each evening, and metformin 500 mg PO bid. Mr. EBR’s physical examination includes the following: height 68 inches, weight 185 lb, Blood pressure (BP) 126/78, heart rate (HR) 64, Respiratory rate (RR) 16, and temperature 98.6°F orally. He is alert and oriented, and in no apparent distress (NAD). His neck is without jugular venous distention (JVD) or carotid bruits. Lungs are clear to auscultation bilaterally. Cardiovascular: normal S1 & S2, RRR, without rubs, murmurs or gallops. Abdomen has active bowel tones and is soft, non-tender, and non distended (NTND). Extremities are without clubbing, cyanosis, or edema. Distal pedal pulses are 2+ bilaterally What would you add to the current treatment plan? Why?Would you discontinue any of the currently prescribed medications? Why or why not?How does the diagnosis stage 3 chronic kidney disease affect your choices?Why is the patient prescribed more than one antihypertensive? What is the benefit of aspirin therapy in this patient?Discussion Question 2 List three classes of drugs affecting the Hematopoietic System. List the mechanism of action for each class of drug. Choose one medication from the three classes and discuss what disorder the drug is used to treat? How often the medication is given? What labs should get monitored while the patient is taking this medication? Your response should be at least 350 words. For more information on Coronary Artery Disease read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coronary_artery_disease
Discuss the impact of expanding technology in developing countries upon the increased burden of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. OR 2. Discuss diabetes & cardiovascular disease prevention strategies within developing countries. What can be accomplished with limited funds?
Not all leaders are successful. Carefully study the reign of Saul, the first king of Israel (I Samuel 13-31). What traits did Saul exhibit that either helped or hindered his leadership effectiveness? Besides traits, how did he use (or not use) some of the ideas from the leadership theories we have studied this week? If you had the opportunity to give Saul some advice, based on our study of leadership, what would you have told him? Textbook: (CH. 12, 13, 14, 15) Helm-Stevens, R., Kipley, D., (2018). Organizational behavior theory for high performance management. Cognella, Inc . ISBN: 978-1-5165-0794-8
TOPIC: Oswego Outbreak Case Study Read the “Oswego Outbreak Investigation,” located in the Topic Materials. Part 1 Complete the following: Using the line listing in the Excel “Oswego Line Listing Workbook,” calculate the attack rate ratios for each food item using the table in the Excel “Oswego Attack Rate Table.” Create a separate 2×2 table for the food item you think is responsible for the outbreak and interpret the attack rate ratio for this food item. Refer to the “Creating a 2×2 Contingency Table” resource for guidance.Using the line listing in Excel “Oswego Line Listing Workbook,” construct an epidemic curve by the time of onset of illness. What does this curve tell you regarding the average incubation period, source, and transmission? Using the incubation range and clinical symptoms, identify potential infectious agents that could be responsible for the outbreak (refer to the Topic Material, “Compendium of Acute Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases”). Discuss your rationale. Part 2 In a 500-750 word paper, evaluate the situation and present your findings. Including the following:Does this case meet the definition of an “outbreak?” Why or why not?Identify the steps required to investigate an outbreak. How did these steps help in investigating the Oswego event? Include the relevant information needed for each step to be successful.Discuss the possible routes of transmission for the expected agent.Based on this information, what control measures would you recommend? State whether they are primary, secondary, or tertiary prevention strategies. General Requirements Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide. You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. STUDY MATERIALS Read Chapters 3-5 and 18 in Gordis Epidemiology. Read “Types of Surveillance,” located on the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine website. URL:http://conflict.lshtm.ac.uk/page_75.htm Read “WHO Report on Global Surveillance of Epidemic-Prone Infectious Diseases – Introduction,” located on the World Health Organization (WHO) website. URL: https://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/introduction/en/ Read “CDC 24-7 Fact of the Week,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL:https://www.cdc.gov/about/facts/index.html?CDC_AA_refVal=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.cdc.gov%2Fabout%2Ffacts%2Fcdcfastfacts%2Fsurveillance.htmlRead “Two by Two Tables,” by Sullivan, Dean, and Pezzullo, from OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health (2013), located on the OpenEpi website. URL: http://www.openepi.com/TwobyTwo/TwobyTwo.htmRead “Goodness of Measurement: Reliability and Validity,” by Bajpai and Bajpai, from International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health (2014). URL: https://www.ejmanager.com/mnstemps/67/67-1380953319.pdf Use the “Compendium of Acute Foodborne and Waterborne Diseases,” located on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website, to assist in completing the Oswego Outbreak Case History assignment. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/eis/casestudies/xoswego.401.303.compendium.pdfView “How to Create an Epidemic Curve,” by Martin (2016), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn84ezAzV4kView “Know How to Interpret an Epidemic Curve?” by Martin (2017), located on the YouTube website. URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SM4PN7Yg1sExplore the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS) page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://wwwn.cdc.gov/nndss/Explore Public Health Surveillance and Data page of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. URL: https://www.cdc.gov/surveillance/
Osteoporosis is a bone disease marked by brittle and fragile bones. In this assignment, you will explore this disease in more detail using the scenario below. Scenario: During a recent visit with a female relative, the relative informs you that she has been diagnosed with osteopenia, a precursor to osteoporosis. In order to help your relative, you decide to research this disease further. To complete this assignment, do the following: Research this disease using a minimum of 2 sources. You can use your textbook for one of the sources. Choose the remaining source(s) from the GALE Virtual Reference Library provided on the Structure and Function of the Human Body library guide page. In a minimum of 2 pages (not counting the references page), address the following: Explain how osteoporosis develops and the potential causes. Describe the ways that your relative can prevent the onset of osteoporosis. Include a references page at the end of your document, formatted using the APA guidelines, that lists your research sources. For more information on Osteoporosis read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Osteoporosis
Infectious disease Requirement My state is Maryland. Week 5 Paper: Transgender Individuals with HIV/Aids Apply the concepts of population health and epidemiology to the topic. Synthesize Course content from Weeks 1-5 according to the following sections: Introduction: Analysis of the communicable disease (causes, symptoms, mode of transmission, complications, treatment) to include demographic break down that includes age, gender, race, or other at-risk indicators (da ta per demographics should include mortality, morbidity, incidence, and prevalence). Determinants of Health: Define, identify and synthesize the determinants of health as related to the development of the infection. Utilize HP2020. Robust identification and description of the determinants of health with explanation of how those factors contribute to the development of this disease. Evidence supports background. Epidemiological Triad: Identify and describe all elements of the epidemiological triad: Host factors, agent factors (presence or absence), and environmental factors. Utilize the demographic break down to further describe the triad. Uses example/s, resources, to fully describe the triad. Role of the Nurse Practitioner: Succinctly define the role of the nurse practitioner according to a national nurse practitioner organization ( National Board of Nursing or AANP, for example) and synthesize the role to the?management of infectious diseases (surveillance, primary/secondary/tertiary interventions, reporting, data collecting, data analysis, and follow-up). This includes the integration of a model of practice which supports the implementation of an evidence-based practice.? Refer to your course textbook for models of practice examples. ( Curley, A.L. & Vitale, P.A. (2016). Population-Based Nursing: Concepts and Competencies for Advanced Practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer Publishing).Preparing the paper Submission Requirements Application: Use Microsoft Word to create the written assessment. Length: The paper (excluding the title page and reference page) should be limited to a maximum of four (5) pages. Papers not adhering to the page length may be returned to you for editing to meet the length guidelines . A minimum of three (3) scholarly research/literature references must be used. CDC or other web sources may be utilized but are not counted towards the three minimum references required. Your course text may be used as an additional resource but is not included in the three minimum scholarly references.APA format current edition.Include scholarly in-text references and a reference list.Do not write in the first person (such as me I)Follow submission requirements.Make sure all elements on the grading rubric are included. Organize the paper using the rubric sections and appropriate headings to match the sections.Rules of grammar, spelling, word usage, and punctuation are followed and consistent with formal, scientific writing.Title page, running head, body of paper, and reference page must follow APA guidelines as found in the current edition of the manual. This includes the use of headings for each section of the paper except for the introduction where no heading is used.Ideas and information that come from scholarly literature must be cited and referenced correctly.A minimum of three (3) scholarly literature references must be used. **See above section on Preparing the Paper.