The Annotated Bibliography

Assignment 1: The Annotated BibliographyObjective: Assess sources for your research for your final presentation (for credibility, reliability, and relevance) and list references in proper APA formatAssignment Instructions: The Research Project/Presentation for this class is divided into three major Assignments, 1) annotated bibliography, 2) outline and 3) final presentation. The first part is the annotated bibliography. An annotation is a summary and evaluation, and your annotated bibliography will include a summary and evaluation of some of the sources (or references) you will use for your presentation.To prepare for this assignment, I recommend that you do the following:Read these directions carefully.Review the sample annotated bibliography provided to you below.Message me using Classroom Support with any questions!The reason the annotated bibliography is included as part of the research project is that writing an annotated bibliography is important in that it provides excellent preparation for the final presentation. One of the issues regarding any type of research, especially in chemistry, is the credibility of the sources used, particularly those obtained from various websites. By forcing you to evaluate each of your potential sources carefully, the annotated bibliography helps you determine if in fact the source you chose is credible and helps you determine how relevant it is to your topic and understand the topic better which will help you develop your presentation.For this project, you will assess three sources to include:1) a complete citation for each source,2) a summary of each source, an3) an evaluation of each source.Three sources are required for this assignment (i.e., you are to write an annotation for each source). However, you must use five or more sources in your final presentation.

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Chemistry Lab

POLICY HIGHLIGHTSPharmaceutical Residues in FreshwaterHazards and Policy ResponsesPharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater Hazards and Policy Responses“A combination of promoting hygiene practices to reduce the incidence of infection and disease, encouraging sustainable pharmaceutical design andproduction, spreading awareness of responsible pharmaceutical use anddisposal, and improving environmental monitoring and risk assessmentof pharmaceuticals, are critical steps to achieving the dual sustainabledevelopment goals of improving health and protecting the environment.”Rodolfo LacyDirector of the Environment Directorate, OECDPO LICY H IGH LIGH TSOECD POLICY HIGHLIGHTS Pharmaceutical residues in freshwater: Hazards and policy responses . 1The OECD (2019) report Pharmaceutical Residues in Freshwater: Hazards and Policy Responses calls for a better understanding of the effects of pharmaceutical residues in the environment, greater international collaboration and accountability distribution, and policy actions to prevent and remedy emerging concerns. Laboratory and field tests show traces of oral contraceptives causing the feminisation of fish and amphibians, and residues of psychiatric drugs altering fish behaviour. Antimicrobial resistance, linked to the overuse of antibiotics, has rapidly escalated into a global health crisis.Unless adequate measures are taken to manage the risks, pharmaceutical residues will increasingly be released into the environment as ageing populations, advances in healthcare, and intensification of meat and fish production spur the demand for pharmaceuticals worldwide. The report outlines a collective, life-cycle approach to managing pharmaceuticals in the environment. A policy mix of source-directed, use-orientated and end-of-pipe measures, involving several policy sectors, can help to improve health and protect the environment.Pharmaceuticals are an important element of medical and veterinary practice, and their beneficial effects on human and animal health, food production and economic welfare are widely acknowledged. However, an area where we lack a common understanding is what happens when these pharmaceuticals are constantly discharged into the environment, through pharmaceutical manufacturing, consumption and excretion, and improper disposal of unused or expired products.

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Chemistry and Combustion

InstructionsAll fire investigators are required to possess the basic skills that are needed to determine the cause and origin of a fire. The textbook and Unit I Lesson discuss these skills.For this assignment, you will discuss fire investigation, the skills and knowledge required to conduct an official investigation, and the steps of the scientific method. Specifically, address the prompts below, and describe the process of how they are applied during fire investigations in your agency or community.Describe the basic elements of fire dynamics chemistry and combustion.Discuss the skills required to develop a cause and origin investigation.List and explain the seven steps of the scientific method.Your essay should be a minimum of two pages in length, not counting the title and reference pages. You may use the textbook, the Unit I Lesson, or outside sources to develop your essay. If any outside resources are used, they must be properly cited. Your essay, including all references, must be formatted in APA style.

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Rare Earth Elements

Directions:The report must be based on information you gather and summarize. Do not cut and paste any information into the reportThe report must have a Cover page that includes the Title and your name and the name of the rare earth element you choose for your report.The report must be at least three full pages using double line spacing, 1 inch margins, Times New Roman font, and 12 pitch font size.The report must address each of these topics:List the rare earth elements.Discuss in general where are the minerals are found that contain the rare earth elements.Describe in general the products in which rare earth elements are used.Discuss in general any concerns involving rare earth elements such as environmental, political, safety, or availability.Choose one rare earth element and describe it fully (when discovered, where it is found, cost of the material, and where it is used.List the sources of your information (web sites, books, etc).

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Laboratory Environment

BIO 1121Unit 2 Written AssignmentDirectionsAccurately measuring the volume of liquids, weighing chemicals, and adjusting the pH of solutions are routine procedures in a working laboratory environment. This assignment is designed to provide you with an overview of the general skills and knowledge you would need to perform such tasks.Before completing this assignment, you should ensure you have read your textbook – particularly the section entitled pH, Buffers, Acids, and Bases. Answers should be concise and well written. Make sure you correctly explain your thought process and provide all the necessary information.Question 1The pH of a solution describes its acidity or alkalinity: Describe how pH and H3O+ concentration are related and explain why diluting an acid raises the pH, but diluting a base lowers the pH.Question 2Phosphate Buffered Saline (PBS) is a commonly used buffer for experiments in biology because its pH and ion concentrations are similar to those in mammalian organisms. It works in a similar fashion to the blood plasma buffer mentioned in the textbook, but using dihydrogen phosphate ions and hydrogen phosphate ions for buffering through the following chemical reaction:H2PO4- (aq) ? H+(aq) + HPO42–(aq)The equilibrium arrows depict that the phosphate ion (H2PO4- ) is dissociating further into two component ions in solution, but at the same time H+ and HPO42- ions are combining simultaneously to form phosphate in solution. So, at any given point in time, and under the appropriate conditions, there is an equal quantity of dissolved ions and combined ions in solution. There is therefore always a hydrogen ion donor and an acceptor in solution.Based on the equation above, which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion donor (acid) and which ion plays the role of hydrogen-ion acceptor (base) in PBS?Question 3The composition of PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4. Below is the protocol to make 1 litre of 10x concentrate PBS.Combine the following:· 80g NaCl· 2g KCl· 14.4g Na2HPO4 (dibasic anhydrous)· 2.4g KH2PO4 (monobasic anhydrous)· 800mL distilled H2O1. Adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl2. Add H2O to 1L3. Autoclave for 20 minutes on liquid cycle. Store at room temperature.Which ions are being produced by this process, assuming that each of the chemical compounds dissociate into their constituent parts once they are dissolved in water?Question 4Preparation of the correct buffer is key to any good biological experiment and it is important that you understand how to calculate the mass of each chemical required to make that buffer and what the resulting concentration of those constituents will be in moles per litreYour text book explains that moles are just a way to express the amount of a substance, such that one mole is equal to 6.02 x 1023 particles of that substance. These particles can be can be atoms, molecules, ions etc, so 1 mole of water is equal to 6.02 x 1023 water molecules, or 1 mole of Na+ is equal to 6.02 x 1023 Na+ ions. Since different chemicals have different molecular weights (based on the number of protons and neutrons each atom contains) 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of oxygen (O) will have a mass of 16g whereas 1 mole or 6.02 x 1023 atoms of sodium (Na) will have a mass of 23gIf you need more information on moles, please read Encyclopedia Britannica’s Moles website.Although you may sometimes see it written as g/litre, the concentration of solutions is more often described in term of molarity since it better defines the chemical properties of a solution because it is proportional to the number of molecules or ions in solution, irrespective of molecular mass of its constituents. However, it is not possible to measure moles on a laboratory balance, so in the first instance chemicals are measured by mass (milligrams, grams, kilograms etc) and the number of moles is calculated using the known molecular mass (often called molecular weight and abbreviated to M.W.) of the chemical. As indicated earlier, the molecular mass of a chemical is based on the number of protons and neutrons that is contained in each atom (eg NaCl is made up of one molecule of Na, M.W. = 22.99g and one molecule of Cl, M.W. = 35.45g, so the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g). These values can be found in the periodic table however the molecular mass of chemicals is generally provided by any vendors of the products and so can also be found on various suppliers’ websites.When the concentrations of solutions are as described as ‘molar’, this refers to number of moles per litre eg a 3-molar solution of NaCl will contain 3 moles of NaCl in 1 litre of water. As indicated above, the M.W. of NaCl is 58.44g, so in 58.44g there are 6.02 x 1023 NaCl molecules ie 1 mole. So, for 3 moles of NaCl you would need to dissolve 175.32g in 1 litre of water (175.32/58.44 =3) whereas If you only dissolved 29.22g of NaCl in 1 litre of water this would result in a 0.5 molar solution (29.22/58.44= 0.5)1. As directed you need to check the periodic table and pick up the atomic masses for each of the component atoms in the compounds. For example, for NaCl you need to pick the atomic weight of both sodium and chlorine and then add them to two decimal places to obtain the molecular mass of NaCl. Be sure to multiply the atomic masses by the number of individual atoms of the same element present in each compound before finally adding to the masses of other component atoms of other elements to make up the total molecular masses.2. From there you can calculate the number of ‘moles’ of each compound by multiplying the provided weight of compound used in the PBS solution by their respective molar mass conversion factors (i.e. 1L divided by the molecular mass you have calculated in the first step)3. Now, the molarity in Mol per Litre (mol/l) is given by the ‘number of moles’ of each compound (calculated in step 2 above) divided by the given volume of the solution.For more information on how to calculate morality, refer to wikiHow’s 4 Ways to Calculate Molarity.Using periodic table found in your textbook, calculate (to 2 decimal places) the molecular mass for each of the compounds used to make PBS.Create the following table and fill it in with the mass of each component required to make 1 litre of 10 x PBS (the recipe for 10x PBS is below question 2) and their final molar concentration in the buffer calculated as described above.Compound formulaMolecular mass (in g/mol)Mass of compound per litre of 10x PBS (in g)Molar concentration (in mol/l)NaClKClNa2HPO4KH2PO4Question 5As previously stated, the concentration of NaCl, KCl and Phosphate in working strength 1 x PBS is 0.137M NaCl, 0.012M Phosphate, 0.0027M KCl, pH 7.4 How do they compare to the concentrations you calculated for 10x PBS?Watch the following videos and answer the remaining questions? “Using an Electronic Balance” from Bio-Rad tutorials? “Using a pH Meter” from Bio-Rad tutorials? ” Making a PBS solution ” from Community College Consortium for Bioscience CredentialsQuestion 6What is the first thing to do after putting a weighing boat on the balance?Question 7If you have excess reagent on the weighing boat, what should you avoid doing and why?Question 8If you had the choice between a 1-litre beaker and a 1 litre graduated cylinder, which one should you use to measure volumes with maximal precision when making 1 litre of PBS? (you can perform an internet search to find this if you are not sure of the answer)Question 9What should be done before measuring an unknown pH of a solution using a pH meter?Question 10The recipe for PBS says to dissolve compounds in 800 ml of water, adjust the pH to 7.4, then add water up to 1 litre. The final pH should still be 7.4, because the pH of buffer solutions remains stable when they are diluted as long as the concentration of its constitutive acid and base is not too low.Why do you think the protocol does not say to dissolve compounds directly in 1 litre of water?Question 11The PBS protocol above says to adjust pH to 7.4 with HCl. What does this imply on the pH of 10x PBS before adjusting the pH, would it be greater or smaller than 7.4?Question 12The last step in the protocol is to autoclave the 10x PBS solution. Why do you think this step is important? Look up the definition of autoclave if you are unsure what it means.Question 13Taking into account your response to question 5, now that you have made a 10x PBS solution, describe how you would prepare 1 litre of 1x working solution PBS, including which glassware you would use. Will you need to adjust the pH again?

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Heat Capacity

Chemistry Due tomorrow at 10:00pm. If you are not good in chemistry don’t waist your time and my money. Thank you for your help.1) Your styrofoam cup weighs 6 grams. You put some water in it, and the partly filled cup now weighs 91 grams. The water’s temperature is 18°C. A large glass marble that weighs 35 grams is moved from boiling water and added to the water in the cup. Soon the water in the cup is 47°C. What is the relative head capacity of the glass (marble)?2) IF Heat Capacity is a function of the overall mass of the items moved from the boiling water into the cup, then design a simple experiment to show that this is the case.3) IF the case in #2 is true, then what would a graph of Rel. Heat Cap. vs Atomic Weight look like? (Either draw such a graph or describe it.)4) IF Heat Capacity were not a function of mass of the items moved from the boiling water into the cup, then what would a graph of Rel. Heat Cap versus Atomic Weight look like IF higher atomic weights had higher heat capacities? (Either draw such a graph or describe it.)

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Extraction Lab Report

The order of the report sections should be title, abstract, introduction, experimental, results, sample calculations (if needed), discussion, conclusion, bibliography, and attachment (if needed). Formal reports must be typed including the results section and data tables. See Lab Report section at the end of each experiment in the lab manual for specific requirements.

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Pharmacy Reflection

We would like you to reflect on the material presented over the entire quarter and think about how the information has/can inform your own personal health as well as your career direction. Has anything changed since the midterm reflection? If so, please explain. Regardless of whether or not you are planning on pursuing a career related to healthcare, your reflection should discuss a minimum of three topics from class and how each topic broadened your understanding of pharmaceuticals, health care, and the role of the pharmacist in the community you live in.  You should also discuss how you will use this information in your day-to-day life and to what extent the information discussed so far has impacted your thoughts about your career.  For more information on Pharmacy Reflection read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Pharmaceutical_Students%27_Federation#Pharmacy_Education_%28PE%29

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Rust

Homework Case: Detected increase in incidence of rust afflicting either or both the vehicles produced by our automotive brand name. Said increase is defined as that which occurs before the guarantee period against rust expires, but also the period shortly after the expiry of the guarantee date. The term “shortly after” is given an arbitrary value of 18 months. Solution pathway:  1- You need to name your result or effect, the fish head, correctly. 2- Consider using the manufacturing categories (Slide 16) in Ishikawa Diagrams as a start. You may also choose your own categories if applicable, or you can augment the manufacturing categories with your own categories. 3- You determine your own categories as a result of affinity analysis and brainstorming sessions (Slides 18-20). 4- Come up with the possible categories for causes. Be careful when naming your causes, always making them measurable and non-descriptive. (Slides 22, 23) 5- See where the use of another tool like a statistical graph or chart can be useful. (Slide 24) 6- For at least one of the causes develop it into a new fishbone diagram. (Slides 33, 34) For more information on Rust  read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rust

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Hydrogen Peroxide

Lab 13, Experiment 12. Titration of Hydrogen Peroxide Lab manual pages: 109-118 Pre-lab questions: page 111 – 112 Post-lab questions: 117 – 118 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ag2JGq5Omzo https://youtu.be/ag2JGq5Omzo https://youtu.be/Irs0-YrE7mA For more information on Hydrogen Peroxide read this: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hydrogen_Peroxide

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