Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper

Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Undergraduate nursing programs include a combination of classroom work, simulation activities and professional experience (clinical) placements. Clinical placements are integral components of programs where students can immerse themselves in “real world” nursing practice. They experience firsthand the clinical work and culture of nursing in health care services. Nursing students completing their clinical placements are vulnerable to workplace stressors as a result of their position in the healthcare hierarchy, particularly given that they are not permanent employees of the organisations in which they are placed.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Permalink: https://nursingpaperessays.com/ bullies-and-inci…sing-essay-paper / The American Nurses Association Code of Ethics implores nurses to maintain caring and professional relationships with colleagues as well as with patients and their families. Provision 1.5 of this code specifically states that the nurse must “create a culture of civility and kindness, treating colleagues, coworkers, employees, students, and others with dignity and respect” (American Nurses Association, 2015, p. 4). The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is the primary authority in healthcare regulation. The Joint Commission has issued a mandate for institutions to address uncivil behaviors in healthcare as they create a threat to patient safety. Despite these directives, nurse-to-nurse hostility is a known problem according to the past 25 years of professional literature (Embree & White, 2010). Inter-collegial hostility, or incivility, is particularly prevalent in the nursing profession versus non-nursing vocations. This is an enigma, as the nursing profession is based upon interpersonal relationships and the care of others.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Civility is defined as the display of polite and courteous acts and expressions that show regard for others (Clark & Carnosso, 2008). Clark & Carnosso, in a concept analysis of civility, find that civil behavior includes tolerance, listening, accepting other viewpoints without negativity, respecting differences, treating one another with dignity and honor, and engaging in social discourse (2008). Civility not only denotes particular behaviors but also describes an attitude of respect for other persons. The word civility has Latin roots in the word ‘civilitas’ meaning community or city. Civility is more than just polite behavior; it is a prerequisite for humans to live together and function as a community. Thus, civility has been described as active engagement in creating and participating in a group or community (Clark & Carnosso, 2008). Conversely, incivility can then be understood to delineate impolite, discourteous, rude conduct that shows a disregard or disrespect for others. Common forms of incivility in nursing are non-verbal innuendos, verbal affronts, condescending language, impatience, reluctance or refusal to answer questions, disrespect, and undermining (Embree & White, 2010; Weinand, 2011). Unlike civility, uncivil behavior purposely keeps others out of the in-group, e.g. the community.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Nursing has been considered the primary occupation at risk for horizontal violence and workplace bullying. Studies estimate that approximately 85 percent of nurses are victims of incivility and up to 93 percent of nurses’ report witnessing incivility in the workplace (Christie & Jones, 2014; Lachman, 2014). Studies comparing nursing versus non-nursing work environments find a rate of incivility at 85 percent in nursing work environments, compared to 75 percent in non-nursing occupations (Hunt & Marini, 2012). Additionally, non-nursing occupations generally report managers as the perpetrators of bullying in a top-down relationship of power (Hoel et al., 2010). Unique to nursing is the prevalence of incivility between workers with equivocal levels of power. Patient care environments may be particularly susceptible to incivility due to high-emotions, stressful conditions, challenging and difficult work, and diverse roles and interactions. Nonetheless, nurses as a distinct sector of the healthcare team have a particular propensity toward uncivil treatment of each other. Workplace incivility (WPI) is a significant problem in healthcare centres, disturbing not only the clinicians enduring the negative behaviors but also the care that is delivered under the shadow of incivility.[1] Hutton and Gates stated that “incivility is characteristically rude and disrespectful, revealing a lack of respect for others.[2]Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Individuals who experience incivility, either as targets or witnesses, may suffer numerous negative behavioral, psychological, and somatic effects.[3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15] In addition, threatening and disruptive actions can also lead to medical errors, reduce patient satisfaction, and increase the cost of care; meanwhile, with the recent modifications in the health care system, such concerns have become even more crucial to address.[16] The incidence rate of incivility, in terms of experiencing incivility or witnessing WPI was reported to be 11 to 99%.[17,18,19,20] High prevalence of incivility and even violence is reported in Iran,[21,22,23] and some studies even see it as inevitable.[24] Therefore, in this case, further investigation and clarification of the perspectives regarding prevention methods is warranted. However, a limited number of surveys, to our knowledge, have focused on the attitudes which nurses, as the major staff in the health care system, have regarding incivility prevention. Many studies have been published about WPI but most have focused on the frequency, types, and significance of uncivil behavior in healthcare organizations. Meanwhile, describing the experience of incivility prevention from nurses’ perspective is valuable to a better understanding of its risk factors, outcomes, and ways of prevention. Exploring these perspectives is important because they could affect the way nurses are challenged to prevent and manage incivility.[25,26]Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper This qualitative study is aimed at determining how to prevent WPI from nurses’ perspective. The findings of the study may provide a valuable understanding into the perspective of nurses toward the prevention and management of WPI. While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper The situations are subtle and can range from sarcastic comments to being set up with the wrong patient chart… these sorts of things undermine your work day… erode your sense of comfort and security that you need to do your job in a professional manner (Nurse 41, 2007). Given the stressful healthcare workplace, it’s no wonder nurses and other healthcare professionals sometimes fall short of communicating in respectful, considerate ways. Nonetheless, safe patient care hinges on our ability to cope with stress effectively, manage our emotions, and communicate respectfully. Interactions among employees can affect their ability to do their jobs, their loyalty to the organization, and most important, the delivery of safe, high-quality patient care.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper The American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements clearly articulates the nurse’s obligation to foster safe, ethical, civil workplaces. It requires nurses “to create an ethical environment and culture of civility and kindness, treating colleagues, coworkers, employees, students, and others with dignity and respect” and states that “any form of bullying, harassment, intimidation, manipulation, threats, or violence will not be tolerated.” However, while nurses need to learn and practice skills to address uncivil encounters, organization leaders and managers must create an environment where nurses feel free and empowered to speak up, especially regarding patient safety issues. All of us must strive to create and sustain civil, healthy work environments where we communicate clearly and effectively and manage conflict in a respectful, responsible way. The alternative—incivility—can have serious and lasting repercussions. An organization’s culture is linked closely with employee recruitment, retention, and job satisfaction. Engaging in clear, courteous communication fosters a civil work environment, improves teamwork, and ultimately enhances patient care.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper In many cases, addressing incivility by speaking up when it happens can be the most effective way to stop it. Of course, meaningful dialogue and effective communication require practice. Like bowel sound auscultation and nasogastric tube insertion, communication skills can’t be mastered overnight. Gaining competence in civil communication takes time, training, experience, practice, and feedback. The consequences of workplace bullying are as evident today as they were one hundred years ago. In 1909 Leon Harris condemned the treatment of nurses by their managers in an article published in The New York Times . Dr. Harris, citing multiple examples of workplace mistreatment, emphasized how “head nurses abuse their position of power” [1]. A century later the workplace has changed for the better in many parts of the world [2]. Yet, in spite of such advances, nurses still experience bullying in the workplace.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper A problem in many healthcare institutions, workplace incivility is often referred to as bullying, lateral/horizontal violence, or harassment. 1-3 It can be defined as “repeated offensive, abusive, intimidating, or insulting behavior, abuse of power, or unfair sanctions that make recipients upset and feel humiliated, vulnerable, or threatened, creating stress and undermining their self-confidence.” 4 Uncivil behaviors can range from lack of support to rude or humiliating comments, and may even include verbal threats. 5 Determining the actual incidence and prevalence of workplace incivility is difficult because it’s often unrecognized and underreported. 6 However, studies examining workplace incivility assert that the percentage of nurses experiencing some form of incivility ranges from 27% to 85% Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Acts of incivility are devastating to nurses, affecting their performance, mental health, and intention to remain with an organization or even within the profession of nursing. 5,6,8 Hospitals and healthcare organizations experience additional consequences from an uncivil work environment through increased costs related to nursing turnover, absenteeism, and decreased work performance. 6 According to one report, the average hospital will spend an estimated $379,500 for every percentage point increase in turnover rates. 9 In addition, healthcare organizations spend an estimated $30,000 to $100,000 per year for each employee experiencing workplace incivility due to costs related to absenteeism, decreased work performance, staff treatment for depression and/or anxiety, and increased nursing turnover. 6 Although the effects on nurses and healthcare organizations are clearly detrimental, a more dangerous consequence of incivility comes from its threat to patient safety. One study demonstrated a connection between incivility toward nurses and behaviors that may lead to compromised patient safety. 10 The study included 130 nurses and delineated specific unsafe nurse practices that were directly related to instances of incivility. These unsafe practices included interpreting an unreadable order rather than asking for clarification, lifting or ambulating heavy patients without asking for help, and carrying out orders not considered to be in the best interest of the patient without challenging them.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper In 2009, realizing that intimidating behavior affects morale, staff turnover, and patient care, The Joint Commission put standards in place that require leaders to maintain a culture of safety. 11 According to The Joint Commission, organizations that fail to address unprofessional behavior are indirectly promoting such behavior. Uncivil behavior undermines the healthcare team’s effectiveness and can lead to medical errors and preventable adverse patient outcomes. 12 Interventions aimed at reducing incivility in the workplace are beneficial to nurses, healthcare organizations, and patient Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Workplace stress can influence healthcare professionals’ physical and emotional well-being by curbing their efficiency and having a negative impact on their overall quality of life. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact that work environment in a local public general hospital can have on the health workers’ mental-emotional health and find strategies in order to cope with negative consequences. The study took place from July 2010 to October 2010. Our sample consisted of 200 healthcare professionals aged 21-58 years working in a 240-bed general hospital and the response rate was 91.36%). Our research protocol was first approved by the hospital’s review board. A standardized questionnaire that investigates strategies for coping with stressful conditions was used. A standardized questionnaire was used in the present study Coping Strategies for Stressful Events , evaluating the strategies that persons employ in order to overcome a stressful situation or event. The questionnaire was first tested for validity and reliability which were found satisfactory (Cronbach’s ?=0.862). Strict anonymity of the participants was guaranteed. The SPSS 16.0 software was used for the statistical analysis. Regression analysis showed that health professionals’ emotional health can be influenced by strategies for dealing with stressful events, since positive re-assessment, quitting and seeking social support are predisposing factors regarding the three first quality of life factors of the World Health Organization Quality of Life – BREF. More specifically, for the physical health factor, positive re-assessment (t=3.370, P=0.001) and quitting (t=?2.564, P=0.011) are predisposing factors. For the ‘mental health and spirituality’ regression model, positive re-assessment (t=5.528, P=0.000) and seeking social support (t=?1.991, P=0.048) are also predisposing factors, while regarding social relationships positive re-assessment (t=4.289, P=0.000) is a predisposing factor. According to our findings, there was a notable lack of workplace stress management strategies, which the participants usually perceive as a lack of interest on behalf of the management regarding their emotional state. Some significant factors for lowering workplace stress were found to be the need to encourage and morally reward the staff and also to provide them with opportunities for further or continuous education.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper As the toll of workplace bullying has become more widely known in all work settings, research has dramatically increased. Many North American studies focus on behavioral categories, causes, and typologies of individual responses [3]. There is limited information on how nurses experience and resolve workplace bullying. While bullying in the healthcare setting has been internationally recognized and researched [4, 5], many institutions minimize its impact or deny its existence, creating a culture of silence that impedes solutions to this problem [6–8]. While most individuals consider bullying to be a highly overt behavior, it is usually an insidious form of workplace aggression causing professionals to distance from each other fearing social exclusion or becoming the target of abuse. The consequences of bullying include compromised performance, job dissatisfaction, increased absenteeism, and staff turnover [4, 5, 9]. Newly graduated nurses are at significant risk as evidenced by higher resignation rates during the first year of practice [10–12].Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Workplace bullying has also been acknowledged as a threat to patient outcomes and the delivery of quality of patient care, as well as the erosion of personal health and professional wellbeing [9, 13, 14]. Excellence in patient care flourishes in an environment built on open communication and respectful professional relationships. An environment that condones bullying perpetrates destruction of professional communication. Bullying goes by many names: workplace aggression, indirection aggression, social or relational aggression, horizontal (lateral) violence, and workplace violence. It has become so popularized in the press; bullying is often, mistakenly, used as an overarching concept. There is a tendency to use many of these terms interchangeably [8]. Bullying is different from horizontal violence in that a real or perceived power differential between the instigator and recipient must be present [15]. Some of the most recent literature suggests that all of these behaviors exist on a conceptual continuum of workplace victimization [3].Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Authors from different disciplines have contributed to the proliferation of constructs that label hostile workplace behaviors [16, 17]. Bullying is a contested concept. Instead of agreement on a universal concept and definition, authors have added to the challenges of building a relevant literature base and conceptual framework. Europeans have led research and policy advances in the field for over three decades. Swedish psychologist Heinz Leymann was the first to study workplace bullying in a systematic way, finding that these negative actions occurred frequently and over time, causing physical, emotional, and social consequences [18]. Others define bullying as repeated, offensive, abusive, intimidating, or insulting behaviors, abuse of power, or unfair sanctions [12, 19]. These negative social acts, not only occur repeatedly and regularly over time but also escalate and occur between individuals who have different positions of power [15]. Saunders et al. [20] suggest that the characteristics of negative actions and harm are the essential elements of bullying.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Scholars have underscored the importance of the durational characteristics of bullying [15, 21]. The dual dimensions of frequency and duration of bullying actions distinguish it from day-to-day social stresses or poor management styles in the workplace. Keashly and Jagatic propose that repetition is a principal characteristic of bullying; yet few studies have explored the repetitive experience of bullying, either by frequency, duration, patterns, or escalation [17]. The relationship between negative psychological consequences and workplace bullying is well established [3]. In addition to the emotional and cognitive effects, there are physiological consequences [13]. Recipients of bullying feel humiliated, vulnerable, or threatened, thus creating stress and undermining their self-confidence [12, 19].Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Prior to the last ten years, the nursing literature leaned towards anecdotal reports or articles suggesting practical solutions for dealing with workplace bullying [22]. Outside of nursing, research has been conducted using quantitative studies, primarily prevalence surveys. This complex phenomenon may require qualitative approaches for a fuller explication [23]. Such methods will allow us to unearth the interaction of individual, organizational, and cultural factors that enable, trigger, and reward bullying [6]. To this end, workplace bullying must be seen as a social process, “in which the impact on the person experiencing it is of primary importance” [24]. This qualitative study was part of a larger survey whose purpose was to validate the occurrence and patterns of bullying among nurses in the US [8]. The second-level qualitative analysis of the nurses’ narratives describing their bullying experiences in health care settings is presented in this paper. We specifically sought to understand how nurses encounter bullying in the workplace and the strategies they use to protect themselves and their patients.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper The approach adopted for this qualitative study was based on constructivist grounded theory methods [25, 26]. Charmaz contends that theory emerges not solely from the data but in concert with the individual experiences of the participants as well as values and experiences of the researcher [25, 26]. In a constructivist approach, the central question addresses how social reality is constructed. In addition, the researcher seeks to identify the elements of that reality [27]. To that end we were guided by both questions. First, we wanted to know how the social reality of bullying in the workplace came together for nurses and second what are the elements and organization of their reality. Working back and forth between these two questions throughout the analysis allowed us to make visible important aspects of the nurses’ world and understand their experience of bullying. In a constructivist approach, Charmaz [25, 26] suggests that data and its analysis are social constructions leading us to ask what is the purpose of the narratives and how does the setting influence the phenomenon?Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Whether you’re an ICU nurse dealing with life-or-death situations, a social worker counseling clients through traumatic events, a pharmacist faced with prescription quotas or another type of healthcare worker coping with your own pressures, learning to handle stress is critical to managing your healthcare career. Ongoing stress can manifest itself in a host of physical and psychological symptoms, including headaches, sleep disturbances, poor concentration and depression. Research suggests that high stress levels may impair the immune system and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Complete objectivity is not possible by the researcher, “constructivist grounded theory assumes relativity, acknowledges standpoints and advocates reflexivity” [28]. Researchers bring their own values, experiences, and biases to the research process. Examining the relativity of perspectives, positions, practices, interactions, and the research situation is crucial to the process. With Charmaz’s premise in mind, we acknowledge that the members of our research team come from different viewpoints to understand bullying in the nursing workplace. The diversity of our perspectives and experience are convergent, not biasing our approach. Our values and experiences complement one and other, allowing us to see the perspectives of the participants through different lenses. Our reaction to workplace bullying particularly in the health care setting and specifically among nurses was consistent. It was precisely our own workplace experiences and listening to the stories of nurses that brought us to formally investigate this problem.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Markham states, “an ethical researcher is a reflexive researcher who works from the heart” [29]. Being reflexive throughout the research process focused us on understanding how we contributed to the construction of meaning. Repeatedly, we stopped at critical junctures and explored why and how we came to an interpretation or a particular decision. This required a constant vigilance in rediscovering and sharing our own values, interests, politics, and even the influence we had on each other. Because we conducted the study in a virtual setting, we thought a great deal about our respondents, who they are, and where they worked. Our participants existed both online and offline, and we reflected on their location within those worlds, a connected space of sorts [30]. We also understood the possibility that what happens in the online world is interwoven with the offline real world; there can be mutual shaping of the two [31]. Within the communication context, there is an interaction of the encounter and the virtual space [31].Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Unprofessional behavior among clinicians adversely affects patient safety and the quality of care. This literature review sought to apply a systems approach to studies of workplace civility in nursing. The included studies demonstrated that rude behavior is perceived to diminish care quality, increase risk of adverse events, and worsen patient satisfaction. Researchers identified triggers for workplace incivility, such as negative organizational climate and power imbalances, as well as consequences including low self-esteem and decreased productivity. The authors note that high stress environments can foster incivility and lead to burnout. They recommend practice-based competency in civility in order to improve patient safety. A previous PSNet perspective discussed how to identify and manage problem behaviors.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Permission to conduct the study was obtained from the institutional review board (IRB) at a large university in the state of Massachusetts. An Internet web link to a 30-item anonymous e-survey was created [32] and appended to an article about workplace bullying in Nursing Spectrum a hard-copy and web-based, free, biweekly nursing magazine [33] . Consent to participate was affirmed by respondents completing the online survey and posting the optional narrative. The respondents were anonymous and not matched to the data of the larger quantitative study [8]. The optional question in the online survey was offered to participants as follows, “If you would like, in the space below please describe the bullying situation as you remember it. Please refrain from using any identifiable data (e.g., names, specific hospital, etc.).” The Internet web link was open for participant responses for a three-month period.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper A total of 99 narratives were submitted through the online survey and downloaded into Microsoft Word. Eleven responses were removed from analysis because the respondent offered commentary, broad generalizations, or opinions. Another six narratives were removed from analysis because they met the US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission definitions of harassment (sexual, disability, racial, or national origin) [34]. One narrative was removed because a nurse did not write it. A total of 81 narratives, ranging from five words to 780 words, were analyzed. Some narratives were very brief, “it is too painful to talk about,” while others wrote several hundred words describing who, what, when, where, how, and the consequences of working in a hostile environment. Prior to open coding, we performed preliminary readings to capture the tone of each narrative and become attuned to the text, allowing us to gain a holistic understanding of the respondents’ experiences before further analysis.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Charmaz’s [26] approach to coding is multilayered. To optimize our sensitivity and carefully attend to the nurse’s perspectives, we first coded narratives as a team and later, the first author led continued coding. We used the constant comparative method [35] to make comparisons at each level of our analysis looking for similarities and differences. We began with open coding (line by line) allowing us to look closely at the responses and reflect on the substance of the narratives. In some cases the nurses’ words provided initial code names (in vivo codes). During the second phase we began focused coding by taking the most significant and frequently occurring earlier codes to sort through the data. The next step allowed us to identify linkages and connections. We developed categories by clustering similar codes, and from those categories we generated hypotheses about how the categories were related. We then moved to the discovery of a core social process [36]. We used theoretical coding to integrate the emerging theory. Theoretical coding allowed us to go beyond description and specify properties of and relationships between categories. We used Charmaz’s analytic categories of agency, action, power, networks, and narrative and biography to further investigate the data at the stage of theoretical coding [26]. Throughout each phase of this process, we wrote memos, conferred with each other, and reached agreement on codes, categories, and concepts. We revisited the text of the nurses’ responses throughout the analysis.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Causes of Incivility in Nursing A perceived power imbalance is most often a requisite to bullying. Bullying appears to be particularly prevalent in institutions where hierarchy and power imbalances are strongly emphasized (Salin, 2003). Nursing was founded as a predominantly female profession in a patriarchal society with a cultural standard of gender oppression (Bartholomew, 2006). Additionally, in Western healthcare, nursing is practiced in a medically-dominant environment, where work structures are traditionally hierarchal in nature. Patients are admitted under the treating physician’s name and nameless nurses will execute physician’s orders. Furthermore, the organizational model of nursing is derived from historical roots in the military. This hierarchal system is thought to place nurses in a position of inferiority of rank and subordination. Literature supports the subordinate role of nurses, finding that nurses lack autonomy, control, and self-esteem (Freshwater, 2000). As a result, nursing has been described as a culture characterized by obedience, servitude, dedication, and adherence to hierarchy (Hutchinson, Vickers, Jackson, and Wilkes, 2010).Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Uncivil behavior among nurses is posited to result from this culture of oppression and subordination. Horizontal violence and incivility was originally described as an internal manifestation of conflict that resulted from oppression of one group by a more powerful entity (Freire, 2000). An oppressed group is one in which members lack power or control except within the group itself (Peters, in press). Internalized beliefs about their own inferiority prevents the oppressed group from controlling their own destiny, maintaining the status quo and allowing power structures to remain unchallenged. Frustration with these feelings results in aggression toward colleagues within the oppressed group (Hutchinson, Vickers, Jackson, & Wilkes, 2005). Members of the oppressed group direct their frustrations toward each other as they cannot act out directly to those who create the oppression (Freshwater, 2000). From this perspective, incivility in nursing is the reaction to the oppression and subordination experienced by nurses as a collective profession.Bullies And Incivility In Nursing Essay Paper Besides a culture of oppression, the socialization of nurses into the profession is said to propagate a culture of incivili

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