Discuss two key concepts you have learned in the course discussion posts, and ways in which those concepts could influence how you will practice as a BSN-prepared nurse. The analysis needs to be between 2-3 pages not including the title and references pages and be consistent with APA format; there is no abstract for this assignment. At least three references from professional nursing journals in the Brookline Library published within the last five years need to be used for support in the analysis. Discuss 2 key concepts learned in the discussion posts. Describe 2 ways in which your learning about those concepts could influence your future practice as a BSN- prepared nurse. 1) This one of the key concepts I learned. (The unethical research done in the world) and how to prevent harm to fellow human as a nurse 2) The PICOT Questions Based on the 4 research studies in your text (page 31), discuss the following: Given an overview of the study, what makes this a vulnerable population, what rights were violated, what could have been done differently, and what was the response to the violation? What is your role as a BSN-prepared nurse in regard to research and protecting vulnerable populations in the practice setting? Keeping It Ethical At the end of this section, you will be able to: Identify five unethical studies involving the violation of the rights of human subjects Scientific research has made significant contributions to the good of society and the health of individuals, but these contributions have not come without cost. In the past, studies have been conducted without regard for the rights of human subjects. It is surprising to learn that even after national and international guidelines were established, unethical scientific research continued. Four major studies involved the violation of the rights of human subjects: (1) the Nazi experiments, (2) the Tuskegee study, (3) the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital study, and (4) the Willowbrook studies. In addition, falsification and fabrication of data by the Red Wine Researcher provide another example of misconduct. During World War II, physicians conducted medical studies on prisoners in Nazi concentration camps (NIH Office of Extramural Research, 2011). Most of the Nazi experiments were aimed at determining the limits of human endurance and learning ways to treat medical problems faced by the German armed forces. For example, physicians exposed prisoners of war to mustard gas, made them drink seawater, and exposed them to high-altitude experiments. People were frozen or nearly frozen to death so that physicians could study the bodys response to hypothermia. The researchers infected prisoners with diseases so that they could follow the natural course of disease processes. Physicians also continued Hitlers genocide program by sterilizing Jewish, Polish, and Russian prisoners through X-ray and castration. The War Crimes Tribunal at Nuremberg indicted 23 physicians, many of whom were leading members of the German medical community. They were found guilty for their willing participation in conducting crimes against humanity. Seven physicians were sentenced to death, and the remaining 16 were imprisoned. As a result, the Nuremberg Code, a section in the written verdict, outlined what constitutes acceptable medical research and forms the basis of international codes of ethical conduct. The experiments conducted were so horrific that debate continues about whether the findings from these Nazi studies, or other unethical studies, should be published or even used (Luna, 1997; McDonald, 1985; Miller & Rosenstein, 2002), and professional organizations, such as the American Medical Association (AMA), have published position papers about this dilemma (AMA, 1998). Nazi experiments: An example of unethical research using human subjects during World War II Nuremberg Code: Ethical code of conduct for research that uses human subjects In the 1930s, the Tuskegee study was initiated to examine the natural course of untreated syphilis (NIH Office of Extramural Research, 2011). In this study conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service, black men from Tuskegee, Alabama, were recruited to participate. Informed consent was not obtained, and many of the volunteers were led to believe that procedures, such as spinal taps, were free special medical care. Three hundred ninety-nine men with syphilis were compared to 201 men who did not have syphilis. Within 6 years, it was apparent that many more of the infected men had complications compared with the uninfected men, and by 10 years, the death rate was twice as high in the infected men as compared with the uninfected men. Even when penicillin was found to be effective for the treatment of syphilis in the 1940s, the study continued until 1972, and subjects were neither informed about nor offered treatment with penicillin. Tuskegee study: An unethical study about syphilis in which subjects were denied treatment so that the effects of the disease could be studied FYI Type of researches
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