Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review

Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Civil engineering project Hello , in this semester I have to do my graduation project , I didn’t choose subjects until now. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review first I have to choose subject then I have I have to make a proposal for my project , then I have to do a Literature Review on it for this semester . then have to make the project study (project report) what I need now is someone to choose me a good subject without lab work , like a good case study or something like this , and then make me the proposal , then to make the Literature Review then in 4 months later do me the final project report . the proposal has to be finish in 4 days , its to short and easy the Literature Review has to be submitted before 10th of may I will pay for the proposal and Literature Review now and for the project report I will do anther question next semester atteched : Literature Review Guidelines mec_acd_gui_002_01_literature_review_guidelines___________1_.docx Literature Review Guidelines for MEC UG Students These guidelines have been prepared by the academic departments of Middle East College (MEC) to help you write Literature Reviews (LR) and other types of literature survey assignments. It is important to know how to write a good Literature Review as it is a necessary component of many assignments and project reports. Part 1. General Guidelines Please read this section carefully to have a general understanding of what a Literature Review is and be familiar with the language required to help you get started. 1.1 What is a Literature Review? An LR is an overview of the most significant and relevant published literature in your field of study. It should not only summarize but also evaluate the literature. We can thus conclude that a Literature Review is not simply a list of literature that has been summarized and listed one after another. It is NOT just a summary of the research and knowledge in your field but also includes an evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses. Identify the problem Search for the literature Summarize Evaluate Identify gaps Write the first draft of the Review Figure 1. Steps Involved in Writing a Literature Review 1.2 Purpose of an LR The purpose of writing an LR is to: • • • • • • provide an overview of important research done in the area assess the strengths and weaknesses of existing research identify gaps in knowledge establish a need for your own/or future research define your research objective (s) provide a rationale/ justification for your study 1.3 What sources can you use? Many types of resources can be used in your LR such as journal articles, books, conference proceedings and websites. Journal articles can be accessed through the MEC library portal. Your supervisor will help you navigate these databases. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Some articles are also freely accessible through the Internet and search engines like Google Scholar. Books and Internet sources may also be used as resources for your LR. It should, however, be borne in mind that your work will be considered reliable only if you access information from websites published by reputable Page 1 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. institutions or experts in your field, preferably with university affiliations. If in doubt, ask your supervisor. It is advisable to use original sources rather than other people’s review of the literature. You can integrate information from different sources by means of: i. Quotation (author’s exact words) Direct quotation should be used sparingly in the write-up and it should be brief, starting and ending with quotation marks (“…”). ii. Paraphrasing When paraphrasing, rewrite the text in your own words. This is an alternative to direct quotation. To ensure that you use your own words, read the portion of the text to be paraphrased, close the book and then write down the idea in your own words. iii. Summarizing A summary is a gist of the article being reviewed, stated in your own words (only the main ideas are included). *Note: You may also include figures, diagrams, tables or charts from the source (be sure to cite and reference them). 1.4 Citing and Referencing Cite and reference each one of your sources according to the CU Harvard Referencing Style. You can use integral and non-integral citations. Examples of Integral citations: Jones (2010) examines the effect of … Smith (2017) suggests that the solution to … Example of Non- Integral citations: The effect of performance-based reward was found to be … (Jones 2010). The solution to address the problem of … (Smith 2017). 1.5 Summarizing Summarizing a source involves rewriting the information in your own words in brief. Your summary should include the following: Page 2 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. • • • • • Aim of the study Method(s) used Main findings Contribution of the paper Citation 1.6 Evaluating Ensure you critically evaluate the literature; don’t just summarize it! An important aspect of a good LR is the evaluation of the strengths and weaknesses of the research in your field. Answering (some of) the following questions may help you get started. • • • • • • • Are the research questions relevant? Do the methods used have any limitations? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the method/s used? Are the methods relevant to your study? What are the strengths and weaknesses of the model? What is the contribution of this study? What are the gaps in research? To conclude, you should be able to give an accurate account of the key points, methodologies, and conclusions of the current research done in the area. Your literature review should demonstrate your understanding of previous work related to your topic of study. It should also show how your study will add to the research done in this area. 1.7 Organizing your LR There are many ways of organizing your LR. 1. Find relevant literature on your topic and follow trails of references 2. Identify themes/ideas/theories/approaches to the topic that have emerged from reading 3. Introduce ideas by themes/theory/approach/chronologically or any other appropriate structure but do not just list different authors’ viewpoints 4. Introduce and explain each theme (or theory/approach), present evidence from readings (agreements/disagreements), critically commentate and relate to your own research If you are planning to organize it topically, you could follow this procedure: ? Break up your main topic into sub-topics ? Obtain approval from your supervisor ? Start collecting resources for each sub-topic Example Page 3 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. ? Use of IT Tools for Selection and Recruitment Processes (main topic) Selection Processes Use of IT Tools for Selection and Recruitment Processes Recruitment Processes IT Tools used in Selection and Recruitment Processes Figure 2. Example: How to break your topic into sub-topics Figure 3. Structuring your Literature Review (Leeds University 2017) Taken from The University of Leeds Writing your literature review https://library.leeds.ac.uk/downloads/file/546/workshop_powerpoint Page 4 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. Summary Table Summarize the information in the form of a table including the year of publication, theoretical concepts, possible methods, sets of assumptions, software tools, and hardware components used, sample profiles, explanations and results. 2. Language Tips 2.1 Language to Indicate Gaps in Research An important purpose of the LR is to indicate a gap in research. This establishes that your own work or future research is required to fill this gap. Examples However, this system/process/idea has its disadvantages/problems. Few solutions have been found to… Little research has been done on … The increasing number of security threats in mobile banking point to the need for research in this area. Little is known about the effects of … Words expressing contradiction Examples: However, although, nevertheless Examples: Nevertheless, a significant drawback of the Waterfall model is its inability to ……………….. Although software A defends against some attacks, it fails to safeguard against…………….. Negative words Examples: disadvantage, fails The main disadvantage of this model is that the user cannot verify……………………. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review This study fails to explain how ……………………………. 2.2 How can we include what the author(s) found in their research? Page 5 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. We often use the words: “the author states / the author says…” However, we can make use of other reporting verbs to indicate the authors’ findings. Reporting verbs Reporting verbs are used with integral citations to sometimes express a stance (your position) about the research you are evaluating. Some reporting verbs can be grouped as follows, according to what the authors intend to say: Neutral stance (position) Reporting verbs says, writes, claims, comments, notes, discusses, describes, observes, remarks Proposing a new idea assumes, contends, suggests, asserts, believes, proposes, speculates, examines, establishes, finds, recommends Adds/ emphasizes information points out, emphasizes, adds, agrees, confirms, maintains, persuades, proves, supports, rejects Takes a counter-argument argues, challenges, disagrees, warns, contends, speculates, contradicts, objects Table 1. Reporting Verbs 2.3 How do I get from one paragraph to the next? Signal Words: You can use signal words/ transition words to connect your ideas and guide the reader through your writing. Make sure you make use of them appropriately in your LR. Function Subordinators Sentence Connectors Phrase Linkers in addition to Compares/ Contrasts Although Even though Despite the fact Furthermore, also, in addition, moreover Similarly, However Nevertheless Cause and Effect Because Since Therefore As a result Consequently Hence Because of Due to As a result of Addition (Adds to an idea) In the same way, Despite (this) in spite of Page 6 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. Thus Clarification While Whereas Illustration/ introducing information Intensification In contrast However On the other hand Conversely For example For instance Including, unlike to illustrate On the contrary As a matter of fact In fact Table 2. Signal Words 2.4 Other language tips ? Avoid using the first person ? Use formal language ? Write an introductory paragraph (including the aim of the LR and the sub-topics you will review) before you start reviewing your sources ? Make sure all references cited in the LR are mentioned in the reference list 2.5 Some Don’ts 1. Do not put URLs in citations 2. Do not define what an LR is 3. Do not treat the LR as a book review 4. Make sure that you include enough number of sources in your LR (ask your teacher if you are not sure) 5. Tools like Google translators are not allowed for paraphrasing or summarizing texts 6. Make sure you understand MEC regulations on plagiarism Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Page 7 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. These additional guidelines on how to write a Literature Review (LR) are for the students of the Electronics and Communication Engineering Department for their Bachelors Project Reports, Case Studies and Mini Projects. Every project requires a certain amount of “research” into the relevant problem areas, appropriate solutions and the technologies that support them, and also a review of existing examples covering these areas or other projects that have tackled similar problems. Try to illustrate how this research has led to or justified the decisions you have taken. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Number of references • • A minimum of 10 references for Diploma project reports. A minimum of 15 references for Bachelors project reports. Note that the number of references given above is a rough guide; some areas of work may require more references. Types of sources • IEEE transaction papers (journal articles) recently published in the area of the proposed work (approved by the supervisor). • A minimum of 60% of your references should have been published recently or within the last 5 years (approval of the supervisor is required). • • • Peer reviewed journals and conference papers. White papers and technical reports of reputed organizations. Latest editions of reference books. • A large amount of quotations from original sources should be avoided. Types of publications IEEE transactions and IEEE explore, Springer, Elsevier and ACM Department of Computing These guidelines of Literature review (LR) are for the students of the Department of Computing, Middle East College. Normally the literature review forms 20% to 25% of your project reports. Number of References • • • One citation per paragraph with referencing. A minimum of 15 references for Diploma project reports. A minimum of 20 references for Bachelors project reports. *Note: These are approximate guidelines; you could include more sources as per the requirement. Page 8 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Type of sources used in literature review • • • • Use academic search engines and databases such as Google Scholar, IEEE Xplore, IETF RFCs, Science Direct and ACM Digital Library. Use peer reviewed journal and conference papers. White papers and technical reports of reputed organizations like Micro Soft, IBM and CISCO can also be used. Latest editions of reference books. *Note: Do not use web references, sources like Wikipedia, blogs, articles, or information available on different websites without proper references and sources. Balance between recent work and legacy work: You may have come across a series of recent literature related to your line of work that calls for a critical summary. • • Use materials published within 5 years (a minimum of 70% of your references should be recent). For an assignment or case study where the topic/task is not recent, this criteria of 70% can be relaxed after approval from your project supervisor. Balance between regional and global literature- Students are advised to cite few references (around 20%) from work done by scholars in Oman or in GCC (if possible). Work of international scholars belonging to this region can also be referred. Department of Civil Engineering These guidelines for writing a Literature review (LR) are for the students of the Department of Civil Engineering, Middle East College, for their Under Graduate project reports. Number of References • Diploma Project- Use a Minimum of 10 References. • Bachelor Project- Use a Minimum of 20 References. Type of sources used in writing literature review • Journals (refer to Module Information Guide (MIG) for recommended journals. Use peer reviewed journals and conference papers) • Books (refer to MIG for recommended books) Page 9 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy. Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. • Government documents (ministries’ website) • Balance between regional and global literature: Students are advised to cite few references (around 20%) from work done by scholars in Oman or in GCC (if possible). Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Work of International scholars belonging to this region can also be referred. • Students need to make sure that they are familiar with current and relevant research in their field. Balance between recent work and legacy work; you should have come across a series of recent literature related to your line of work that calls for a critical summary. • Use minimum of 70% of your references published recently or within the last 5 years. • For an assignment or case study where the topic/task is not recent, the criteria of 70% can be relaxed after approval from your project supervisor. Department of Mechanical Engineering Mechanical Engineering students may follow the specific guidelines provided by the department. Type of sources used in literature review • Use the most recent literature around your topic • Make sure that you refer to local standards (Oman) Number of References • A minimum of 7 references for Diploma project reports. • A minimum of 10 references for Bachelors project reports. Type of sources used in literature review • Background information materials such as encyclopedias, dictionaries and handbooks will not only help you learn about the basics of your topic before you begin your search but they’ll also help you understand the terminology used in the documents you found from your literature review. • Books • Conference papers • Journal and Trade magazine articles Research Article Database: ? Science Direct ? Engineering village. ? ASME (for information about a wide range of Mechanical Engineering technical materials) • Patents Patents are grants from governments that give the inventor certain rights of manufacture. Patents provide a wealth of information for how a technology is being advanced and by which companies. Page 10 of 13 MEC_ACD_GUI_002_01 Controlled Copy.Assignment: Literature Review Analytical Review Paper copies of this document are uncontrolled. This copy is valid only at the time of printing. The controlled version of this document is stored on the CMS. • Technical Reports Technical reports are part of the “gray literature”; gray literature refers to documents that are not published commercially, hence they are difficult to both identify and find. Technical reports focus on a specific experiment or research project and are meant to convey the results of the experiment or project back to the funding organization. Defining the problem In case of any difficulty in defining your problem neatly, try using a PICO chart to identify the concepts involved: • P is the population, problem, predicament or process • I is the intervention or improvement • C is what you’ll compare your intervention/improvement to, and • O is the outcome (or results of the comparison of I and C) Example: Perhaps the biggest challenge for self-driving cars will not be tracking other vehicles or avoiding unfamiliar obstacles so much as dealing with that most erratic and confusing of phenomena: human behavior. PICO chart P = self-driving cars I = avoiding erratic human behaviour C = additional software and sensors developments O = accident rate or safety inspection comparison Your research will always start with a “P AND I” search; those are the most important pieces of the puzzle. However, once you have the results from that search, you’ll need to know where you want to go with those results; that’s when the C and O concepts need to be considered. Create the Search Strategy You could use Google, Yahoo or any known search engine, as in the previous example. What are the concepts? Are there synonyms that describe the same concept? If you filled out a PICO chart, concentrate on the P (problem) and the I (intervention) for the concept chart. Concept Chart: Concept 1: self-driving car OR intelligent car industry OR Artificial intelligence in cars AND Concept 2: avoiding erratic human behaviour OR Random human act AND Concept 3: safety OR accident prevention Department of Management Studies Look at the following summary table as an example for recording the information about the sources (books, research articles/newspapers/magazines/official documents, ministry publications/government and private firms) you have collected for including in your LR. You need not include all the information given in the example … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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