Assignment: IT Strategy

Assignment: IT Strategy ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: IT Strategy Part A Omantel mobile application Task 1 : Produce a research article considering the following aspects of research in: (8 pages). Assignment: IT Strategy ? introduction , approach to the problem and research questions , objectives ? theoretical framework ; rigor of literature review ? methods or empirical analysis techniques , used data sources Assignment: IT Strategy ? key findings and conclusions Provide poster presentation the importance of the research from the theoretical or empirical point of view Your research article can include the need for IS/IT interventions within the identified organization (if any) with particular reference to information systems and information technology applications. A critical analysis of the identified organization using appropriate concepts and strategic decision-making models in relation to IS/IT strategy. A critical analysis of the strategic choices and identifying the barriers to the implementation of strategic choices. Include an analysis of chosen real-word company using appropriate concepts and decision making models. However the research should be in line with the intended LO. Part B Kindly read the research paper ‘ Use and Impact of ICT on SMEs in Oman ’. Debate on factors affecting the implementation of ICT in SME’s in Oman. (500 word ) Kindly read the research paper ‘ Role of Information Technology in Health Care’ . Debate on the positive effects and issues arise from the implementation of IT in health Care.(500 word ) Part B contents must be referenced using CU Harvard style of referencing and well organised/structured . Guidelines Follow the guidelines mentioned below for assignment: Assignment: IT Strategy It should have Table of Contents ? Use page numbers ? Assignment should be typed in your own words using Times New Roman font size 12. Assignment: IT Strategy ? Heading should be with Font Size 14, Bold, Underline ? Use Diagrams and Examples to explain your topic, provided citation, if applicable. ? You are encouraged to refer the books in Library or use internet resource or computer magazines or any other resource but you should not cut/copy and paste from internet. The report should be in your own words. ? Copy paste from the Internet is strictly not acceptable. ? CU Harward referencing style must be followed. assigment_question_2.docx role_of_information_technology_in_health_care.pdf use_and_impact_of_ict_on_smes_in_oman.pdf Part A Omantel mobile application Task 1: Produce a research article considering the following aspects of research in: (8 pages) introduction , approach to the problem and research questions, objectives theoretical framework; rigor of literature review methods or empirical analysis techniques, used data sources key findings and conclusions the importance of the research from the theoretical or empirical point of view Your research article can include the need for IS/IT interventions within the identified organization (if any) with particular reference to information systems and information technology applications. A critical analysis of the identified organization using appropriate concepts and strategic decision-making models in relation to IS/IT strategy. A critical analysis of the strategic choices and identifying the barriers to the implementation of strategic choices. Include an analysis of chosen real-word company using appropriate concepts and decision making models. However the research should be in line with the intended LO. Part B ? Kindly read the research paper ‘Use and Impact of ICT on SMEs in Oman’. Debate on factors affecting the implementation of ICT in SME’s in Oman. (500 word ) ? Kindly read the research paper ‘Role of Information Technology in Health Care’. Debate on the positive effects and issues arise from the implementation of IT in health Care.(500 word ) Part B contents must be referenced using CU Harvard style of referencing and well organised/structured. Guidelines Follow the guidelines mentioned below for assignment: It should have Table of Contents Use page numbers Assignment should be typed in your own words using Times New Roman font size 12. Heading should be with Font Size 14, Bold, Underline Use Diagrams and Examples to explain your topic, provided citation, if applicable. You are encouraged to refer the books in Library or use internet resource or computer magazines or any other resource but you should not cut/copy and paste from internet. The report should be in your own words. Copy paste from the Internet is strictly not acceptable. CU Harward referencing style must be followed. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228549680 Role of Information Technology in Health Care Article · March 2002 CITATIONS READS 4 3,746 4 authors, including: Raja R V Kulkarni Chh. Shahu Institute of Business Education & Research 78 PUBLICATIONS 201 CITATIONS SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Raja R V Kulkarni on 17 October 2014. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.Assignment: IT Strategy Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010 Computing For Nation Development, February 25 – 26, 2010 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s Institute of Computer Applications and Management, New Delhi Role of Information Technology in Health Care Sampada S. Gulavani * and R.V. Kulkarni ** *Asst. Professor, Bharati Vidyapeeth Institute of Management, Kolhapur, [email protected] ** Director, Chh. Shahu Central Institute of Business Education & Research, SIBER, Kolhapur, [email protected] ABSTRACT Information Technology (IT) has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of healthcare. This paper focuses on the expanding role of IT in Healthcare Information. Communication technologies had a significant impact on healthcare and the delivery of health services. From Telemedicine to electronic health records ,a variety of healthcare services have been shown to improve operational and administrative efficiencies, clinical outcomes, documentation and information flow in a global settings, home care units, rural health centers and large urban hospitals. However adoption and benefits have not been uniformly distributed and reliability of success has been difficult. So it is necessary to improve the quality, cost, efficiency and capacity of the healthcare service. KEYWORDS Healthcare, Information Technology, Clinical Decision Support, Clinical Data Processing, Electronic Health Record, CPOE, Electronic Prescribing, PHR. 1.0 INTRODUCTION Healthcare comprises directing and controlling a group of one or more people or entities for the purpose of coordinating and harmonizing that group towards accomplishing a goal. Healthcare often encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources, financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Indian healthcare Industry is growing at 12% annually, according to a recent report by Springboard Research. The Indian healthcare sector has started to serve customers or patients better to balance the profitable business operation and meeting social objectives. The main area of focus is to improve the service to the end customer i.e. patients. It is observed that if substantial improvement is to be achieved over the coming decade, then automation of clinical, financial, and administrative transactions is essential to improve the quality, preventing errors, enhancing consumer confidence and improving efficiency in the health care system.Assignment: IT Strategy [1] 2.0 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Information Technology (IT) has the potential to improve the quality, safety, and efficiency of health care. Delivering quality health care require providers and patients to integrate complex information from many different sources. By increasing the ability of physicians, nurses, clinical technicians, and others to readily access and use the right information about their patients should improve care. The ability for patients to obtain information to better manage their condition and to communicate with the health system can also improve the efficiency and quality of care. IT allows healthcare providers to collect, store, retrieve, and transfer information electronically. To capture the role of informal interactions in the process of knowledge diffusion, physicians relies on the recommendations of colleagues with whom they interact on a day-to-day basis. Colleague recommendations are helpful because they can link specific treatments to the clinical needs of particular patients under a physician’s care, but these recommendations are not sufficient to resolve the problem of information overload. After all, physicians making recommendations have limits on their own cognitive abilities and these limits will generally make it hard for them to keep abreast of all the newest procedures. For this reason, physicians will also have to devote time to independent reading in medical journals. Reading journal articles may expose the physician to the newest innovations, but journal articles do not identify for physician the specific patients for which the innovation applies. The influence of IT enabled decision support follows naturally in this set-up. In comparison to traditional learning modalities (colleagues’ recommendations and independent reading of medical journals) , the computer based decision support tools are more likely to suggest treatments that are both new and relevant to the care of a specific patient. As a result, the new information technology will have greater influence on physicians and under plausible conditions, enhance the rate of diffusion of new knowledge. [3] IT enable doctors, paramedics, patients, insurers and regulators everywhere to become aware of new information quickly. A remarkable feature of IT is its capacity to establish and disseminate publicly accessible global databases of prices of healthcare commodities and services. The core role of IT in healthcare may be understood from the way designs of healthcare development and delivery enabled and supported by IT include or exclude people and encourage or discourage their participation in influencing decisions about allocation of healthcare resources. Assignment: IT Strategy Participation is a vital aspect of healthcare because health consumption requires participation in its production at every level starting from individual persons (diet, hygiene, lifestyle, belief and trust in one or more medical systems) to communities (safety, pollution control, sanitation, public hygiene), and nations (healthcare standards, budgetary allocations, medical education).[2] 2.1 Need for IT in Healthcare Following points discuss the need of IT in healthcare : Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010 i. The challenge in the 21st century is a surplus of patient information. The human brain, even a physician’s brain, cannot keep up with the exponential growth in medical knowledge that will occur in forthcoming years. ii. The ability of human to memorize things has remained flat, but the medical knowledge that needs to be assimilated is increasing geometrically. It is difficult for the human brain to memorize all the information at a given period of time. With the help of computer we can store massive amount of data and can retrieve it when required. Rapid technology advancements and continuous increase in performance/price indexes have made information technology (IT) applicable at all levels in health care organizations and patient management. iii. It is difficult for physicians to keep up with the rapidly changing state of medical knowledge and to understand what these changes mean for the treatment of specific patients. In such situation IT based decision support system could help doctors to learn about new treatments. iv. Health Information Technology (Health IT) allows comprehensive management of medical information and its secure exchange between healthcare consumers and providers.[4] 3.0 IT TOOLS IN HEALTHCARE Today number of tools exist and are being developed to help health information technology (IT) stakeholders to plan for and to evaluate health IT. Health IT programs serve to bring it to individual stakeholders such as providers, patients, hospitals, pharmacists, and others in this industry. These Health IT tools support in specific areas and promote better, more efficient healthcare through the use of today’s technologies. Commonly used health IT tools are discussed below :[6] [7] I. Electronic Medical Records (EMR) : The EMR provides a clinician with real-time access to patient information, such as patients medical condition, visits to health providers, images and reports of diagnostic procedures, schedule of services ,allergies and contact information to caregivers and a complete longitudinal record of care evidence based on decision support tools that can be used to aid clinicians in decision making. A fully integrated EMR enables a physician to update clinical and other information about a patient on a continuous basis. The EMR can automate and streamline a clinician’s workflow, ensuring that all clinical information is communicated .The EMR can support the collection of data for uses such as billing, quality management, outcome reporting, public health disease surveillance and reporting. Electronic document has tremendous advantages over the paper document such as it does not require a warehouse for storage and is readily accessible from anywhere. II. Clinical Decision Support (CDS) : CDS encompasses computerized alerts and reminders to care providers and patients, clinical guidelines, condition-focused order sets, patient data reports and summaries, diagnostic support, and other tools that enhance decision making in clinical workflow. Assignment: IT Strategy CDS provide clinicians, staff and patients with knowledge and person-specific information, presented at appropriate times to enhance health and health care. CDS has the potential to increase adherence to clinical guidelines, protocols and best practices which helps to avoid medication errors, and to prevent complications. CDS requires computable biomedical knowledge, person-specific data, and a reasoning or inferencing mechanism that combines knowledge and data to generate “advice” to clinicians. III. Computerized Physician Order Entry (CPOE) : CPOE is used by physicians for ordering medications, orders for xrays and other diagnostic procedures, referrals, discharges, and transfers. One important higher-level application in CPOE is that providers write orders including prescriptions using computers. Computerization of ordering is important because most actions in health care follows an order. IV. Electronic Prescribing (E-prescribing ): E-prescribing is the transmission, using electronic media of prescription between a prescriber, dispenser, pharmacy manager, either directly or through an intermediary, including an e-prescribing network. E-prescribing includes, two-way transmissions between the point of care and the dispenser. It is recommended that electronic prescription applications should be robust enough to include safety checks for allergies, drugdrug interaction warning, dose appropriateness, drug-clinical condition warning, and drug-laboratory alerts. V. Health Information Exchange : It is the electronic connectivity via internet and other networks that enables health care providers to exchange patient health information. It is necessary that the networks that permit electronic communication among providers must be secure in order to safeguard the information from unauthorized access, use and disclosure. It requires to develop data and messaging standards to establish the critical goal of interoperability to communicate with one another. VI. Personal Health Record (PHR) : PHR is an electronic application through which individuals can maintain and manage their health information in a private, secure, and confidential environment. The most salient feature of PHR, and the one that distinguishes it from the EMR and EHR, is that information it contains is under the control of individual. The individual is distinctively the guardian of information stored who can decide what volume of information to include, how it is maintained and ordered, and who to read them or “check them out.” It is necessary to decide standards and policy to determine how individuals can delete or modify information in a PHR that originated from an EHR and how these modifications are communicated to other providers with whom the data in the PHR are shared. Significant sources may include health care providers, medical devices, individuals, health insurers, research institutes etc. VII. Assignment: IT Strategy Remote Monitoring : Remote monitoring is the electronic transmission of health care data either entered directly by a patient (or his/her caregiver) or through a medical device to a clinician’s Electronic Health Record (EHR) or a Role of Information Technology in Health Care Patient’s Personal Health Record (PHR). The ability for a clinician to monitor patient information about diagnostic, medication tracking, and activities of daily living (ADL) measurements, captured remotely is a key enabler for the management of chronic health problems and management of new conditions. Remote monitoring could include physiologic measurements (e.g., weight, blood pressure, heart rate and rhythm, pulse oximetry, glucose), diagnostic measurements, medication tracking ,device information (e.g., medication pumps, infusion devices, electronic pillboxes), and activities of daily living measurements (e.g., ADL biosensors, pedometers, sleep actigraphy etc). [10] VIII. Telehealth/Telemedicine : Telehealth is the use of telecommunication technologies to deliver health-related services and information that support patient care, administrative activities, health education, health services and information over distances. It is a new method of delivering health care by sharing/exchanging the patient related data and medical opinion between medical specialist and a doctor in a remote location through telecommunication networks. The technology is a means to improve access to care, while reducing cost of transportation and increasing convenience to patients care. Tele-homecare, video-conferencing and electronic health records are all components of telehealth and use information technology in delivering their service. It can source expertise within seconds any where and effectively mediates the diagnostic shortages and surplus. IX. Home monitoring of Patients : Due to the institutional healthcare costs escalating worldwide, IT can be applied to home monitoring of patients particularly the chronic sick aged patients. In one project, a system which is linked to the home telephone can measure ,collect and record information about ECG, blood pressure and body temperature of the patient with cardiovascular problems at home. The telephone is modified to hold an IC memory card and multifunction such as simple character and picture processing functions. The collected information is sent from the patient’s home to the medical facilities by using online facility to the physician.. X. Clinical Data Processing (CDP) : Clinical data processing is used for patient monitoring. Often patients have to be monitored continuously (for ECG monitoring) or periodically(monitoring of vital signs) . These monitoring processes may be done for diagnostic purposes in emergency room, for therapeutic purposes in the operating theatre or for surveillance purposes in the ICU. By automating the monitoring process , manpower cost can be saved as more nursing time can be freed from recording observations for patient care activities. Assignment: IT Strategy 4.0 PRIVACY AND SECURITY IN HEALTHCARE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY In health care, accurate and complete information about individuals is critical to provide high quality and coordinated care. When physician adopt new health IT to enhance the quality and efficiency of care in his practice, it is necessary to reassess health information security policies. Information security is achieved by ensuring the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information. When physician assess health IT environment, then there may be situations that may lead to unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction of electronic health information Health IT Environm ent (Technolo gy, Procedure and Identify & Access new Risks and Update Security Policies Safeguards (Administra tive, Physical and Technical) Monitor effectiveness of safeguards to ensure Confidentiality, Integrity ,availability Fig.1. : Privacy and Security in Health IT To mitigate each risk , physician should implement the important steps in his practice such as : [5] i)Review existing health information security policies and develop new policy statements to address new risks to electronic health information. These new policy statements could require the use of certain technology i.e. encryption of data on mobile computing equipment such as laptops . ii)Refine who is authorized to view and administer electronic health information, or clarify and improve how and when electronic health information is provided to patients or other health care entities. iii)Apply updated health information security policies into the practice to mitigate new risks to electronic health information. iv)Follow administrative, physical and technical safeguards in the practice.[9] 5.0 QUALITY AND HEALTH INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY A New Health Care System for the 21st Century, emphasized the need for improvement in six key areas: safety, effectiveness, responsiveness to patients, timeliness, efficiency, and equity. A growing number of published studies suggest that IT can play a key role in improving the quality of care in each of these areas. In the area of safety, CPOE systems with decision support functions can reduce errors in drug prescription and doses. Clinical decision support systems(CDSS) have been shown to improve efficiency by Proceedings of the 4th National Conference; INDIACom-2010 reducing redundant lab tests. IT can also improve the effectiveness of care by promoting compliance with clinical practice guidelines. Real-time access to specialty information, including consultations between rural physicians and leading specialists at academic medical center … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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