Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis

Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis – Look at two of my classmate’s posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In attachment you will find all the classmates posts. Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis – APA Style. _04_16_hppreport.pdf students_post_649_13.docx Hospitals Rising to the Challenge: The First Five Years of the U.S. Hospital Preparedness Program and Priorities Going Forward Evaluation Report | March 2009 Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under Contract #HHSO100200700038C The Center for Biosecurity is an independent, nonprofit organization of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC). The Center’s multidisciplinary professional staff, with experience in government, medicine, public health, bioscience, law, and the social sciences, works to affect policy and practice in ways that lessen the illness, death, and civil disruption that would follow large-scale epidemics, whether they occur naturally or result from the use of a biological weapon. Experts at the Center publish research findings regularly and are consulted by government agencies, businesses, academia, and the media for independent analyses of issues pertaining to national and global epidemic preparedness and response. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC The Pier IV Building 621 E. Pratt Street, Suite 210 Baltimore, Maryland 21202 443-573-3304 http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org Acknowledgments This work was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR), under Contract No. HHSO100200700038C. This report would not have been possible without the more than 100 dedicated and committed hospital and state preparedness planners and other experts who contributed their time to provide the Center for Biosecurity project team with critical insight into the state of U.S. hospital preparedness, or without the participants of the June 2008 Issue Analysis Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland. The project team would also like to give special thanks to the leadership and staff of the ASPR Office of Preparedness and Emergency Operations components of the Hospital Preparedness Program and State and Local Evaluation for their guidance and support in the development of this report. Suggested Citation Toner E, Waldhorn R, Franco C, Courtney B, Rambhia K, Norwood A, Inglesby TV, O’Toole T. Hospitals Rising to the Challenge: The First Five Years of the U.S. Hospital Preparedness Program and Priorities Going Forward. Prepared by the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under Contract No. HHSO100200700038C. 2009. Hospitals Rising to the Challenge: The First Five Years of the U.S. Hospital Preparedness Program and Priorities Going Forward Evaluation Report | March 2009 Project Team Center for Biosecurity of UPMC Eric Toner, MD (Principal Investigator) Senior Associate Richard Waldhorn, MD (Co-Principal Investigator) Distinguished Scholar Crystal Franco (Project Manager) Senior Analyst Brooke Courtney, JD, MPH Associate Kunal Rambhia Analyst Ann Norwood, MD, COL, USA, MC (Ret.) Senior Associate Thomas V. Inglesby, MD Deputy Director and Chief Operating Officer Tara O’Toole, MD, MPH Director and Chief Executive Officer Project Contacts: Eric Toner, MD, and Richard Waldhorn, MD Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 Contents List of Tables and Figures .Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….iii Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… v I. Project Overview Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 1 Methodology ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 II. State of U.S. Hospital Preparedness Prior to the Hospital Preparedness Program Historical Context ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 7 Pre-HPP Hospital Preparedness Research ………………………………………………………………………………… 11 III. History of the Hospital Preparedness Program Legislative and Funding History ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 17 Program Guidance (FY2002–FY2008)………………………………………………………………………………………. 19 Impact of Guidance Evolution on Data Collection and Reporting ……………………………………………….. 20 Hospital Preparedness Research Conducted after HPP Implementation ………………………………………. 21 IV. Key Findings 1. Disaster preparedness of individual hospitals has improved significantly throughout the country since the start of the HPP. ………………………………………………………………… 23 2. The emergence of Healthcare Coalitions is creating a foundation for U.S. healthcare preparedness. …………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 3. Healthcare planning for catastrophic emergencies is in early stages; progress will require additional assistance and direction at the national level………………………………………… 46 4. Surge capacity and capability goals, assessment of training, and analysis of performance during actual events and realistic exercises are the most useful indicators for measuring preparedness. ………………………………………………………………………………. 55 V. Conclusions 1. The HPP has improved the resilience of U.S. hospitals and communities and increased their capacity to respond to “common medical disasters.” ……………………………………… 57 2. The HPP should focus on building, strengthening, and linking Healthcare Coalitions to lay the foundation for a national disaster health and medical response system. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58 3. Administrative adjustments to the HPP could improve the program’s effectiveness and efficiency. ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59 4. To prepare the nation to respond to catastrophic emergencies, HHS should provide continued leadership to assist states in their efforts to address the many procedural, ethical, legal, and practical problems posed by a shift to disaster standards and ACFs that is required when demand for care overwhelms available resources. ……. 60 5. Catastrophic emergency preparedness is a national security issue and requires the continued funding of the HPP. ………………………………………………………………………………………. 61 Center for Biosecurity of UPMC i Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 Appendix A. List of Acronyms …………………..Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………. 63 Appendix B. Center for Biosecurity Descriptive Framework for Healthcare Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events: The Framework and Crosswalk of Elements of Preparedness ……………………………………………………………………………………… 65 Appendix C. Map of Working Group Participants Contacted for Participation ………………………………… 79 Appendix D. HPP Guidance Terminology by Year………………………………………………………………………… 81 Appendix E. Summary of HPP Program Guidance: FY2002–FY2008………………………………………………. 83 Appendix F. Summary of Studies on Hospital Preparedness Since the Establishment of the HPP by Year………………………………………………………………………………………………… 87 Center for Biosecurity of UPMC ii Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 List of Tables and Figures Table 1. Number of Virtual Working Group Participants by Sector …………………………………………………. 4 Table 2. Studies on Pre-HPP Hospital Preparedness by Year …………………………………………………………. 12 Table 3. Hospital Preparedness Program Funding: FY2002–FY2009 ………………………………………………. 18 Figure 1. Timeline of Significant Events for Healthcare Preparedness: 1989–2007 …………………………….. 9 Figure 2. Percent HPP Hospital Participation by Reporting States, Municipalities, and Territories: 2006 (n = 58) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 19 Figure 3. Percentage of Hospitals with Redundant Communications Capabilities by Number of HPP-Participating States, Municipalities, and Territories: 2006 (n = 58) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 30 Figure 4. Percent Hospital Use of Corrective Actions/Improvement Plans Following a Drill or Exercise by Number of HPP-Participating States, Municipalities, and Territories: 2006 (n = 58)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 Figure 5. HHS Medical Surge Capacity and Capability (MSCC) Framework ……………………………………… 39 Figure 6. Multi-Agency Coordination (MAC) Model for Regional Healthcare Emergencies ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42 Figure 7. Percentage of HPP-Participating States, Municipalities, and Territories with a Functional ESAR-VHP System that Allows Volunteer Health Professionals to Register for Work in Hospitals or Other Facilities during Emergencies: 2006 (n = 62) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45 Figure 8. Administrative and Clinical Adaptations to Resource-Poor Situations ………………………………… 48 Center for Biosecurity of UPMC iii Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 Executive Summary Executive Summary Hospitals are the backbone of the healthcare response to common medical disasters (i.e., mass casualty events that occur with relative frequency, overwhelm a single hospital, and require a communitywide health response) and, in particular, to catastrophic emergencies, such as an influenza pandemic or large-scale aerosolized anthrax attack. The need for hospitals to be prepared to respond to disasters has increasingly become a priority for hospital leaders. They have been influenced by events such as the 2001 terrorist attacks and Hurricane Katrina and the increased emphasis placed by accreditation organizations and regulatory agencies on the importance of such disasters. Established by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) in 2002, the goal of the Hospital Preparedness Program (HPP)1 is to enhance the ability of hospitals and healthcare systems to prepare for and respond to bioterror attacks on civilians and other public health emergencies, including pandemic influenza and natural disasters. Current HPP priorities include strengthening hospital capabilities in the areas of interoperable communication systems, bed tracking, personnel management, Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis fatality management planning, and hospital evacuation planning. Past priorities include improving bed and personnel surge capacity, decontamination capabilities, isolation capacity, pharmaceutical supplies, training, education, drills, and exercises. The HPP was initially administered by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). Congress directed the transfer of the HPP to the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR) under the 2006 Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act (PAHPA).2 All 50 states, as well as the District of Columbia, the nation’s three largest municipalities (Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City), the Commonwealths of Puerto Rico and the Northern Mariana Islands, three territories (American Samoa, Guam, and the U.S. Virgin Islands), Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau, have received over $2 billion in HPP funding through grants, partnerships, and cooperative agreements since 2002. In 2007, ASPR contracted with the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) (Center) to conduct an assessment of U.S. hospital preparedness and to develop recommendations for evaluating and improving future hospital preparedness efforts. The first deliverable was the Center’s Descriptive Framework for Healthcare Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events,3 which is a description of the most important components of preparedness for mass casualty response at the local and regional hospital and healthcare system levels (Appendix B). Hospitals Rising to the Challenge: The First Five Years of the U.S. Hospital Preparedness Program and Priorities Going Forward is the second deliverable under the contract. It is the Center’s assessment of the impact of the HPP on hospital preparedness from the time of the program’s establishment in 2002 through mid-2007, as well as our preliminary recommendations for improving the state of U.S. hospital preparedness going forward. This evaluation report is based on extensive analyses of the published literature, government reports, and HPP program assessments, as well as on detailed conversations with 133 health officials and hospital professionals representing every state, the largest cities, and major territories of the U.S. 1 2 3 The original name of the program was the National Bioterrorism Hospital Preparedness Program (NBHPP). Public Law No. 109-417. Toner E, Waldhorn R, Franco C, et al. Descriptive Framework for Healthcare Preparedness for Mass Casualty Events. Prepared by the Center for Biosecurity of UPMC for the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services under Contract No. HHSO100200700038C. 2008. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC v Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 Executive Summary Key Findings Disaster preparedness of individual hospitals has improved significantly throughout the country since the start of the HPP. Since 2002, individual hospitals throughout the U.S. have made considerable progress in disaster preparedness. For the most part, hospital senior leadership is actively supporting and participating in preparedness activities, and disaster coordinators within hospitals have given sustained attention to preparedness and response planning efforts. Hospital emergency operations plansAssignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis (EOPs) have become more comprehensive and, in many locations, are coordinated with community emergency plans and local hazards. Disaster training has become more rigorous and standardized; hospitals have stockpiled emergency supplies and medicines; situational awareness and communications are improving; and exercises are more frequent and of higher quality. The emergence of Healthcare Coalitions is creating a foundation for U.S. healthcare preparedness. One of the most significant factors contributing to strengthened healthcare preparedness is the emergence of Healthcare Coalitions, which, since the establishment of the HPP, have involved collaboration and networking among hospitals and between hospitals, public health departments, and emergency management and response agencies. These coalitions represent the beginning of a coordinated communitywide approach to medical disaster response. If they can continue to be developed and strengthened around the country, coalitions would logically become the foundation of a more robust national disaster health and medical response capacity, as envisioned in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 21 (HSPD-21),4 to respond to catastrophic emergencies in which one community’s Healthcare Coalition could come to the assistance of another’s coalition. The HPP has played a critically important role in catalyzing the creation of these coalitions, which did not exist in most communities before the program’s establishment. Healthcare planning for catastrophic emergencies is in early stages; progress will require additional assistance and direction at the national level. The U.S. healthcare system is not currently capable of effectively responding to a sudden surge in demand for medical care that would occur during catastrophic events, such as those described in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) National Planning Scenarios.5 Emergencies of this magnitude would overwhelm the medical capabilities of communities, regions, or the entire country and require drastic departures from customary healthcare practices. Such a “phase shift” in the provision of care to disaster standards would be unlike anything that has ever been done in the U.S. It also is extremely difficult to plan for because it involves the development of clinical standards of care for disasters and a process for implementing such standards, both of which raise complex clinical, legal (federal and state), and ethical issues. Most hospitals and states have begun to address this problem and have found the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)/ASPR guidance documents,6,7 to be very useful, but none are adequately prepared. While many issues related to developing and implementing disaster standards are ultimately state responsibilities, continued national leadership and direction are essential for sustained state and local progress in catastrophic emergency planning. 4 5 6 7 The White House. Homeland Security Presidential Directive/HSPD-21. October 18, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/10/print/20071018-10.html. HSPDs were issued by President Bush to communicate decisions about the nation’s homeland security policies. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS). National Preparedness Guidelines.Assignment: Hospital Emergency Management Planning Analysis http://www.dhs.gov/xlibrary/assets/National_Preparedness_Guidelines.pdf. September 2007. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response (ASPR). Altered Standards of Care in Mass Casualty Events. Prepared by Health Systems Research Inc. under Contract No. 290-04-0010. AHRQ Publication No. 05-0043. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. April 2005. Phillips SJ, Knebel A, eds. Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide. Prepared by Health Systems Research, Inc. under Contract No. 290-04-0010. AHRQ Publication No. 07-0001. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality 2007. Center for Biosecurity of UPMC vi Hospitals Rising to the Challenge | March 2009 Executive Summary Surge capacity and capability goals, assessment of training, and analysis of performance during actual events and realistic exercises are the most useful indicators for measuring preparedness. The most useful metrics for measuring individual hospital preparedness were those that were clearly defined and not overly burdensome for hospitals. Useful HPP metrics included numerical surge capacity and capability goals (e.g., targets for staff, supplies, and space), training of personnel, and performance during actual events and structured exercises. Measuring individual hospital preparedness should also be based on the Joint Commission Standards for Emergency Management, which already significantly overlap with HPP guidances. Assessment of Healthcare Coalition preparedness should be based on the ability of coalitions to perform critical coalition functions, such as providing situational awareness during an event and maintaining and operating reliable and redundant communications systems. Conclusions The HPP has … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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