Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review

Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review Write an original literature review on one of the six major topics we’ve covered each week, and develop some new information about the topic based on your independent research. The research topic of this systemic literature review will be about “management and leadership in healthcare facilities.” Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review 12 point font, single spaced, 7 pages (not including cover page or references), and a minimum of 12 references/citations. The attached article is close to my topic and will be very helpful in writing this systemic literature review. healthcare_planning_article.pdf The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available on Emerald Insight at: Management and leadership competence in hospitals: a systematic literature review Vuokko Pihlainen Management and leadership competence 95 Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland Tuula Kivinen Department of Health and Social Management, Central Finland Health Care District, Leppävesi, Finland, and Received 6 November 2014 Revised 23 March 2015 9 June 2015 Accepted 24 August 2015 Johanna Lammintakanen Department of Health and Social Management, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland Abstract Purpose – The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence of health-care leaders and managers, especially in the hospital environment. Health-care leaders and managers in this study were both nursing and physician managers. Competence was assessed by evaluating the knowledge, skills, attitudes and abilities that enable management and leadership tasks. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic literature review was performed to find articles that identify and describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Searches of electronic databases were conducted using set criteria for article selection. Altogether, 13 papers underwent an inductive content analysis. Findings – The characteristics of management and leadership competence were categorized into the following groups: health-care-context-related, operational and general. Research limitations/implications – One limitation of the study is that only 13 articles were found in the literature regarding the characteristics of management and leadership competence. However, the search terms were relevant, and the search process was endorsed by an information specialist. The study findings imply the need to shift away from the individual approach to leadership and management competence. Management and leadership need to be assessed more frequently from a holistic perspective, and not merely on the basis of position in the organizational hierarchy or of profession in health care. Originality/value – The authors’ evaluation of the characteristics of management and leadership competence without a concentrated profession-based approach is original. Keywords Health care, Health leadership competencies, Leadership, Hospitals, Management, Literature review Paper type Literature review Introduction The requirements for, and contents of, health-care management and leadership competence are constantly changing due to several contemporary and future challenges. Examples of factors promoting the need for competence development in management and leadership include: transition and reform in the delivery of services by health-care Leadership in Health Services Vol. 29 No. 1, 2016 pp. 95-110 © Emerald Group Publishing Limited 1751-1879 DOI 10.1108/LHS-11-2014-0072 LHS 29,1 96 organizations, increasing demands for performance improvement and performance profile comparisons, changed expectations of patients and, in the European Union, the issues of health-care integration and cross-border care (Wismar et al., 2011; Busari, 2012; Tchouaket et al., 2012). Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review Additionally, the expectations of a new generation of employees differ from older generations’ expectations, and therefore, the future workforce requires a novel managerial approach (Stanley, 2010; Piper, 2012; Coulter and Faulkner, 2014). The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of management and leadership competence in health-care leaders and managers, especially in a hospital setting, from a holistic perspective. Health-care leaders and managers included both nursing and physician managers. Therefore, this paper focuses on a competence-based approach of managers and leaders instead of merely the profession-centered viewpoint, even though the profession-centered approach is dominant in previous studies. Management and leadership competence in this study signifies knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes that are necessary for managerial levels and tasks in hospitals or clinical settings. The definition of competence has become complex, and scientists have not yet arrived at a general consensus. Various definitions of competence have formed in several disciplines, and in health care, the definitions have arisen from a professional perspective. Furthermore, one approach to competence in the literature is context dependent, and related definitions of competence include personal capabilities to use and link knowledge, skills and attitudes to develop performance in a particular context (Laibhen-Parkes, 2014). Usually, to be deemed competent, a person must demonstrate a master set of skills; however, scholars have not reached an agreement on this definition (Thistlethtwaite et al., 2014). Knowledge and skills are overtly and indisputably stated as inherent components, while abilities and other attributes are merely implied. In sum, attitudes, abilities, values, judgment and personal or character attributes are considered characteristics of competence. Additionally, two divergent conceptions about the utilized components of competence by a competent person were found. One conception focuses on selected, individual components of competence in a specific situation. The second describes a synergistic combination of the components in a given situation (Fernandez et al., 2012). One definition of competence concentrates on the interaction between the person working and abilities actually applied while at work, but this varies because of the possibilities and limitations of the work environment (Ruohotie, 2006). The recent need for management and leadership competence in health care and the appeal of management and leadership as a career choice are contemporary challenges (Ackerly et al., 2011; Enterkin et al., 2013; Yoder-Wise, 2014). Attempts to develop health-care managers and leaders have been described as inadequate and contradictory (McCallin and Frankson, 2010; Ackerly et al., 2011; Townsend et al., 2012). Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review Management and leadership exceed the scope of the physician’s role especially; thus, management and leadership competence proves to be deficient (Dickinson et al., 2013; Kuhlmann and von Knorring, 2014). In recent decades, studies have demonstrated numerous approaches to and theories of management and leadership involving personal characteristics, behaviors, styles, models, theories and functions. At present, process-based management with the lean approach and competence-based management are emphasized (Hasna, 2014; Tevameri, 2014). Supportiveness and functionality in the work environment of health-care professionals can be achieved by effective clinical leadership, but as a conception, it has no clear definition (Mannix et al., 2013). Typically, management and leadership roles in health care are profession-based; physicians and nurses receive a different education, and they learn unique models of leadership and management. Additionally, studies of management in hospitals or clinical settings across the globe produce critical results, demonstrating inadequate management and leadership competence, which have been under discussion worldwide (Pillay, 2008; McCallin and Frankson, 2010; Ackerly et al., 2011; Townsend et al., 2012). Deeply institutionalized organizational routines, professionalism and growing specialization within the boundaries of clinical departments are absolutely strong cultural features in hospitals that affect management and managerial work (Fältholm and Jansson, 2008). As a solution, organizational management and leadership trainee programs and clinical supportive supervision have been implemented to promote the management and leadership role. In challenging professions, managerial work requires indispensable management skills. Also, clinical expertise needs to be strengthened by management and leadership competence (McCallin and Frankson, 2010). Conflictingly, the competence-based approach to leadership and management has not been unconditionally accepted. Formal programs to develop management and leadership competence have not been as remarkably influential as informal approaches used, for instance, by mentors and coaches (Pillay, 2008; McCallin and Frankson, 2010; Straus et al., 2013). Competence-based leadership development programs for clinicians have been established in Europe, the USA and Canada (Jahrami et al., 2008; Ackerly et al., 2011; Berkenbosch et al., 2013b), as exemplified by the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF) and the Royal Australasian Medical Management Framework. In sum, literature about the characteristics of management and leadership competence in health care is surprisingly limited. So far, systematic reviews that combine the views of professional groups in this field are scarce. In this paper, our approach to management and leadership competence, in light of a modern organizational theory, is to explore and discuss them from a holistic perspective. Methods We used systematic literature review to identify studies that described diverse types of management and leadership competence in health care, particularly those carried out in hospitals, during a certain time period. Data collection included searching and selecting articles from relevant electronic databases, as comprehensively outlined by Fink (2005). An information specialist was consulted about search terms and the process. Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review After careful consideration and some initial searches, the following electronic databases were selected: Cinahl, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science and Finnish Medic. The search period spanned a decade (2003-2013) because during this period, literature regarding the competence-based approach to management and leadership increased dramatically. The past decade provided opportunities to compare the studies and explore noticeable trends and trajectories regarding management and leadership competence. The search limits included reviews or research articles in English and Finnish with titles related to the study topic. After evaluating studies with relevant titles and abstracts (if they were previously available), the search outcome decreased from 1,451 to 253 papers. The studies remaining, which comprised empirical research, theoretical models of the characteristics of competence or literature reviews, described diverse characteristics of management and leadership competence in hospitals or clinical Management and leadership competence 97 LHS 29,1 settings (see inclusion criteria in Figure 1). A more detailed examination of the abstracts and full texts of these papers revealed those that offered a diverse range of descriptions of knowledge, competence or skills needed in management. Criteria were set to exclude editorials, evaluations or descriptions of management and leadership competence education or developed models and papers with constricted perspectives of 98 Databases: CINAHL (307) PubMed (303) Cochrane (22) Scopus (502) Web of Science (249) Medic (68) Search terms: Leadership*, manage*, competence*, skill*, hospital, hospital administration 1,451 Limits: Period 2003-2013 Research article or Literature Review in Finnish or in English Abstract available Inclusion criterion that title and abstract pertain to research question or topic 253 Inclusion criteria: Based on abstract or on full text, Research or literature review, Several characteristics of management competence or leadership skills are described, Article is available Exclusion criteria: Editorial article Describes a certain characteristic of management competence or leadership skill Describes an education framework or an education model or Evaluates an education model 74 Figure 1. Process of data collection After excluding duplicates and carefully reading articles, 13 papers were included in the systematic literature review Databases in final search outcomes: Cinahl (6), PubMed (2), Scopus (2), Medic (1) and Web of Science (2) management competence. Because our focus was on the characteristics of management and leadership competence and how to describe and identify them, studies concerning models or evaluations were excluded if they lacked descriptions of diverse characteristics of management and leadership competence. Replicating the search in each electronic database using combined search terms produced the same outcomes. Figure 1 describes the search process used, along with inclusion and exclusion criteria, and the outcomes after each stageAssignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review . The number of search outcomes was curtailed from 74 to 13 after thoroughly reading the papers in full and eliminating duplicates. However, surprisingly, the fewer outcomes were appraised carefully and the selected papers, from PubMed (two), Cinahl (six), Scopus (two), Web of Science (two) and Medic (one), met the criteria precisely. Later examination of the selected studies identified mainly surveys, four of which were executed with the Delphi method, and one study design was a structured interview. After the search process, the findings were accepted as focused and precise content for the aim of this paper, with accompanying discussion. The papers included are presented in chronological order in Table I. The material was subjected to inductive content analysis to assess the data on the diverse characteristics of management and leadership competence, especially in a hospital context. During the first stage, competence and skills, identified as characteristics from the studies, were classified into concepts using words that described the data (Elo and Kyngäs, 2008). Many words and even short phrases, such as “using financial information”, were used, and several similarities were found during analysis. These words and clauses were organized into synonymous groups and, then, further analyzed and regrouped into 13 separate sub-categories. Finally, the sub-categories were assigned to three major categories relating to the characteristics of management and leadership competence. Findings In this study, three main categories of leadership and management competence emerged: health-care context-related, operational and general. Each category consisted of sub-categories of related sections. Health-care context-related management and leadership competence The health- care context-related competence category was broken down into four sub-categories: social, organizational, business and financial competence. Social competence included knowledge and understanding of the laws, roles and different functions of the political, social and legislative systems. The level of a manager or leader in the organization, characterized by varying degrees of rigor and scope, determined whether any of these systems formed part of managerial operations. Social competence was observed mainly in European studies (Hennessy and Hicks, 2003; O=Neil et al., 2008; Berkenbosch et al., 2013a). Additionally, Sinkkonen and Taskinen (2003) showed that the health services quality and cost efficiency approach to investigating health policy and health-care development proved a topical challenge in Finland. Organizational competence and related skills are more obviously related to management and leadership. This sub-category included managers’ organizational tasks and work content. In the studies analyzed, competence was represented as knowledge and understanding of organizational functions, relationships and Management and leadership competence 99 To identify charge nurse competencies To identify the most relevant characteristics considered necessary for working as a Chief Nurse to inform and systematize recruitment To obtain perceptions of the roles, competencies and educational foundation required from nurses in mid-level and senior nursing management roles To identify and figure out management competencies needed at different management levels for developing nursing management and management education To explore the contemporary nurse manager role and to gain perspective on the critical leadership skills and competencies required to build a nursing leadership model To ensure that assets are used in the most effective manner and required skills and expectations to lead are used 1. Conelly et al. (2003) USA 2. Hennessy and Hicks (2003) UK 3. Assignment: Healthcare facility planning: A systemic literature review Kleinman (2003) USA To characterize the profile of nurse managers at accredited hospitals, identify strategies used to select these professionals and compare the opinions of nurse managers and those hierarchically above them relative to the competencies of these nurse managers as viewed by their superiors To assess the level of and the differences in managerial competencies, to determine the best predictors of managerial competencies for NAS To compare nursing leaders and employees’ perceptions of leadership style, personality characteristics and managerial competencies and to determine the associations between these factors 8. Furukawa and Cunha (2011) Brazil 10. Lorber and Savic? (2011) Slovenia 9. Kang et al. (2012) Taiwan To forecast relevant competencies and important skills, knowledge and abilities for Navy Nurse Executives in the next five to ten years 7. Palarca et al. (2008) USA 6. O=Neil et al. (2008) USA 5. Sherman et al. (2007) USA Structured questionnaire survey n ? 509 Cross-sectional survey, self-administered questionnaire n ? 330 Two types of data: A telephone survey n ? 27; A paper survey n ? 54 Delphi ? 2 iterations: An electronic questionnaire n ? 38 Questionnaire via email n ? 93 Questionnaire n ? 24 (13 ? 11) A structured face-to-face interview n ? 120 Interviews Delphi n ? 42 Delphi Round 1 n ? 330 Round 2 n ? 180 Survey questionnaire n ? 35 n ? 93 Survey n ? 604 (continued) Head Nurses, supervisors, Deputy Directors, Directors of Nursing in 16 acute hospitals Employees in Nursing, Nursing Leaders Nurse Managers, Directors Senior Navy Nurses holding the rank of Captain 0-6 Chief nursing leaders in three broad settings: Hospitals (n ? 20), Education (n ? 16), Public health (n ? 18) Nurse Managers Nurse Managers in Primary and Secondary Health Care Nurse Managers, Nurse Executives 15 key experts in each of 22 European countries Charge Nurses, Head Nurses, Staff Nurses, Supervisory personnel Design and respondent pool 100 4. Sinkkonen and Taskinen (2003) Finland Aim Table I. Summary of previous studies of management competence Authors LHS 29,1 To identify and empirically investigate the dimensions of leadership in medical education and health-care professions To investigate how medical specialists perceive the managerial competencies of medical residents and their need for management education To begin to explore the knowledge, skills and abilities needed in the emerging practice settings of health-care management 11. Citaku et al. (2012) Australia, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, UK and USA 12. Berkenbosch et al. (2013a) Netherlands 13. Hazelbaker (2013) USA Aim Authors Directed surveys, Delphi n?8 Questionnaire via email survey n ? 129 Questionnaire via email survey n ? 229 Athletic Trainers working as Hospital or Health care Managers Educators, Physicians, Nurses, Other health professionals with academic positions Medical specialists Design and respondent pool Management and leadership competence 101 Table I. LHS 29,1 102 decision-making systems (Connelly et al., 2003; Kleinman, 2003; Sinkkonen and Taskinen, 2003; Hazelbaker, 2013). Business competence, a notable sub-category, included knowledge, understanding and practice of business skills in clinical and cultural contexts as well as different types of processes, such as changes, services, development, resources and planning (Kang et al., 2012; Hazelbaker, 2013). Some studies demonstrated an awareness of health care as a business or industry, and … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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