Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review

Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review This is just a revised final draft of a literature review. We reviewed 4 different peer reviewed articles. A classmate and the teacher gave feedback and now we need to revise and submit final draft. Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review literature_review_feedback.docx literature_review.docx lit_rev_art_1.pdf lit_rev_art_2.pdf lit_rev_art_3.pdf Overall, the topic you choose was interesting. The draft needs closer proofreading. Edit for more effective transitions between paragraphs. The draft needs supporting arguments need more elaboration or evidence to better defend your claims. The draft needs to be more clearly organized. Some of the wording is unnecessarily complicated. It made good use of examples and textual evidence. Should had included an introduction that fits the body of the draft. Also, conclusion could better close the argument with an “open question” for the reader. Anonymous User , Oct 16 at 4:14pm Charlene, in a literature review, you are writing up your examination of what the scholarly articles are saying about your topic. You summarize the research the authors conducted on your topic and discuss the authors’ findings, their proposed solutions, what the authors found to be significant. Think of yourself as a reporter. You are reporting what the authors have discovered about your topic. Your personal opinion does not enter into the literature review as it really is a review of what the literature has to say on the topic. Your opinions will come into play when you write your investigative research article, but not as stated opinions. How you choose to argue your topic, the articles you choose to support and provide evidence for your argument, your call for action or suggestions for further research on the topic, these are how you will give your opinion on the topic. There should be no title page with a literature review and the abstract and Running Head header are for the final paper. See Strategies for Reading Scholarly Articles in the previous module and review the video with the five steps for writing and formatting a literature review. Additionally, notice from the examples of a literature review in the textbook and the video that the format of a literature review is different from that of an annotated bibliography. The format for a literature review is an introduction, thesis statement, the body paragraphs with blended information from the articles arranged by topic, the conclusion, and followed by the References page. Margins should not be Justified.Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review They are Align Left. Every time you use a phrase such as “according to XXX” or “studies show XXX” or you mention researchers you must include an in-text citation. In fact, you should provide in-text citations for where you found the information you are including in the literature review. There should be in-text citations with all of your data from all of the articles. Every direct quote must have an in-text citation with the page number. Also, watch the use of pronouns such as our when discussing study results. Saying “our Chinese group” implies that you were one of the researchers. Watch for changing verb tense. Be consistent in using either present or past tense. Do not use future tense unless you are calling for more studies to be conducted. Check the grammar textbook for where and how to use commas, plural and possessive for dates and nouns. Watch repetition. You don’t need “ an experiment” when you immediately use “The New England Experiment. Use by a narrator rather than from a narrator. APA References do not contain authors’ first names. Article and book titles are in sentence case. Entries should be double spaced with no extra space between entries.Use the OWL APA Guide when putting together your References page. Couzin-Frankel (2012) evaluates ways to tackle America’s eating habits, one store at a time. She uses information from a few different cities across the country. In each city, small stores in low income areas were chosen to gather information. These studies are partnered with the department of public health. These tactics are used to answer questions like Does promoting these foods change eating habits over the long haul? And Does this in turn help fight obesity? These studies survey hundreds of families before and after they implement the healthy foods in the store. Collecting data will show them if more healthier food choices are offered, would the community create better eating habits? Display refrigerators are placed in the store and fill them with fresh produce and dairy. Store owners also use tactics as to keeping healthier items in specific areas to catch the consumers attention. Levenstein (1980) provides information on where American eating habits came from and how they were evolving. America’s food habits are always changing, with many factors such as industrialization, urbanization, revolution, storage, transportation, distribution, and consumption. Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review All these factors also add to the fact that Americans wanted to improve their health and live longer lives. In the 1920’s is when nutrition really took off. Federal and state agricultural rolled out their nutritional values on healthy eating. Information was given to the public about what to eat and how much you should be consuming. Then rolling out an experiment, called The New England Experiment. This idea was a “public kitchen,” teaching American workers to eat better, and the source of their food could change. Changing the single family kitchen to a community kitchen supplied with food. This idea came from Germany, where scientists were studying food and their breakdown. They seperated the food into water, carbohydrates, fat, protein, and minerals. They also found that each nutrient performed a certain physiological function. This lead us to the nutritional value of food, and that is how food should be chosen. Consuming what is good for us rather than what is appealing to the senses. Once those values were applied, it then became apparent the very poor eating habits that American had. Not only were they bad but we were being wasteful as well. Eating more than what is needed and overspending on better cuts of meat that gives the same nutritional value as the cheaper cut. Families were spending fifty percent of their earnings on food. All these issues together called for some resolutions, one to get Americans to eat what is needed, cut the waste, and another to cut the cost. Many ideas were brought up from meal planning all the way to changing methods of cooking. Ploughman (1883) explores the Chinese cultures eating habits. The chinese believe the stomach is a source of intellectual life. Therefore the fatest man is seen as the wisest man. It is usual that two meals a day are taken. One shortly after awaken in the morning and another meal mid afternoon around three and four o’clock. Where you eat and what you eat is based on what type of life you live. A family man eats at home with his family, he gets to indulge in meat, while the rest of the family satisfy themselves with rice. Everyone else has their meals at hotels. Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review It is normal for everyone to smoke during the eating of a formal dinner. A story is told at dinner from a narrator. Banna, Gilliland, Keefe, & Zheng (2016) conducted a comparison of perspectives on healthy eating between Chinese and American undergraduates. The objective was to describe healthy on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. The data was collected from the two groups located in Changsha, Honolulu, Hunan, U.S.A and China. The groups were to write a one to two paragraph response to “What does the phrase ‘a healthy diet’ mean to you?” Our Chinese group had similar answers such as physical outcome, maintaining immunity, and digestive health. Another popular answer was the time of eating, regularity of meals, and higher intake in the morning verses the evening. Now the American group described how they balanced the food groups and consumption. They stated keeping active plays a part as well, emphasizing on exercise. They also listed what to avoid large portions and steer clear from such as fats, sugar and salt. Both group shared certain factors they both though as important with food moderation being one. They both listed specific healthy foods and guiding dietary principles. This study compared both groups and came to the conclusion that the diverse views may reflect food related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Banna et al. BMC Public Health (2016) 16:1015 DOI 10.1186/s12889-016-3680-y RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Cross-cultural comparison of perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American undergraduate students Jinan C. Banna1*, Betsy Gilliland2, Margaret Keefe3 and Dongping Zheng2 Abstract Background: Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Methods: Chinese (n = 55) and American (n = 57) undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai’i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: “What does the phrase ‘a healthy diet’ mean to you?” Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015).Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Results: Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. Conclusions: The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Future studies may further examine themes that may not typically be addressed in nutrition education programs in diverse populations of young adults. Gaining greater knowledge of the ways in which healthy eating is viewed will allow for development of interventions that are sensitive to the traditional values and predominant views of health in various groups. Keywords: Young adult, China, United States, Cross-cultural comparison, Food habits * Correspondence: [email protected] 1 Department of Human Nutrition, Food and Animal Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, Agricultural Sciences 216, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 1955 East-West Road, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA Full list of author information is available at the end of the article © 2016 The Author(s). Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Banna et al. BMC Public Health (2016) 16:1015 Background A healthy diet has been well established as a key part of chronic disease prevention and mortality reduction [1–3]. Dietary behavior change is the focus of many health promotion interventions seeking to improve health outcomes, which may motivate individuals to alter their diets by taking actions such as increasing fiber and reducing saturated fat intake [4–6]. In designing health promotion interventions for specific groups, understanding the target population’s health belief systems and views on proper dietary habits is critical, as individuals’ ideals about food have been found to be important determinants of food choice [7]. Studies are needed to examine what diverse populations perceive to constitute a healthy diet [8], with results informing design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions [9]. Previous research examining perspectives on healthy eating in diverse groups has revealed distinct ways in which individuals conceptualize a healthy diet. In a review of the literature examining how qualitative research has advanced understanding of the ways in which people interpret healthy eating, Bisogni et al. identified a number of ideals for healthy eating put forth by diverse cultural groups in multiple countries [10]. Participants in the reviewed studies described healthy eating in terms of specific foods (e.g. fruits and vegetables), food components (e.g. general nutrients, additives), and physical and psychosocial outcomes (e.g. energy, pleasure), among others. Individuals characterize healthy eating in diverse and complex ways, with definitions linking to eating behaviors and spanning various beliefs [11]. While a number of previous studies have examined views on healthy eating using qualitative methods, a review of the literature reveals that only three such studies have focused exclusively on young adults, a group that warrants particular attention with regards to promotion of healthy eating. In the first, examination of undergraduate Canadian females revealed that participants defined healthy eating in accordance with Canadian dietary guidelines and also mentioned organic food, eating with others, and functional foods [12]. Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review The second study, which examined how members of a college men’s ice hockey team experienced the multiple factors influencing their food choices, also revealed participants’ notions of a healthy diet [13]. Most of the players interviewed believed that healthy foods were low-fat foods, and many associated feeling good and having high energy levels with consumption of easy-to-digest foods. Unhealthy foods, in contrast, were described as those such as fries and chips, which may promote feelings of being “bogged down.” Foods such as burgers, pizza, ice cream, cookies and cakes were viewed as tasting good but not healthy [13]. The third study, in Chinese American young adults, indicated that traditional Chinese cuisine was viewed as healthful, Page 2 of 12 conferring benefits such as normal organ function, enhanced immune system, stronger, bones, and longer lifespan [14]. Further research is needed to determine which of these factors are specific to particular cultures. Understanding perspectives on healthy eating in diverse groups of young adults is of importance in promoting health. During the transition period from adolescence to adulthood (18–31 years), not only is the presence of obesity and unhealthy habits associated with increased chronic disease risk, but young adults also gain independence and establish long-term health behavior patterns [15]. Further, young adults’ current dietary intake is not optimal; a recent study in this population in the U.S. revealed that average daily levels of 6 of the 7 nutrients of concern identified in the Dietary Guidelines were lower than recommended [16]. Similarly, in countries undergoing a nutrition transition, such as China, the introduction of a Westernized diet has led to high intake of foods rich in fat and sugar and low in fiber across the lifespan [17–19]. As overweight is a prevalent issue in young adults resulting from such undesirable dietary habits, this population may also engage in dieting practices to achieve weight loss that may potentially have deleterious effects on health [20, 21]. Young adults completing their undergraduate education, in particular, face nutritional issues that warrant the attention of health professionals.Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review The average college freshman has been shown to gain an average of 1.8 ± 0.7 kg in the first year of university attendance [22]. Students who are transitioning from home to the college environment may make poor dietary choices and engage in little physical activity, which may contribute to the weight gain observed [15, 23]. The obesogenic college environment, with availability of all-you-can-eat cafeterias and food high in solid fats and sugars, may play a role in promoting unhealthy choices [22, 24, 25]. Given the particular challenges undergraduate students face in making healthy choices, they represent an important subgroup of young adults to target in promoting sound dietary habits. To improve dietary habits of young adults, messages about healthy eating have been delivered both through public health guidelines and interventions. In the U.S., the Dietary Guidelines for Americans provide evidencebased advice on healthy eating, and outline how people can improve their overall eating patterns [26]. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has also developed MyPlate, a graphic illustrating the 5 key food groups using the familiar image of a place setting for a meal [27]. Other countries have developed similar graphics; for example, the Chinese food guide pagoda conveys the essential components of the diet [28]. As dietary intake of college students has been found to be less than optimal [16], a number of interventions seeking Banna et al. BMC Public Health (2016) 16:1015 to promote healthy eating have also been conducted [29, 30]. A 2016 systematic review of dietary interventions in university students in diverse world areas, however, noted that out of the twenty studies examined, only one intervention was found to be effective in the long term [30]. In improving upon existing interventions for testing in diverse groups of students, interventions will need to be carefully adapted, evaluated and implemented [31]. Researchers have noted the importance of addressing cultural, social, environmental and psychological forces that influence health behavior in adapting interventions to foster behavior change [32]. Assignment: Final Draft of Literature Review Understanding health belief systems is particularly important in tailoring interventions to promote optimal dietary practices, as messages must fit within an individual’s frame of reference to be noticed and processed [33]. As individuals’ eating habits are shaped by the social and cultural contexts of their lives, the ideal diet may be conceptualized differently across diverse populations of young adults. Cross-cultural comparison can reveal valuable findings that may promote cognizance of diverse health belief systems and habits across groups [34]. A comparison of two groups with historically distinct belief systems related to diet and health may be particularly informative in the design of nutrition education messages. Such differences between Chinese and American populations in general, for example, have been well documented. Studies examining the principles underlying the Chinese diet, such as the Yin-Yang belief system of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), reveal stark differences between such principles and those informing the Western diet [35–37]. In a study of three Asian-American groups, for example, all groups expressed the general belief that specific foods have either hot or cold properties and should be eaten strategically to keep one healthy, a concept absent from the Western system [35]. However, the “Westernization” of the C … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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