Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia

Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia This is a nuclei of a proposal paper.follow the timetable of developing the proposal: Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia 1. Eight (8) Articles were selected to fit my interest of research . (find them attached attached) 2. Initial annotation of the articles about (medical personnel in Saudi Arabia lack the awareness of disaster preparedness and hence the need for training on preparedness) was sent to the professor (find the attached file entitled “initial annotation before edit”) 3. the professor gave feedback about the initial annotation: (How did Shalhoub , Khan, and Alaska (2017) collect their evidence? Was it a well-structured process? I believe most of your articles have something to support you, and I appreciate your thoughtful c onclusions . I would expect to see a little (perhaps one sentence ) on how they performed their data collection and analysis. From what you depict, all I can deduce is opinion. Make me believe it is factual conclusions based on solid logic.) 4. now I need to go further to the next step: to Criticize all the articles and develop two to three questions that fit with proposal based on the articles (you may add articles if it helps to develop the paper.questions must be and also to include . the professor requirements in his words: Define as clearly as possible your Disaster Management topic area, specific research problem, and initial thoughts on the questions you might try to answer with your research proposal. These three areas should result from the refinement of your current review of the literature and life experience. The 2 or 3 research questions that you can define as the foundation of your research proposal must be Disaster Management related , be of importance to the body of knowledge of the discipline, have a measurable output, and be accomplished within a two (2) year time frame. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia perceptions_of_knowledge_of_disaster_man.pdf course_in_prehospital_major_incidents_management_for_health_care_providers_in_saudi_arabia.pdf emergency_nurse_disaster_preparedness_during_mass_gatherings_a_cross_sectional_survey_of_emergency_nurses____perceptions_in_hospitals_in_mecca__saudi_arabia.pdf evaluation_of_disaster_prepadness_plans_in_mecca.pdf evaluation_of_disas Australasian Emergency Nursing Journal (2015) 18, 156—164 Available online at www.sciencedirect.com ScienceDirect journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/aenj RESEARCH PAPER Perceptions of knowledge of disaster management among military and civilian nurses in Saudi Arabia Abdulellah Al Thobaity, RN, MN a,b Virginia Plummer, RN, PhD a,c,? Kelli Innes, RN, MN (Emergency) a,c Beverley Copnell, RN, PhD a a Monash University, Australia Taif University, Saudi Arabia c Member CENA, Australia b Received 2 October 2014; received in revised form 1 February 2015; accepted 13 March 2015 KEYWORDS Disaster; Nursing; Management; Saudi Arabia; Military; Knowledge ? Summary Background: It is generally accepted that nurses have insuf?cient knowledge about disaster preparedness due to a lack of acceptance of core competencies and the absence of disaster preparedness in nursing curricula.1 This study explored nurses’ knowledge and sources of knowledge, and skills as they relate to disaster management in Saudi Arabia, where more than 4660 people have died, 32,000 people have been affected, and US$4.65 billion in damage has been caused by disaster since 1980.2 Methods: A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design. Results: Nurses in Saudi Arabia have moderate knowledge concerning disaster preparedness. However, nurses in military hospitals possess more knowledge than those who work in government hospitals. The majority of nurses gained their knowledge and skills from disaster drills. Conclusions: Nurses need more education in all areas of disaster management, most importantly in their roles during response to disasters. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia Nurses perceive themselves as not well-prepared but they are willing to improve their skills in disaster preparedness if educational opportunities are provided. © 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Corresponding author at: Monash University, PO Box 527, Frankston 3199, Australia. Tel.: +61 03 99044064; fax: +61 03 99044655. E-mail address: [email protected] (V. Plummer). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aenj.2015.03.001 1574-6267/© 2015 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Perceptions of knowledge of disaster management What this paper adds? • This study is the ?rst study of the perceptions of preparedness for disaster management (as opposed to disaster clinical skills) for nurses in Saudi Arabia. The level of preparedness was found to be moderate, with a high interest by nurses in furthering their education in this area. • In cities which are vulnerable for disaster in Saudi Arabia, the perception of preparedness by nurses working in military hospitals is higher than for those working in government hospitals. • The disaster management nursing educational needs and preferences have been identi?ed for the ?rst time. What is known about the topic? • Nurses have insuf?cient knowledge about disaster preparedness. • There is an absence of disaster preparedness content in nursing curricula. • Nurses are not equipped with essential knowledge and skills for disaster management due to a lack of opportunity for education and training. • Nurses are interested in improving their disaster — preparedness knowledge. Introduction The increase in the number of disasters of all types over the last 15 years has been accompanied by an increased focus on the work of responding health workers, both within countries and in international response.3 Awareness of, and preparedness for, disasters by both communities and healthcare workers are essential for the management of associated injury, death and loss of health service infrastructure. The ?eld of disaster nursing is in an early stage of development. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia There is insuf?cient evidence on disaster upon which to base practice, together with a lack of quali?ed educators and a lack of formal education and training at the level of health organisations.12 In addition, it is not fully incorporated into nursing curricula.7 Consequently, it is important to develop disaster nursing, particularly disaster nursing management, to ensure that nurses practice with a high level of competence and clearly understand their roles and the roles of others in disaster. Due to differences in experience and quali?cations, nurses hold disparate knowledge and skills in terms of disaster preparedness.13,14 However, these issues can be resolved through the identi?cation of gaps in their expertise and the subsequent provision of further education and training to mitigate those de?cits. To extend effective help to communities before, during and after the occurrence of a disaster, all nurses, including students, novice practitioners and experienced nurses, must possess high-level knowledge and pro?ciency in disaster nursing.15 Nurses play a critical role in managing disasters, as they account for the largest 157 professional group in the healthcare sector. Slepski and Littleton-Kearney16 argued that adequately prepared nurses were critical to con?dently respond to and provide effective healthcare for victims of disaster. Nurses also play important roles in the planning, strategy, evaluation and policy development of disaster management. However, several studies have found that in many countries nurses are not fully prepared for their role in disasters.4—9 There is a growing awareness by governments, communities and healthcare agencies of the need to evaluate nurses’ roles in an organised response, especially the role of nurses in response to humanitarian disasters where populations need long-term on-going health support.2 In 2005, the World Health Organization (WHO)10 called on all countries to establish a clear plan to reduce the risks associated with disasters. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia In the same year, WHO identi?ed strategies for disaster preparedness, including continuous assessment and monitoring, coordination, planning, implementation and building resilience. In particular, healthcare workers in hospitals and other medical organisations were required to possess suf?cient information and skills regarding disaster management so they could assist in the event of mass casualties or damage to the facility itself. Areas that required particular attention with respect to creating guidelines were communication, response processes, chain of command, resource management, patient safety, transportation, triage and contamination.11 Disaster nursing in the Middle East is not reported often in the literature. Only a small number of studies were found that aimed to evaluate disaster management information, skills and preparedness. After the Bam earthquake in Iran, which killed more than 43,000 people, researchers investigated nurses’ experiences and skills in disaster management through semi-structured interviews of 13 Registered Nurses (RN).17 The ?ndings were a lack of practical protocols, lack of effective teamwork at disaster sites and lack of education in disaster relief. Furthermore, there was a need to develop strategies for staff to manage catastrophic events. Recently, an integrative literature review was conducted to explore the issues of disaster nursing in Iran. This review revealed that: there is a lack of coordination between organisations that participate in disaster response; nurses are not equipped with the essential knowledge and skills for disaster management due to a lack of opportunity for education and training; ?nally, like many other countries, the education system of disaster nursing in Iran is not fully developed.18 Among Jordanian nurses, who share the same language, culture and religion, and a border with Saudi Arabia, a sample of 471 practitioners from ?ve hospitals participated in a study to evaluate preparedness for disaster management.4 The study was conducted using the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool (DPET) created by Tichy and Bond in 2007.4,8 The authors found variations in disaster preparedness ranging from moderate to low. The nurses had low knowledge and skills in terms of disaster planning and a low understanding of preparations for bioterrorism. However, the nurses recognised their limitations and were aware of the disaster risks in their communities. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia The authors found that more nurses acquired their skills from disaster drills than from any other situation. Nearly all of the participants wanted to increase their skills and knowledge in this area. 158 In Saudi Arabia, more than 4660 people have died, 32,000 people have been affected, and US$4.65 billion in damage has been caused by disaster in the 35 years since 1980.2 The disasters of recent years have been more costly in both human and ?scal terms.19 For example, ‘‘Black Wednesday’’ was a tragic day for the city of Jeddah. On November 25, 2009, a heavy rainstorm struck affecting more than 25,000 people, and resulting in 125 deaths. The storm caused around US$3 billion damage. Flooding affected over 11,000 houses and damaged hospital laboratories and databases.21 Mental disorders among vulnerable populations, mainly in the elderly and children emerged20 as issue. Momani and Fadil20 concluded that due to poor emergency management and failure to identify risks and hazards prior to ?ooding events, the recovery period to search for missing bodies was too long. Taif is located between two major roads that connect Riyadh and the southern cities with Makah. Various disasters have occurred in this city, including major transport accidents and ?ooding. However, municipal of?cials in Taif have been criticised for their ill-preparedness and poor mitigation strategies and planning, including allowing construction of houses close to valleys that are at a high risk of ?ooding during heavy rains.22 In 2013 ?ooding resulted in property damage and the loss of over 20 lives.23 Approximately 640 people were rescued, and shelter was provided to more than 800 people.23 The regions around Tabuk, Jizan and Yemen experience the most seismic activity in Saudi Arabia. Tabuk was affected by a destructive quake in 1995. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia (Al-Amri, reported by Khan).24 Despite this, no precise data are available on the number of people who have died or been injured. In this type of disaster, environmental and earthquake researchers expect loss of life and property due to a predicted increase in the onset, scope and effect of earthquakes in this region.25 Nurses will have roles in disasters in a range of settings. These include in policy development, or in-hospital, prehospital, community, retrieval, transport and deployment to the scene as ?rst responders.26,27 Nurses are on the frontline within the full breadth of health services and are critical to the health and wellbeing of the community.5,28,29 Since nurses’ are required to respond in a variety of ways to any type of disaster, a ?rm foundation of disaster preparedness is imperative. Such preparedness entails adequate information and awareness of the disaster plans of government, essential services and individual health organisations, as well as an understanding of international evidence-based practices. This raises the question of whether nurses in Saudi Arabia perceive themselves as being prepared to manage disasters in their region. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate disaster knowledge among nurses in Saudi Arabia and to identify the sources of their knowledge and skills regarding disaster management. Method Study design A quantitative, non-experimental, descriptive research design was selected for this study. A. Al Thobaity et al. Setting The setting was six hospitals located in Jeddah, Taif and Tabuk.22—24 Three of the hospitals were operated by the military and the other three were government hospitals. Sample and population The sample were RNs from emergency departments, critical care and surgical units holding a three-year diploma/degree in nursing. Inclusion criteria were a minimum one year of work experience (thus ensuring at least 12 months exposure to disaster drills and hospital based education programmes if offered), ability to read and write English and be aged at least 18 years of age. There was no upper age limit. The total population of nurses in Saudi Arabia is unknown; thus the sample size was calculated to be at least 384 participants with a 5% precision level, where the con?dence level is 95%, and p = 0.05 will be at least 384 nurses.Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia 30 Data collection Data were collected from June 20, 2012 through September 1, 2012. Questionnaires (n = 600) were distributed to the nurses in English, the main language used in all Saudi Arabian hospitals. Nurses were invited to participate in this study as volunteers through announcements posted on bulletin boards throughout the hospitals. Participants were asked to return the completed anonymous questionnaires to dropboxes located near the sign-in areas in government hospitals or via the quality management departments in military hospitals. One hundred questionnaires were distributed at each of six hospitals to attain the identi?ed sample size. Instrument Data were collected using the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool (DPET) with permission from its authors. Bond and Tichy developed the DPET in 2007 to evaluate the knowledge and skills of nursing practitioners in relation to disaster management preparedness.4,8 The DPET contains 56 items that measure the perceptions of nursing practitioners regarding preparedness for disaster management and eight demographic questions. A total of 45 items were rated on a Likert scale ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 6 (strongly agree). Of these, 13 items relate to knowledge of disaster preparedness. An additional 11 items were closed- and open-ended questions relating to disaster preparedness and the sources of participants’ disaster management knowledge (e.g., undergraduate courses, in-service training and master’s degree courses). No modi?cations were made to the DPET for this investigation other than to add in an option for participants to check their hospital type. The language and terminology of the survey used by the original authors referred to a regular ‘RN’ or Registered Nurse and was not specifically framed for a Nurse Practitioner and therefore this instrument was easily transferrable for use in the settings in Saudi Arabia in its original form. In terms of reliability, the Cronbach’s alpha coef?cient of knowledge items in the original tool in 2007 was 0.90. Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia Additionally, the validity and Perceptions of knowledge of disaster management reliability of this tool was tested again in the Middle East by using a psychometric test; the result of Cronbach’s was 0.90.4 Data analysis Data were analysed using SPSS version 20. The mean and the standard deviation (SD) were calculated for each of the Likert scale questions. Perceived weak knowledge was de?ned as a mean between 1.00 and 2.99, perceived moderate knowledge was de?ned as a mean between 3.00 and 4.99, and perceived strong knowledge was de?ned as a mean between 5.00 and 6.00. This was applied for both individual items and overall score. Frequencies were calculated for demographic variables. Ethical considerations Prior to collecting the survey data, a Human Ethics Certi?cate of Approval was obtained from Monash University’s Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval CF12/09442012000431). Before the study began, approval was also obtained from the all participating military (12532/24/9) and government hospitals (01-1-183507-77-2) in Saudi Arabia. Results Demographics The sample in this study included 429 nurses from six Saudi hospitals (71.5% response rate). After a review 33 incomplete questionnaires were excluded, resulting in 396 (66%) completed questionnaires considered suitable for the study. Hospital group, gender, age, level of education and experiences of participants are presented in Table 1 by frequencies and percentages. 159 Table 1 Demographic data. Group Military Government Total Gender Female Male Total Age 20—25 years 26—30 years 31—36 years More than 36 years Total Level of education Diploma Bachelor’s Master’s Total Experience 1—3 years 4—6 years 7—10 years 11—13 years More than 13 years Total n % of total n 180 216 396 45.45 54.55 100.0 364 32 396 91.92 8.08 100.0 91 144 57 104 396 22.8 36.4 14.5 26.3 100.0 126 261 9 396 31.8 65.9 2.3 100.0 118 99 54 50 75 396 29.8 25.0 13.6 12.6 18.9 100.0 relevant research and reading journal articles related to disaster preparedness (Table 2). Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia Disaster knowledge of participants Differences in the knowledge of nurses in military and government hospitals The frequency distributions and descriptive statistics for the responses to 13 items concerning the participants’ knowledge of disaster preparedness are presented in Table 2. The mean scores for each item were sorted in order of high to low. The overall mean score based on the 13 items was 4.16 as shown in Table 3, which tends towards the high end (i.e., towards ‘‘agree’’) of the six-point scale and implies that the level of knowledge is, on average, moderate, indicating that nurses need more preparation. Despite the fact that nurses in Saudi Arabia are moderately prepared for disasters, it is clear that they are willing to actively engage in educational activities such as drills, classes and seminars (Table 2). The ?ndings of this study show that nurses in Saudi Arabia are willing to learn and to obtain more education in disaster preparedness. Items relating to disaster preparedness, planning and research, and ?nding resources for gaining disaster knowledge had the lowest ratings by participants. The highest levels of disagreement, implying the lowest levels of knowledge were for participating in disaster planning, ?nding The military nurses clearly perceived themselves as more disaster-prepared than the government nurses (Table 3). On average, knowledge of military nurses appeared to be better. The results of an independent-sample t-test conducted to compare the knowledge scores for military nurses and government nurses are shown in Table 4. The magnitude of the differences in the means (mean difference = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.31—0.71) was moderate (Eta-squared = 0.06). The scores obtained by nurses at military hospitals for the 13 items were consistently greater than those nurses at government hospitals, which indicated positive mean differences. The highest differences, which were greater than 0.7, were for the ?ve items shown in Table 6. These items include participating in an emergency plan, ?nding relevant research about disaster preparedness, having a contact list in their health community and knowing referral contacts in case of a disaster situation, reading journal articles related to disaster preparedness and participating in disaster drills.Assignment: Disaster Management and Preparedness Saudi Arabia The statistical signi?cance of these differences was examined by independent t-test as shown in Table 5. 160 Table 2 A. Al Thobaity et al. Level of knowledge of disaster management. 13 items related to disaster knowledge n Mean SD I would be interested in educational classes on disaster preparedness that relate speci?cally to my community situation. I participate in disaster drills or exercises at my workplace (clinic, hospital, etc.) on a regular basis. I participate in one of the following educational activities on a regular basis: continuing education classes, seminars, or conferences dealing with disaster preparedness. In case of a disaster situation, I think that there is suf?cient support from local of?cials at the county, region, or governance level. I know whom to contact (chain of command) in disaster situations in my community. I am aware of classes about disaster preparedness and management that are offered (for example, at my workplace, the university, or the com … Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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