Assignment: Developing an Action Plan

Assignment: Developing an Action Plan
Assignment: Developing an Action Plan
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Assignment: Developing and Implementing An Action Plan
Chapter 13
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. © Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
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What is An Action (Tactical) Plan?
“A detailed, actionable, and strategic description of all communication messages, materials, activities, media, and channels, as well as the methods that will be used to pre-test them with key audiences.”
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
Key Elements of An Action Plan
Integrated approach
Creativity in support of strategy
Cost-effectiveness
Imagination
Culturally competent and issue-driven messages, channels, and activities
Concept development
Message development and health literacy assessment
Channel selection and prioritization
Pre-testing
Planning for program launch activities, media, and materials
Partnership plan
Program time line and budget estimate
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
Where Do You Start?
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
Looking at Message Development
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
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Message Development Starts with Culturally-Competent and Group-Specific Communication Concepts
Go back to your research
Identify key issues/informational needs to be addressed by your messages
Consider and pre-test 2 or 3 different communication concepts/ approaches. For example:
Consequences
Fear appeal
Action step
Perceived threat
Hope
Benefits
Etc.
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
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Example of Different Message Concepts/Approaches
Benefits: Immunization protects your child from severe childhood diseases. Vaccines save lives, and keeps children healthy.
Benefits: Vaccines have a long-lasting protective effect on children and the communities in which they live and play
Barriers: Childhood vaccines are safe and effective. The benefit of immunization are by far larger than the risk for side effects
Consequences: Vaccine-preventable childhood diseases can have long-term effects on a child’s physical and mental development.
Action steps: Immunize your child. Talk to your healthcare provider about vaccines.
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Links to Examples of Communication Programs Based on Fear Appeal
Brain on Drugs (1990s) – Fear appeal – Partnership for a Drug-Free America –
Real Bears – Fear Appeal – Centers for the Science in the Public Interest
Suffering Every Minute –Fear Appeal – NYC Department of Health
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright 2013. All rights reserved.
Examples of Programs Using Positive Communication Concepts/ Appeals
Healthy Habits – Self-Efficacy, Benefits, Identification- Sesame Workshop
It’s about Ability – Self-efficacy – Integration – Benefits – UNICEF
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
Message Characteristics
Concise and to the point
Credible
Relevant to key groups and stakeholders as assessed by them.
Consistent
Simple/easy to remember/reflecting health literacy levels of intended audiences
Descriptive
Reflective of the health literacy levels of specific groups
Inclusive of social determinants of health
Not more than 1-3 per audience
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Messenger, Champion, or
Spokesperson
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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In-Class Practice
Using the fictional example of Luciana and her peers in chapter 2 develop program goal, outcome objectives, communication objectives and strategies, and sample communication concepts and messages to engage Luciana and her peers in adopting new health and social behaviors as they relate to skin cancer prevention.
Message Examples
Skin Cancer Program Intended
to Engage Young Women
Skin cancer is on the rise
It can affect people of all ages, including young women under 30 who represent XX percent of cancer patients
To protect yourself against skin cancer limit sun exposure and always use sunscreen
Talk to your pharmacist about the right sunscreen for your skin type
Talk to your peers, family, or mentors about being supported in your decision to use sunscreen or to ask for help in removing any barriers to its use. You are not alone!
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Pre-Testing
“Pre-testing answers questions about
whether your materials (and messages) are
understandable, relevant, attention getting,
attractive, credible and acceptable to the
intended audience.”
Source: Doaks, 1995
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Pre-Testing
Pre-testing is also used to assess whether
your program’s concepts and format are
appropriate, culturally relevant, and adequate to engage different groups and
stakeholders.
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Pre-Testing
Starts within your immediate environment
Ask colleagues and professional acquaintances to provide feedback on concepts, messages and materials
Relies on traditional and participatory research methods
Focus groups, one-on-one interviews, expert/gatekeeper interviews, questionnaires, surveys, community dialogue, etc..
Needs to be cost-effective
A participatory process
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Keep an open mind about the format of your materials/activities
Develop a concept paper
Clearly identify goals, intended audiences, main message points, format/medium
Include call to action as part of core messages
Ask community members, key groups, and stakeholders to talk about the issue in their own words
References: Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Pre-Testing
“One of the most significant questions is ‘What
can the readers [or participants] do after reading
this [or participating in this activity or effort] that
they could not do before?’ One of the most
common pitfalls of developing materials is
expecting to meet too many objectives in one
piece.”
Source: Matiella, 1991
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights 2013. All rights reserved.
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Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Involve professional designer, creative agency, graphic designer early in development process
Pre-test messages with intended audience, community members, others
Select pre-testing methods according to materials format, size of intended audience, cost-effectiveness, cultural preferences, health literacy levels, etc..
Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Pre-Testing Messages,
Materials and Activities
Sample Questions
What is the key point or message of these materials?
What do you think people should do after reading them?
Is any relevant information missing from them?
What are the elements that you most dislike about this message or these materials, and why?
What are some of the strengths and weaknesses of the illustrations and images in the materials?
Will you use or distribute these materials? If yes, why, and in which kinds of situations or venues?
What do you think of the role models that have been used in this public service announcement? What do you like or dislike about them?
What do you think of the idea of appealing to people’s hope for a cure? Will that work for you? If yes, why?
Is there any social or political factor (for example, access to transportation, nutritious food, social norms, socioeconomic conditions, and many others) that contributes to this health issue, and the information and materials you reviewed have not addressed and should instead include?
Is there anything you suggest to improve these materials or activities?
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013, Appendix A4 © Copyrights,, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Write simply and clearly for low literacy audiences
Most consumer materials should be written for no higher than 6th to 8th grade level
Take into account cultural and language differences
If your audience is multicultural, make sure that all are represented during pre-testing phase
Ref: Health Education Resource Exchange, DOH, Washington, 2000
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Pre-testing never ends
Always re-assess materials before re-printing
Consider adapting existing materials/ programs
Ask if they are still appropriate for the groups you seek to engage, if they can be revised/distributed as part of current activities, what you have learned from prior outreach/distribution, etc.
Make sure you build on available resources/ materials/ programs when appropriate
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Pre-testing is necessary but should not cost more than your program/materials
Pre-testing methods needs to reflect/address:
Audience size
Cultural preferences
Health literacy levels
Time and cost effectiveness parameters
Others
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Developing and Pre-Testing Concepts,
Messages, Media and Materials
Partnering with organizations and community leaders who have experience with reaching out to and engaging the intended community or group increases the likelihood you will develop tailored messages, media and activities
Involve them early and in all phases of program development!
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Integrating Partnerships and Action Plans
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
We Live in a Complex World Where Health Issues are Equally Complex and Require Multisectoral Solutions
Even if you have sufficient funds, consider inviting others to expand your program’s reach, credibility, resources, etc..
Select partners that have objectives that all support your program’s goal!
Engage partners in all phases of program design, implementation, and evaluation
Effectively integrate the partnership and action plan
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
Key Elements of a Partnership Plan
Effectively Integrating the Partnership and Action Plans by Engaging Partners as Early as Possible
Phase one
Project title
Overall program goal and outcome objectives
Key groups and stakeholders
Benefits of potential partnership
List of potential partners
Organizational constraints and policies
Administrative issues
Potential drawbacks of partnerships
Phase two
Action plan (key activities, events, materials, and media) to be implemented by/with the partners
Steps to secure additional partners (if or when needed)
Names of partners’ representatives
Assigned roles and responsibilities (for each partner)
Frequency of and methods (for example, partnership meetings, calls) for progress update and other routine communications among partners
Standard protocol for decision making and issue management
Expected program outcomes and intermediate milestones
Measures for program success as well as partnership viability and long-term sustainability
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyright, 2013, table 13.2. All rights reserved.
Working with Partners
Examples of Partners’ Role
Endorsing policy/health practice change
Distributing your program materials to their membership/ intended audiences
Providing a well-know spokesperson to your program
Assisting in research and evaluation activities
Providing financial support/ “in-kind” contributions
Including your messages in their own materials
Being involved in media interviews, press conferences, seminars, workshops, etc..
Expanding pool of “health ambassadors” on behalf on your program
Overall, partners should be involved in all phases and actively participate in program design, implementation and evaluation. Make sure everyone is clear about their roles and contributions!
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Working with Partners
Identifying and Selecting Partners:
Access to members of the groups and stakeholders you seek to engage
Credibility with key groups and stakeholders
Access to additional resources/skills
Qualifications appropriate to program’s topic
Preexisting relationship with your organization
Impact on key social determinants of health
Enthusiasm about program’s content/goal
Other factors that may be situation or issue-specific
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
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Working with Partners
Many Organizations to Be Considered
Health departments
Social services agencies
Voluntary organizations
State or national organizations
Hospitals, universities
Corporations or local businesses
Media outlets
Educational institutions
Service organizations
Youth organizations
Policymakers
Professional associations
Patient advocacy groups
Health insurances
Universities, academic programs
Others
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013.
© Copyrights, 2013. All rights reserved.
*
Planning for a Successful
Program Implementation
Human resources allocation and budget monitoring
Establishing monitoring teams
Technical support and advisory groups
Process definition
Issue management
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. All rights reserved.
Developing an Action Plan
This presentation is part of the instructor’s supplement for Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice. Second Edition. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, an imprint of Wiley. The instructor’s supplement is stored within a password-protected webpage for instructors. Copyrights @2013 by Renata Schiavo. All rights reserved
Schiavo, R. Health Communication: From Theory to Practice, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, Second Edition, 2013. All rights reserved.
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