Academic Procrastination Literature Review

Academic Procrastination Literature Review ORDER NOW FOR CUSTOMIZED AND ORIGINAL ESSAY PAPERS ON Academic Procrastination Literature Review I want a literature review about academic procrastination and time the college students use social media. How social media increases and interact with academic procrastination which in turn affects academic performance. Academic Procrastination Literature Review Total of 4 pages Minimum of five articles cited and referenced in APA style. First page should be about: Statement of the Research Problem and Question – Introduce the problem here. Why is it a problem? (You should have a few citations here, which can be from your literature review) Page 2-4 (three pages): Please collect at least 5 primary source articles about your topic (see title) and write a literature review which includes them. Please focus on these question in this assignment what is procrastination, what is social media. What the bad effect of them, what should we do to prevent them, what recent article about the research problem, what is their strength and shortcomings I will upload an example of excellent versions that you can take a look and get a clue of how to write this literature review. The example shows 6 pages in the literature; however, I just want three pages Academic Procrastination Literature Review proposal_example_.docx Running Head: STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Student Leadership Development Midterm Project 1 STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 2 Leadership Development of College Students Throughout a student’s time at an institution of higher education, they have the opportunity to develop into impactful leaders. In exploring leadership development of college students, studies have shown that leaders can be developed through effective leadership program and curriculum design (Caza & Rosch, 2012; Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro, & ReiterPalmon, 2000; Solansky, 2010). However, the contents of such programs and curriculums are often disputed among researchers and throughout studies. In order to effectively develop leaders, higher education institutions need to know best practices of current programs, and need to understand what factors have the largest impact on the development of college students becoming leaders and persisting as leaders. To understand the factors that impact leadership development of students, it is important to analyze leadership development theory and how student affairs professionals can assist in the development of student leaders. It is also important to know and understand that student affairs professionals and college personnel can apply the successful aspects of leadership development to programs and curriculums to best develop campus leaders. Our research seeks to determine which components of leadership development programs and curriculums are most important to include in order to develop quality leaders. As emerging student affairs professionals, we are invested in the successful development of students into leaders who will make a positive impact on the world we live in after they leave institutions of higher education. From our own unique experiences, we have each greatly benefited from leadership development programs and curriculums at an array of higher education institutions.Academic Procrastination Literature Review In examining our own leadership development experiences, we have grown as leaders and have experienced successful and unsuccessful attempts to foster leadership development in ourselves and our peers. Realizing the unique experiences had by individual STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 3 students at institutions of higher education across the United States, we desired to study commonalities among successful leadership development programs and curriculums in the hope of understanding how we and other student affairs educators can positively impact student’s developmental journeys. We believe that successful leadership development programs and curriculums could positively impact students throughout college and post-graduation. Students who think of themselves as leaders are more likely to persist through college and be successful in the professional realm. We predict that leadership skills learned in college assist students in being successful in many other aspects of their lives, including in their professional jobs. Throughout the literature on successful leadership development programs, several common themes arose that directed our research and showed the value to society of knowing commonalities among successful programs. STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 4 Literature Review Michael D. Thompson (2006) conducted research on assessing contributing college resources that go into the student leadership process development. Thompson wanted to know what students thought were effective college campus resources contributing to their leadership development.Academic Procrastination Literature Review His results concluded that the LABS-III assessment tool was beneficial in assessing students dispositions, showing that students perceived close relationships with faculty or staff as the biggest contributing resource to their leadership development. Therefore much like findings from Dugan and Komives (2007) and Solansky (2010), faculty and staff should serve more time as mentors to help build students’ leadership skills. Similarly, this also ties into our original research question bringing forth components that contribute to the student leadership development. One limitation from the study is that it was conducted with students from a small private liberal arts university, which cannot be used as a representation for different populations. Dr. David M.Rosch and Dr. Arran Caza (2012) also conducted a study, The Durable Effects of Short-Term Programs on Student Leadership Development, to assess the effectiveness of short-term leadership programs. Much like the study from Thompson (2006), this study uses a pre-existing assessment tool, the Social Change Model. Students conducted a self-reported survey prior to, immediately after, and three months after the leadership program ended. The findings of the study were that students did gain leadership benefits from short-term programs, and these benefits lasted them long after the programs ended. Much like Solansky (2010), the participants in the study used self-reporting methods of how they perceived the felt the effects of the short term programs.Academic Procrastination Literature Review One weakness of the study was that three months after the program was meant to represent long term benefits; however, three months is not sufficient enough to measure long term benefits. Ultimately the study did impact the way we saw our original STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 5 research question, and it helped us learn we wanted to focus on student leadership development programs. Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro and Reiter-Palmon (2000) studied leaders at different levels of the Army. By looking at skills present in each expertise group, they found skill acquisition theory could be used to explain leadership acquisition. This theory finds that experiences at one time in a leader’s career might not be useful in another phase of their career. They also found lack of openness and ego tend to inhibit a person’s ability to learn how to become a better leader. Support for this finding can be found in Thompson (2006) which suggests that leadership growth depends on the individual’s personality traits which vary at different times in a person’s life. The article’s in depth analysis of their findings is a strong point, however, because all of the participants are in the Army, there may be some issues generalizing these findings to the population as a whole. Solansky (2010) utilized Kouzes and Posner’s (2003) version of 360-degree assessment, termed the leadership practice inventory (LPI), to find that there is a difference between how leaders perceive their own abilities as opposed to how others view their abilities. The study finds that 360-degree feedback can help avoid self-reporting biases when evaluating leadership abilities. Solansky also studies the importance of mentors in the leadership development process. She found a positive correlation exists between the amount of time a mentor spends with their mentee and the amount of information critical to leadership development that a mentee shares. Academic Procrastination Literature Review This valuable information leads to self-awareness, which, according to Thompson (2006) is a key element of successful leaders. Solansky does good, relatively simple research which makes it easy to interpret but she does not link the relevance of assessment and mentorship together. STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 6 Elmholdt K, Elmholdt C, Tanggaard and Mersh (2016) take assessment a step further and determine that the way leadership assessments are constructed and the timing in which they are administered has an impact on the success of leadership development programs. Solansky (2010) supports the idea that assessment helps in development but this article expands on how. In their study, they found an organization who uses multiple types of assessment to track performance. They organized their research based on themes they found in interviews. This study does a good job of looking at assessment in a way that has not been done before but it lacks a clear call to action. They do not provide a clear set of takeaways from the research and leave it to readers to find ways to implement their findings. Another weakness is the study is conducted only a few months after the conclusion of the leadership program. Findings suggest that leadership development is complex and develops over long periods of time (Mumford et al., 2000). Similarly to Solansky (2010), one of the recommendations that Dugan and Komives (2007) identify as a key to successful leadership programs is developing mentoring relationships. In their article, Developing Leadership Capacity in College Students: Findings from a National Study, John P. Dugan and Susan R. Komives, Co-Principal Investigators of the MultiInstitutional Study for Leadership from the National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs argue that higher education institutions have a need to purposefully develop socially responsible leaders (Dugan and Komives, 2007). Academic Procrastination Literature Review In the study, Dugan and Komives used the MultiInstitutional Study of Leadership to draw several conclusions regarding the necessary components of a successful leadership development program. The researchers collected data from over 50,000 students across fifty two institutions, and developed ten recommendations to include and enrich campus leadership programs (Dugan and Komives, 2007). However, as the STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 7 article indicates, it falls short in properly representing different populations of students, including part-time students and minorities. The research also does not include data from any community colleges or two year institutions. In the article, Self-Monitoring and Trait-Based Variance in Leadership: An Investigation of Leader Flexibility Across Multiple Group Situations, Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny (1991) argue that self-monitoring is helpful in studying leadership because it considers both personality traits as well as situations (Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny, 1991). The researchers define self-monitoring as being able to indicate “an ability to monitor and control one’s expressive behaviors” through including three characteristics: a concern for social appropriateness, a sensitivity to social cues, and an ability to control one’s behavior in response to those cues (Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny, 1991). Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny conducted a study of 108 undergraduate students at a large university in the southeast in order to measure leader emergence in group settings. The article suggests that leader qualities and leader emergence is linked, however, the study conducted fails to come to any definitive conclusions surrounding qualities inherent in student leaders. Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny acknowledge that their results “… do not directly imply that traits would predict… leader effectiveness” and urge “…further research [on] objective measures of leadership behaviors displayed by high and low self-monitors” (Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny, 1991). The literature surrounding leadership development of college students is both conclusive and broad. Academic Procrastination Literature Review Researchers Mumford, Marks, Connelly, Zaccaro and Reiter-Palmon (2000) and Zaccaro, Foti, and Kenny (1991) agree that individual personalities have little impact on leadership development of students. Instead, they argue that leadership can be taught, but that understanding one’s self is important to individual success. Researchers Solansky (2010) and Dugan and Komives (2007) agree that mentorship is an important factor in effective leadership STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 8 development. Developing mentoring relationships can assist students in becoming self-aware and can contribute to their personal value, despite institutional size or status (Solansky, 2010; Dugan and Komives, 2007). Another key aspect of the literature was investing in assessment to allow students to gain feedback throughout their leadership journeys (Thompson, 2006; Solansky, 2010). A widely accepted form of assessment is the 360-degree program, however, Thompson (2006) found success using the LABS-III assessment tool, which suggests there are multiple tools that can be successful in assessing leadership. While Thompson’s (2006) and Solansky’s (2010) research focused on effective assessment measurements, Elmholdt, Elmholdt, Tanggaard and Mersh’s approach took assessment a step further, and focused on how effective assessment tools actually serve to enhance leadership skills themselves (2016). Our research will consider assessment as one of the important components to leadership development programs amidst other factors that become evident through our study. When conducting our research, one other component we will need to consider is what demographic that will be used. In our research populations differed. Some studies were from large public institutions while others were from small liberal arts. Summary of Literature The current literature surrounding leadership development programs and curriculums support the need for a better understanding of successful practice. However, discovering the components that have the largest impact on the leadership development of college students proves to be a question with a large scope. Therefore, after conducting our research we found a need to reframe our research question. Academic Procrastination Literature Review AAcademic Procrastination Literature Reviews a result, we decided to focus our research question solely on leadership development programs and curriculums. We now want to identify, what aspects of leadership development programs prove crucial to initial student leadership success. STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT Throughout the literature, several themes emerged as necessary components to leadership develop programs and curriculums. These themes include mentorship, the idea that leadership skills can be taught and developed, and that assessment is a crucial part of developing student leaders. Further research needs to be done on the importance of leadership development programs and curriculums on the persistence of students through college, as well as on the benefits of allocating funding to support leadership development efforts. 9 STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 10 References Caza, A., Rosch, D. (2012). The Durable effects of short-term programs on student leadership development. Journal of Leadership Education, 11(1), 28-48. Retrieved from: 1%20(Winter%202012).pdf#page=40 Center for Innovation in Research and Teaching (CIRT). (2017). When to Use Qualitative Research. Retrieved from research_ready/qualitative/when_to_use Dugan, J. P., & Komives, S. R. (2007). Developing leadership capacity in college students: Findings from a national study. A Report from the Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs. Elmholdt, K., Elmholdt, C., Tanggaard, L., & Mersh, L. H. (2016). Learning good leadership: a matter of assessment?. Human Resource Development International, 19(5), 406-428. Mumford, M. D., Marks, M. A., Connelly, M. S., Zaccaro, S. J., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2000). Development of leadership skills: Experience and timing. The Leadership Quarterly, 11(1), 87-114. Ottmann, G., & Crosbie, J. (2013). Mixed method approaches in open-ended, qualitative, exploratory research involving people with intellectual disabilities: A comparative methods study. Journal of intellectual disabilities, 17(3), 182-197. Solansky, S. T. (2010). The evaluation of two key leadership development program components: STUDENT LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT 11 Leadership skills assessment and leadership mentoring. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(4), 675-681. Thompson, M. (2006). Student leadership process development: an assessment of contributing college resources. Journal of College Student Development, 47(3), 343-350. Retrieved from: Zaccaro, S. J., Foti, R. J., & Kenny, D. A. (1991). Self-monitoring and trait-based variance in leadership: An investigation of leader flexibility across multiple group situations. Journal Of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 308-315. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.308 …Academic Procrastination Literature Review Get a 10 % discount on an order above $ 100 Use the following coupon code : NURSING10

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